Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World
190 pages
English

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190 pages
English
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Description

The Internet is accelerating globalization by exposing organizations and individuals to global audiences. This in turn is driving teletranslation and teleinterpretation, new types of multilingual support, which are functional in digital communications environments. The book describes teletranslation and teleinterpretation by exploring a number of key emerging contexts for language professionals.


Introduction

Glossary

Part 1: Setting the Scene

1 Translation and Interpretation in Transition: Serving the Digital World

2 Redefining Context for Teletranslation and Teleinterpretation

Part 2: Technologies Enabling Teletranslation

3 Language Engineering and the Internet

4 Computer-mediated Communication and Translation

5 Globalization and Localization: Culturalization of Content and Package

Part 3: Emerging Domains of Translation Practice

6 Teletranslation

7 Teleinterpretation

Part 4: Future Tense

8 Virtual Communities for Translators and Interpreters

9 Global Information Society and the New Paradigm of Language Support

10 New Paradigm of Translation and Interpretation

Postscript

References

Index

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 03 mai 2002
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781853595820
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0700€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Extrait

Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World
TOPICS IN TRANSLATION Series Editors:Susan Bassnett,University of Warwick, UKand Edwin Gentzler, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA Editor for Translation in the Commercial Environment:Geoffrey Samuelsson-Brown,University of Surrey, UK
Other Books in the Series Annotated Texts for Translation: English – French Beverly Adab Annotated Texts for Translation: English – German Christina Schäffner with Uwe Wiesemann ‘Behind Inverted Commas’: Translation and Anglo-German Cultural Relations in the Nineteenth Century Susanne Stark Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation Susan Bassnett and André Lefevere Contemporary Translation Theories (2nd edn) Edwin Gentzler Culture Bumps: An Empirical Approach to the Translation of Allusions Ritva Leppihalme Linguistic Auditing Nigel Reeves and Colin Wright Literary Translation: A Practical Guide Clifford E. Landers Paragraphs on Translation Peter Newmark Practical Guide for Translators Geoffrey Samuelsson-Brown The Coming Industry of Teletranslation Minako O’Hagan The Interpreter’s Resource Mary Phelan The Pragmatics of Translation Leo Hickey (ed.) The Rewriting of Njáls Saga: Translation, Ideology, and Icelandic Sagas Jón Karl Helgason Translation, Power, Subversion Román Alvarez and M. Carmen-Africa Vidal (eds) Translation and Nation: A Cultural Politics of Englishness Roger Ellis and Liz Oakley-Brown (eds) Time Sharing on Stage: Drama Translation in Theatre and Society Sirkku Aaltonen Words, Words, Words. The Translator and the Language Learner Gunilla Anderman and Margaret Rogers Written in the Language of the Scottish Nation John Corbett
Please contact us for the latest book information: Multilingual Matters, Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall, Victoria Road, Clevedon, BS21 7HH, England http://www.multilingualmatters.com
TOPICS IN TRANSLATION 23 Editor for Translation in the Commercial Environment: Geoffrey Samuelsson-Brown,University of Surrey
Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World
Facing the Challenges of Globalization and Localization
Minako O’Hagan and David Ashworth
MULTILINGUAL MATTERS LTD Clevedon • Buffalo • Toronto • Sydney
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data O’Hagan, Minako Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World: Facing the Challenges of Globalization and Localization/Minako O’Hagan and David Ashworth Topics in Translation: 23 Includes bibliographical references and index 1. Translating and interpreting–Data processing. 2. Translating and interpreting– Technological innovations. 3. Internet. I. Ashworth, David. II. Title. III. Series P308.O37 2002 418’.02’0285–dc21 2001055823
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue entry for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 1-85359-581-0 (hbk) ISBN 1-85359-580-2 (pbk)
Multilingual Matters Ltd UK: Frankfurt Lodge, Clevedon Hall, Victoria Road, Clevedon BS21 7HH. USA: UTP, 2250 Military Road, Tonawanda, NY 14150, USA. Canada: UTP, 5201 Dufferin Street, North York, Ontario M3H 5T8, Canada. Australia: Footprint Books, PO Box 418, Church Point, NSW 2103, Australia.
Copyright © 2002 Minako O’Hagan and David Ashworth.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher.
Typeset by Wordworks Ltd. Printed and bound in Great Britain by the Cromwell Press Ltd.
Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix What This Book is About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Origins of the Book and Authors’ Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . xi Our Approach and the Scope of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Readership of the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv Organization of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Part 1: Setting the Scene 1 Translation and Interpretation in Transition: Serving the Digital World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Translation-mediated Communication (TMC) . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Impact of the Internet on Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Evolution of New Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Emerging Needs for Teletranslation and Teleinterpretation . . . 20 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2 Redefining Context for Teletranslation and Teleinterpretation. . 23 The Translator’s New Workplace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Translation Competence and Translator Competence . . . . . . 27 Redefining the Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Part 2: Technologies Enabling Teletranslation 3 Language Engineering and the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Overview: Translation and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Language Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Translation Engineers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
v
vi
4
5
Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World
Computermediated Communication and Translation . . . . . . . 51 Characteristics of CMC and Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Transterpreting as a New Mode of Translation . . . . . . . . . . 58 Speech Communication on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Globalization and Localization: Culturalization of Content and Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Globalization and Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Internationalization and TMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Culturalization of Content and Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Language Management and Levels of Language Facilitation . . 74 Culturalization of Technology: The Case of i-mode . . . . . . . . 76 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Part 3: Emerging Domains of Translation Practice 6 Teletranslation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teletranslation Redefined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teletranslation from the User’s Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . Teletranslation from the Provider’s Perspective . . . . . . . . . . Translation-mediated Communication with Teletranslation . . . Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
79 79 84 87 89 93
Teleinterpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Development of Remote Interpreting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Teleinterpretation Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Translation-mediated Communication with Teleinterpretation 101 Critical Issues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Part 4: Future Tense 8 Virtual Communities for Translators and Interpreters . . . . . . Internet-based Learning for Translators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web-based Course: Case Study 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Web-based Course: Case Study 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teleinterpretation for the GVU as the Client . . . . . . . . . . . A Virtual Course for Interpreters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . .
108 108 110 117 122 124 125
Contents
vii
9 Global Information Society and the New Paradigm of Language Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Paradigm Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Studying the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Future Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 10 New Paradigm of Translation and Interpretation . . . . . . . . . 142 Elements of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Two-Dimensional to Three-Dimensional Virtual World . . . . 145 Possibilities in the New Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Key Issues for Translation-mediated Communication. . . . . . 153 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Topics for Further Research or Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Postscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Introduction
What This Book is About
The continually evolving network of computers and telecommunications devices, called the Internet, now provides the context for communication across borders and across cultures. Organizations are using the Internet as a platform for global electronic commerce (e-commerce). Individuals can join forum groups, bulletin boards and chats on topics of interest, and thus communicate with people around the world. By participating in these interactions and creating a Web site or Web page, an individual or institu-tion automatically establishes a visibility to an international public – an opportunity to reach anyone with access to the Internet from anywhere. In this way, the Internet is accelerating the process of globalization. Despite such visibility, however, language continues to be a principal obstacle to full globalization: if an individual or institution wishes to reach speakers of other languages, its contents must be translated or, in the case of voice communication, interpreted. The process of recreating Web sites in specified language versions is known as Web localization, and it is the fastest-growing area in the transla-tion sector today. The term ‘localization’ was originally applied to creating regional versions of computer software. The software localizer works directly with the computer language or code in which the software is written, and therefore must have sufficient knowledge to be able to communicate effectively with the client engineers, and to be involved in testing of the localized products. Similarly, with Web site localization, it is necessary to be able to work with HTML, XML and other kinds of format-ting tags, including multimedia components such as JPEG images and RealAudio files. The traditional forms of language support we have known as translation and interpretation are faced with new challenges that come from the new contexts for human communication and interactions afforded by tech-1 nology. Furthermore, new modes of communication over the Internet are continuing to develop: from static text on computer screens, to short messages on cell phone displays and personal digital assistants, from e−mail to synchronous chat in text or voice. Some of these forms of commu-
ix
x
Translation-mediated Communication in a Digital World
nication resemble those of the age of the typewriter and the fax machine, but many also incorporate animation, video and other forms of multi-media. The core difference lies in the shift to the digital world which affords all kinds of flexibility in electronic processing. This multiplicity of types of electronic documents defines a new kind of literacy, variously called electronic or digital literacy. Electronic documents follow a digital life cycle, which is different from the process involved in paper-based contents. Certain contents such as multimedia or voice mail are created electronically from beginning to end, often in forms that would not be possible otherwise. Very large manuals for the operation of equip-ment such as aircraft, tractors and other heavy equipment, most of which are subject to regular updating, are now published in digital format, be it CD-ROM or online distribution. This in turn allows the use of computer-based translation tools such as translation memory (TM), which compares a new source text against its previous version and allows recycling of previous translations for the applicable portion. In this way, electronic documents have a great compatibility with language engineering. At present, e-commerce companies express an urgent demand for accu-rate, appropriate, timely, high-volume translation to localize their Web sites in multiple languages. Similarly, people who use Web sites stumble into language barriers and seek language assistance, since not all Web pages are available in their language. In order to meet such demands, some have turned to engineering solutions: new applications have been devel-oped to allow real-time browsing of Web pages with automatic translation of Web sites, e-mail messages or search engine results. However, many users have learned that machine translation (MT) will rarely satisfy all of their varying communication needs. Those who are heavily involved in MT development and utilization admit the necessity of preparing documents before they are translated (pre-editing) in order to guarantee reasonable results. In the same way, people who use these new modes of communica-tion over the Internet are beginning to realize that they must control the kind of language that they use when they intend to communicate across languages. This is part of the internationalization process that facilitates the ensuing localization/translation process by eliminating, right at the start of the product development cycle, any factors that are likely to hinder globalization. Content management thus becomes a crucial issue in the preparation of documents that will have international visibility. This process may sometimes involve extensive culturalization of contents, including certain non-verbal elements such as icons and layouts, to make the presentation more suitable for the target culture. As a result, new
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