The South Carolina State House Grounds
104 pages

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104 pages

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The first comprehensive narrative of the South Carolina state capitol and the history enshrined in its monuments from 1787 to the present

The South Carolina State House grounds are a work in progress—a cultural landscape of human-built and natural components connected physically, conceptually, and aesthetically. As public property, the grounds should represent and welcome everyone in the state. While it is a beautiful space, it is not neutral. Over the past two centuries, various groups have jostled for political and cultural power, and the winners have used the grounds to assert their authority and broadcast political positions on the state's most visible stage. These struggles have resulted in a perpetually evolving space.

In The South Carolina State House Grounds, the first comprehensive narrative of this important site at the heart of the Palmetto State, Lydia Mattice Brandt details the history of the state capitol and its setting—including the national, state, and local histories enshrined in its monuments—from 1787 to the present. Brandt argues that generations of private citizens and elected officials, who recognized the power of erecting public monuments and buildings that recall certain versions of history, have consciously shaped this highly charged, visible, and public place to assert authority over both the past and present. By recounting the intentions behind each element in the landscape, this guidebook considers how South Carolinians have used this place as a site of storytelling and mythmaking.

The South Carolina State House Grounds, a chronological history of the state's grandest public space, includes more than sixty illustrations that track the site's transformation over more than two centuries. Brandt chronicles the events that occurred in and around its buildings, the stories of the people memorialized in the grounds' monuments, and the histories of the monuments themselves.



Publié par
Date de parution 25 mai 2021
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781643361796
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 6 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,1000€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


The South Carolina State House Grounds

2021 University of South Carolina
Published by the University of South Carolina Press Columbia, South Carolina 29208
Manufactured in the United States of America
30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data can be found at .
ISBN 978-1-64336-178-9 (paperback)
ISBN 978-1-64336-179-6 (ebook)
Publication of this book was made possible in part by the generous support of Historic Columbia and the Richland County Conservation Commission.
Front cover photograph : / fotoguy22
A Brief Timeline of South Carolina History
Map of the State House Grounds
Introduction: Defining the State House Grounds
One. Building and Challenging a Sovereign State House (1790-1877)
South Carolina State House
Swanson Lunsford Grave
George Washington Monument
Sculpture on the North Fa ade of the State House
Palmetto Monument
Two. Jim Crow and the State House Beautiful (1877-1968)
Plans for the State House Landscape
South Carolina Monument to the Confederate Dead (Confederate Monument)
Wade Hampton Monument
Partisan Generals Monument
Monument to the Women of the Confederacy (Confederate Women s Monument)
Spanish-American War Monuments
James Marion Sims Monument
Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee Memorial Highway Markers
Memorial Trees on the State House Grounds
John C. Calhoun State Office Building
Wade Hampton State Office Building
Stars on the State House and Marker for the First State House
Benjamin Ryan Tillman Monument
Liberty Bell Replica
Confederate Battle Flag
Three. Building for Bureaucracy (1969-Present)
James Francis Byrnes Monument
Redesign of the State House Grounds
Capitol Complex Master Plan
Furman McEachern Jr. Parking Garage
Edgar A. Brown Building and Solomon Blatt Building
L. Marion Gressette Building
Rembert C. Dennis Building
Richardson Square Marker
Capitol Complex Marker
Columbia Bicentennial Time Capsule
Strom Thurmond Monument
African American History Monument
South Carolina Law Enforcement Memorial and South Carolina Armed Forces Monument
Appendix: Maps of the South Carolina State House Grounds, 1790-present
Abbreviations Used in Notes
This book is a testament to the strong network of historic preservationists, architecture enthusiasts, and local historians in South Carolina. After years of researching here and there to answer questions about particular buildings or monuments, I finally resolved to write a guidebook thanks to a partnership with Historic Columbia. I am thankful to Katharine Allen, John Sherrer, Robin Waites, Chandler Yonkers, and the rest of the Historic Columbia staff for supporting it with research assistance, robust public programming, a website, and a podcast. A historic preservation grant from the Richland County Conservation Commission funded the research, guided by Nancy Stone-Collum. Margaret Dunlap and the Walker Local History Room at the Richland County Public Library provided many of the terrific historic images that helped me to understand the site s development. I am grateful to Olivia Miller for her research and organization of the book s images. Albert Hester and Chuck Lesser helped me to navigate the site physically and archivally. Lee Ann Kournegay, Fred Delk, and Richard Burts were thoughtful co-conspirators as always. Robert Weyeneth and Thomas Brown, my dear colleagues at the University of South Carolina (UofSC), offered fellowship, constructive criticism, and sounding boards for the book s issues-large and small. Mary Fesak dug in the archives at the University of Delaware when I could not. Former students Ari Robbins, Casey Lee, and Stephanie Gray conducted the excellent seed research for the Capitol Complex of the 1970s. UofSC s College of Arts and Science s Book Manuscript Finalization Support Initiative helped send the book over the finish line. It was an absolute pleasure to work with my friend and editor Ehren Foley at UofSC Press on this book, which is far better for his involvement-as well as that of the two anonymous peer reviewers who commented on the manuscript and proposal.
This book also benefited from a motley crew of architectural historians, friends, and colleagues across the South and beyond. At conferences and on bar stools and site visits, their friendship and thoughtful conversation buoyed and inspired me. I am especially thankful to Christian Anderson, Jennifer Baughn, Catherine Bishir, Katherine Chaddock, Philip Mills Herrington, Margaret Grubiak, Elizabeth Milnarik, Ben Ross, Rachel Stephens, Dell Upton, and my friends at the Vernacular Architecture Forum and the Southeast Chapter of the Society of Architectural Historians. My family was as patient with this project as they have been with every other. I thank my husband, Jake Erwin, for always stopping to read the plaque with me.
I am most grateful to the students, citizens, and friends who asked the tough questions that convinced me of the need for this book.
A Brief Timeline of South Carolina History
(as Pertains to the State House Grounds)
South Carolinians fight the American Revolution, with patriot militias led by Francis Marion, Andrew Pickens, Thomas Sumter, and others.
South Carolina ratifies the US Constitution to join the United States.
The state legislature first meets in Columbia.
South Carolina senator John C. Calhoun leads the confrontation between the federal and state governments in the Nullification Crisis, a sectional disagreement over the constitutional right of the federal government to impose tariffs on the states that lays the groundwork for secession.
The state s Palmetto Regiment fights for US territory in the Mexican-American War.
December 20, 1860
Confederate forces at Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, fire the first shots of the Civil War.
The South Carolina legislature votes to secede from the Union, making it the first state to join the Confederacy.
January 1, 1863
President Abraham Lincoln reads the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing enslaved African Americans in South Carolina.
February 1865
During the night of February 17-18, 1865, much of Columbia s main commercial district, more than 450 buildings in all, is destroyed during a massive fire. The flames are aided by a combination of burning cotton bales left behind by Confederate forces, high winds, and Union Army soldiers occuping the city.
April 9, 1865
Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox, Virginia, marking an end of the main military operations of the Civil War.
The years immediately following the Confederacy s surrender, referred to as Reconstruction, in which the federal government controls the South s readmittance to the Union and Republican politicians win a majority of political offices in the state government in South Carolina.
A constitutional convention meets in Charleston and adopts a new state constitution that extends voting rights to all male citizens, regardless of race.
South Carolina becomes the first and only state to elect and seat a majority-African American state legislature.
Former Confederate general Wade Hampton III is declared the winner of a contested election as governor (serves 1877-79), ending Reconstruction and returning power to a White Democratic majority.
Benjamin Tillman is governor of South Carolina.
The state legislature passes a new constitution that disenfranchises African American voters.
The US Supreme Court decides Plessy v. Ferguson , sanctioning separate but equal policy and Jim Crow laws in the South.
South Carolina sends soldiers to Cuba to fight the Spanish-American War.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt s New Deal programs provide employment relief and funding for new construction across the state and nation during the Great Depression that followed the stock market crash of 1929.
November 10, 1939
The South Carolina Conference of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) forms to advocate for Black South Carolinians and protest Jim Crow (the state s first branches chartered in Charleston and Columbia in 1917).
America fights in World War II, bringing population growth and a boost to South Carolina s economy.
James F. Byrnes is governor of South Carolina.
The US Supreme Court declares the doctrine of separate but equal unconstitutional in its Brown v. Board of Education decision, making racial segregation illegal in public schools.
South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond filibusters the Civil Rights Act of 1957, which passes to help protect African Americans right to vote and serve on juries.
March 2, 1961
More than 200 individuals, many of them African American students from nearby Allen University and Benedict College, march on the State House grounds to protest racial segregation. The subsequent arrest of 187 protestors leads to the US Supreme Court decision Edwards v. South Carolina (1963), which affirms the constitutional right of citizens to petition government for redress.
State government grows during the administration of Governor Robert Evand

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