Adler s Physiology of the Eye E-Book
1319 pages

Découvre YouScribe en t'inscrivant gratuitement

Je m'inscris

Adler's Physiology of the Eye E-Book , livre ebook

Découvre YouScribe en t'inscrivant gratuitement

Je m'inscris
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus
1319 pages
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus


Drs. Paul L. Kaufman, Albert Alm, Leonard A Levin, Siv F. E. Nilsson, James Ver Hoeve, and Samuel Wu present the 11th Edition of the classic text Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, updated to enhance your understanding of ocular function. This full-color, user-friendly edition captures the latest molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries and offers you unparalleled knowledge and insight into the physiology of the eye and its structures. A new organization by function, rather than anatomy, helps you make a stronger connection between physiological principles and clinical practice; and more than 1,000 great new full-color illustrations help clarify complex concepts.

  • Deepen your grasp of the physiological principles that underlie visual acuity, color vision, ocular circulation, the extraocular muscle, and much more.
  • Glean the latest knowledge in the field, including the most recent molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries.
  • Make a stronger connection between physiology and clinical practice with the aid of an enhanced clinical emphasis throughout, as well as a new organization by function rather than by anatomy.
  • Better visualize all concepts by viewing 1,000 clear, full-color illustrations.



Publié par
Date de parution 30 mars 2011
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9780323081160
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 34 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,5602€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Adler's Physiology of the
Leonard A. Levin, MD PhD
Canada Research Chair of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Montreal,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Professor of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI,
Siv F.E. Nilsson, PhD
Lecturer, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research,
Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
James Ver Hoeve, MD
Senior Scientist, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of
Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA
Samuel M. Wu, PhD
Camille and Raymond Hankamer Chair in Ophthalmology, Professor of Ophthalmology,
Neuroscience and Physiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
Paul L. Kaufman, MD
Peter A. Duehr Professor and Chairman, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual
Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI,
Albert Alm, MD
Professor, Department of Neuroscience & Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Uppsala,SwedenTable of Contents
Cover image
Title page
List of Contributors
Section 1: Focusing of an image on the retina
Chapter 1: Optics
The young eye
The image of the human adult eye
The aging eye
Chapter 2: Optical Aberrations and Wavefront Sensing
Optical aberrations
Measuring optical aberrations
Correcting higher-order aberrations
Clinical applications of wavefront aberration correction
Chapter 3: Accommodation
AccommodationOptics of the eye
The optical requirements for accommodation
Depth of field
Visual acuity
The anatomy of the accommodative apparatus
The mechanism of accommodation
Accommodative optical changes in the lens and eye
The stimulus to accommodate
The pharmacology of accommodation
Measurement of accommodation
Factors contributing to presbyopia
Section 2: Physiology of optical media
Chapter 4: Cornea and Sclera
Chapter 5: The Lens
The anatomy of the adult lens
The early development of the lens
Lens fiber cell differentiation
Special problems of lens cell metabolism
Energy production in the lens
Water and electrolyte balance
Lens transparency and refraction
Changes in the lens with aging
The structure and development of the lens sutures
The lens capsuleThe zonules
Overview of age-related cataract formation
Perspectives for preventing cataract blindness
Chapter 6: The Vitreous
Ultrastructural, biochemical, and biophysical aspects
Aging of the vitreous
Physiology of the vitreous body
The vitreous body as a sensor for the physiology of surrounding structures
Concluding remarks
Section 3: Direction of gaze
Chapter 7: The Extraocular Muscles
The bony orbit
Normal extraocular muscles
Disorders of eye movements
Diseases where EOM are preferentially spared
Diseases where EOM are preferentially involved
Chapter 8: Three-Dimensional Rotations of the Eye
Eye motility
Quantifying eye rotations
Listing's law
Neural control of ocular orientation
Orbital mechanics can simplify neural control: extraocular pulleysSummary
Chapter 9: Neural Control of Eye Movements
Final common pathway
Functional classification into three general categories
Neurological disorders of the oculomotor system
Section 4: Nutrition of the eye
Chapter 10: Ocular Circulation
Anatomy of the ocular circulation
Techniques for measuring ocular blood flow
Ocular circulatory physiology
Regulation of ocular BF
Metabolic control of retinal blood flow
Ocular blood flow and its regulation in diseases
Chapter 11: Production and Flow of Aqueous Humor
Aqueous humor formation
Aqueous humor composition
Pharmacology and regulation of aqueous humor formation and composition (Box
Aqueous humor drainage
Pharmacology and regulation of outflow
Chapter 12: Metabolic Interactions between Neurons and Glial Cells
1 Retinal oxygen distribution and consumption
2 Role of glycolysis underlying retinal function: from whole retina to its parts
3 Biochemical specialization of glial cells
4 Role of glycogen
5 Functional neuronal activity and division of metabolic labor6 Cellular compartmentation of energy substrates other than glucose
7 Experimental models used to study the interaction between photoreceptors and
glial Müller cells
8 Metabolic interactions between vertebrate photoreceptors and Müller glial cells
9 Metabolic interaction between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelia
10 Metabolic factors in the regulation of retinal blood flow
11 Metabolic pathway leading to nitric oxide release
Chapter 13: The Function of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Absorption of light
Transepithelial transport
Capacitative compensation of fast changes in the ion composition in the subretinal
Visual cycle
Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments
Section 5: Protection of the eye
Chapter 14: Functions of the Orbit and Eyelids
Orbital anatomy and function
Facial and eyelid anatomy and function
Chapter 15: Formation and Function of the Tear Film
1 Tear film overview
2 Glycocalyx
3 Mucous layer
4 Aqueous layer
5 Lipid layer
Chapter 16: Sensory Innervation of the Eye
1 Anatomy of ocular sensory nerves
2 Development and remodeling of corneal innervation3 Functional characteristics of ocular sensory innervation
4 Inflammation and injury effects on ocular sensory neurons
5 Trophic effects of ocular sensory nerves
6 Sensations arising from the eye
8 Drugs acting on ocular sensory nerves
Chapter 17: Outward-Directed Transport
Efflux transporters – brief history
Efflux transporters in ocular tissues
Section 6: Photoreception
Chapter 18: Biochemical Cascade of Phototransduction
Location and compartmentalization of rods and cones
Dark-adapted rods
Comparison of cones and rods
Phototransduction and disease
What we don't know
Where the field is headed
Chapter 19: Photoresponses of Rods and Cones
Photovoltage response to flashes
Photocurrent response to flashes
Detecting single photons
Photocurrent response to steady light
Action spectra of rods and cones
CNG channel and Na+/K+,Ca2+ exchanger
Role of inner segment conductancesSummary
Chapter 20: Light Adaptation in Photoreceptors
1 Vision from starlight to sunlight
2 Performance of the photopic and scotopic divisions of the visual system
3 Light adaptation of the electrical responses of cones and rods
4 Molecular basis of photoreceptor light adaptation
5 Slow changes in rods: light adaptation or dark adaptation?
6 Dark adaptation of the rods: very slow recovery from bleaching
Section 7: Visual processing in the retina
Chapter 21: The Synaptic Organization of the Retina
Kinds of neurons
Basic synaptic communication
Fast, focal neurochemistry, synaptic currents, and amplification
Global neurochemistry and modulation
Chapter 22: Signal Processing in the Outer Retina
Electrical synapses (coupling) between photoreceptors
Glutamatergic synapses between photoreceptors and second-order retinal
Horizontal cell responses
Horizontal cell output synapses
Rod and cone pathways and bipolar cell output synapses
Bipolar cell responses and center-surround antagonistic receptive field (CSARF)
Chapter 23: Signal Processing in the Inner Retina
Bipolar cells form parallel pathways and provide excitatory input to the IPLSynaptic mechanisms shape excitatory signals in the IPL
Amacrine cells mediate inhibition in the IPL
GABAergic feedback inhibition changes the timecourse of bipolar cell signaling
GABAergic inputs to the bipolar cell axon terminals contribute to surround
signaling in the retina
The contributions of the inner and outer retina to ganglion cell receptive field
surround organization
Glycinergic inhibition plays several different roles in the IPL
Neuromodulators in the IPL
Parallel ganglion cell output pathways
Chapter 24: Electroretinogram of Human, Monkey and Mouse
Generation of the ERG
Non-invasive recording of the ERG
Classical definition of components of the ERG
Slow PIII, the c-wave and other slow components of the direct current (dc)-ERG
Full-field dark-adapted (Ganzfeld) flash ERG
Light-adapted, cone-driven ERGs
Multifocal ERG
Closing comments
Section 8: Non-perceptive vision
Chapter 25: Regulation of Light through the Pupil
The neuronal pathway of the pupil light reflex and near pupil response
Structure of the iris
Properties of light and their effect on pupil movement
Relative afferent pupillary defects
Efferent pupillary defects
Chapter 26: Ganglion-Cell Photoreceptors and Non-Image-Forming VisionHistorical roots
Discovery of melanopsin and ganglion-cell photoreceptors
Distinctive functional properties of ipRGCs
Synaptic input
Synaptic output and physiological func

  • Accueil Accueil
  • Univers Univers
  • Ebooks Ebooks
  • Livres audio Livres audio
  • Presse Presse
  • BD BD
  • Documents Documents