The Last Noble Gendarme
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The Last Noble Gendarme is the first biography of Major General Konstantin Ivanovich Globachev and his wife, Sofia. Tsar Nicholas II's last chief of security, Globachev was an eyewitness to the seething turmoil in the capital of the Russian Empire. Beginning in 1915 he tried to avert the unrest that grew into a revolution replete with mayhem and violence by cautioning his senior government officials about the growing crisis through meetings and written reports. The incompetence and corruption of his superiors caused Globachev's warnings of an impending disaster to be often disregarded, misunderstood, and sometimes rejected flat out. The warnings of Globachev's security and intelligence agency going unheeded helped lead imperial Russia to its cataclysmic destruction—perhaps a metaphor for our times. Following the revolution, Globachev was detained by the new government, but released and forced to flee with his family after the Bolsheviks gained power. Globachev and his family survived the revolution, the subsequent civil war and exile in Turkey. The final chapter of their dramatic adventure was their immigration to the United States, where they became citizens. Now, through their complete biographies, we get to know them as individuals who lived through the most tempestuous and dangerous of times.
List of Illustrations

1. Beginnings

2. Warsaw, Nizhni Novgorod, and Sevastopol

3. As Petrograd's Chief of Security

4. And Then, There Was the "Mad Monk"

5. The Opportunists

6. 1916, Leading to the End

7. Turmoil and Arrest

8. Sofia Springs into Action

9. Incarceration

10. Release, Fright, and Flight

11. 1919 in Odessa

12. Loss

13. Constantinople

14. Farewell to Constantinople

15. The General's Last Assignment

16. Toward the End

17. Conclusion

Appendix A: Globachev's Service Record and Biographical Outline

Appendix B: How the Okhrana Was Run

Appendix C: Ministerial Leapfrog

Appendix D: Annotated List of Names

Appendix E: Glossary of Terms




Publié par
Date de parution 01 novembre 2021
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781438486017
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,1648€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


How the Tsar’s Last Head of Security and Intelligence Tried to Avert the Russian Revolution
Vladimir G. Marinich
Cover: Major General Konstantin Ivanovich Globachev. Source: Marinich collection.
Published by State University of New York Press, Albany
© 2021 State University of New York
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.
For information, contact State University of New York Press, Albany, NY
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Marinich, Vladimir, author.
Title: The last noble gendarme : how the Tsar’s last head of security and intelligence tried to avert the Russian Revolution / Vladimir G. Marinich.
Other titles: How the tsar’s last head of security and intelligence tried to avert the Russian Revolution
Description: Albany : State University of New York, [2021] | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2021030161 (print) | LCCN 2021030162 (ebook) | ISBN 9781438485997 (hardcover : alk. paper) | ISBN 9781438486017 (ebook)
Subjects: LCSH: Globachev, K. I. (Konstantin Ivanovich), 1870–1941. | Globacheva, Sofia Nikolaevna. | Russia. Okhrannyi otdi lenīi —Biography. | Secret service—Russia—History—20th century. | Soviet Union—History—Revolution, 1917–1921. | Political culture—Russia (Federation)—Saint Petersburg—History—20th century. | Globachev family. | Immigrants—New York (State)—New York—Biography. | Russians—New York (State)—New York—Biography. | Saint Petersburg (Russia)—Biography.
Classification: LCC DK254.G56 M37 2021 (print) | LCC DK254.G56 (ebook) | DDC 947.084/1092 [B]—dc23
LC record available at
LC ebook record available at
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
To my Barbara
List of Illustrations
Chapter 1 Beginnings
Chapter 2 Warsaw, Nizhni Novgorod, and Sevastopol
Chapter 3 As Petrograd’s Chief of Security
Chapter 4 And Then, There Was the “Mad Monk”
Chapter 5 The Opportunists
Chapter 6 1916, Leading to the End
Chapter 7 Turmoil and Arrest
Chapter 8 Sofia Springs into Action
Chapter 9 Incarceration
Chapter 10 Release, Fright, and Flight
Chapter 11 1919 in Odessa
Chapter 12 Loss
Chapter 13 Constantinople
Chapter 14 Farewell to Constantinople
Chapter 15 The General’s Last Assignment
Chapter 16 Toward the End
Chapter 17 Conclusion
Appendix A Globachev’s Service Record and Biographical Outline
Appendix B How the Okhrana Was Run
Appendix C Ministerial Leapfrog
Appendix D Annotated List of Names
Appendix E Glossary of Terms
Illustrations Figure 1.1 Konstantin Globachev, age 10. Figure 1.2 Konstantin as a junior lieutenant, circa 1890. Figure 1.3 Sofia, circa 1898. Figure 1.4 The newlywed Globachevs, 1898. Figure 1.5 Globachev as staff captain. Figure 1.6 Globachev as lieutenant colonel. Figure 2.1 Colonel Globachev and staff of the Nizhni Novgorod Gendarme Administration. Figure 2.2 Celebration of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov in Nizhni Novgorod, 1913. Figure 2.3 German battleship Goeben. Figure 3.1 Major General V. P. Nikol’skii, chief of staff, Corps of Gendarmes (left); General V. F. Dzhunkovskii, deputy minister of interior (center); V. A. Brune de St.-Hyppolite, director of Department of Police (right). About 1913. Figure 4.1 Rasputin. Figure 4.2 Rasputin’s obvious influence—the starets seated between two senior officers, Colonel Dimitri Lotman and General Count Mikhail Putiatin. Figure 5.1 A. N. Khvostov, minister of the interior, September 1915–March 1916. Figure 5.2 S. P. Beletskii, assistant minister of the interior, September 1915–February 1916. Figure 5.3 Colonel M. S. Komissarov, personally appointed agent of Beletskii and Khvostov. Figure 6.1 Major General Konstantin Ivanovich Globachev. Figure 6.2 Boris Sturmer, chairman of the Council of Ministers and minister of the interior, 1916. Figure 6.3 Alexander Protopopov seated between two subordinates. Figure 6.4 Demonstration on International Women’s Day, 1917. Figure 7.1 Chaos breaks out in Petrograd, late February 1917. Figure 7.2 “Days of the Revolution. The arrival of the arrested at the State Duma.” Figure 8.1 Sophia Globacheva, 1917–18. Figure 9.1 Vyborg Prison, also known as “The Crosses.” Figure 10.1 Sofia Globacheva. Figure 11.1 Overloaded evacuation ship. Figure 11.2 Evacuation of the White Army. Figure 13.1 Main entrance to the Russian Embassy in Constantinople. Figure 13.2 Globachev in uniform with Sofia and friends in Constantinople, 1921. Figure 13.3 Lydia and Sofia, circa 1922. Figure 13.4 Konstantin and Sofia in Constantinople, circa 1922. Figure 15.1 St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Paris. Figure 16.1 The last portrait photo of the general, circa 1940. Figure 16.2 Sofia Nikolaevna Globacheva in 1947.
Konstantin Ivanovich Globachev was the chief of the Petrograd Security Bureau (Okhrana) from early 1915 until the February Revolution of 1917. Thus, he was the Okhrana’s last chief and he saw firsthand the Revolution as it was happening, and he and his family lived through it.
He wrote his memoirs, in Russian, several years later, between 1920 and 1922 when he was attached to the Russian Embassy in Constantinople. This was, in effect, the Russian Embassy in exile. In his memoirs he describes his years in office, the seething unrest in the capital, and how it grew into a revolution replete with all the mayhem and violence that is known in the history of that event. But he also wrote about his colleagues and his superiors and his relationship to them. It was his superiors to whom he gave detailed information in the intelligence reports his office was responsible for producing, and which were often disregarded, misunderstood, acted upon too late, and sometimes flat out rejected. The warnings of the intelligence agencies were often unheeded. 1 Globachev also covers the turmoil that went on from February through November 1917, and the takeover by the Bolsheviks, which in turn, led to the Russian Civil War that lasted until 1920 (although there were continued uprisings in various parts of Russia until about 1923) when the “White” Russians had to be evacuated, mostly to Constantinople and the surrounding islands. He ends his memoirs in December 1922.
Globachev’s wife, Sofia Nikolaevna Globacheva, also wrote her memoirs. She wrote them in the late 1940s, just a few years before her death in 1950. They are personal, and they are filled with her anxiety and fear for her husband’s safety, as well as for her children’s, and she describes the crises that they lived through vividly. So, this is the story of both Konstantin and Sofia.
Here is the background on how this particular narrative on Globachev evolved. Several years ago I was home in the evening when the telephone rang. I answered and the voice on the other end introduced himself and asked if I knew or had any information on General K. I. Globachev. I responded that I had a lot of knowledge and information about the general since he was my maternal grandfather. There were several seconds of silence. I think that the caller never expected to hear from a person still alive who knew a lot about General Globachev. That began my acquaintance with Jonathan Daly, professor of history at the University of Illinois at Chicago, an expert on Russian history and especially on the tsarist security police. Happily our camaraderie has continued to the present. I told him what I thought I might have for him—some old documentation and a few photos. I said that I would look around some more, and I did. I began to search through family materials, most of which were in boxes that had not been opened in years. There were also some photos and documents that were with my brother Oleg, who lived in Florida. It all turned out to be a treasure trove—photos, letters, documents, some of which were faded with age, but others that were still in good condition, and this treasure trove included an original copy of my grandfather’s memoirs, and the memoirs of my grandmother, the wife of General Globachev.
Daly recommended that I contact Professor Zinaida Peregudova, a renowned historian who worked in the State Archives of the Russian Federation (GARF) in Moscow. She is the world’s foremost authority on the history of the tsarist political police. When I contacted her she, too, was pleasantly surprised that there was someone still living who knew about the general and his family and had both oral and documentary information on the Globachevs. I exchanged information and materials about Globachev and his wife with Peregudova. At some point she asked me if I would give her permission to publish their memoirs in a Russian history journal. How could I say no to a world-class scholar who shared a lot of information that her sources at GARF had about my grandfather? Both of my grandparents’ memoirs were initially published in Russia

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