Case Reviews in Ophthalmology E-Book
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316 pages
English

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Description

Seasoned Elsevier authors Neil J. Friedman and Peter K. Kaiser help you get the best possible results in your exams with Case Reviews in Ophthalmology. This medical reference’s case-based approach gives you just the practice you need to assess, reinforce, and broaden your mastery of every essential concept in ophthalmology for clinical rounds, oral boards or recertification.

  • Review key information on every aspect of ophthalmology: optics/refraction; neuro-ophthalmology/orbit; pediatrics/strabismus; external disease/adnexa; anterior segment; and posterior segment.
  • Learn from the experts with contributions from an all-star duo of seasoned authors.
  • Enhance your fundamental knowledge in ophthalmology and reinforce learning objectives using 100 illustrated cases.

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Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 05 janvier 2012
Nombre de lectures 4
EAN13 9781455737727
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 4 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0196€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Extrait

Case Reviews in Ophthalmology
Neil J. Friedman MD
Adjunct Clinical Associate Professor,
Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine
Partner, Mid-Peninsula Ophthalmology Medical Group
Palo Alto, CA, USA
Director, Cataract and Lens Implant Surgery
Pacific Vision Institute
San Francisco, CA, USA
Peter K. Kaiser MD
Chaney Family Endowed Chair for Ophthalmology
Research Professor of Ophthalmology, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic
Cleveland, OH, USA
For additional online content visit
www.expertconsult.com
an imprint of Elsevier Inc.
2012, Elsevier Inc All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher s permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: www.elsevier.com/permissions .
This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).
Notices
Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary.
Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility.
With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions.
To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Friedman, Neil J.
Case reviews in ophthalmology.
ISBN-13: 9781437726138
1. Eye - Diseases - Case studies. 2. Ophthalmology - Case studies. I. Title II. Kaiser, Peter K.
617.7 - dc23
ISBN: 978-14377-2613-8

Commissioning Editor: Russell Gabbedy
Development Editor: Nani Clansey
Editorial Assistant: Sam Crowe
Project Manager: Beula Christopher
Design: Charles Gray, Miles Hitchen
Illustration Manager: Bruce Hogarth
Illustrator: Merlyn Harvey
Marketing Manager(s) (UK / USA): Gaynor Jones/Helena Mutak
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
1. OPTICS / REFRACTION
2. NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY / ORBIT
3. PEDIATRIC OPHTHALMOLOGY / STRABISMUS
4. EXTERNAL DISEASE / ADNEXA
5. ANTERIOR SEGMENT
6. POSTERIOR SEGMENT
Index of Cases
Index
Preface
This book was written as a companion text to our popular Review of Ophthalmology text. While that book serves as a detailed and comprehensive review manual with an outline format and multiple-choice questions, this book s purpose is to review practical cases in ophthalmology.
Such a case-based approach to learning is something that we both encountered early in medical school because our curriculum was structured around it. The case-based method is a valuable technique of learning and reinforcing core concepts. We originally conceived the idea for this book while writing our first text: The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Illustrated Manual of Ophthalmology . We felt that a case review book was a natural extension of the material in the atlas, and patient scenarios would be a realistic and fun way in which to review the subject matter.
Although a number of case-based books exist that cover a variety of ophthalmic subspecialties, our goal was to create a more comprehensive review of fundamental eye disorders. The book is composed of 6 chapters that reflect the core topics in ophthalmology. The 116 cases were selected to test the: (1) most common, (2) vision-threatening, and (3) life-threatening ocular conditions that all ophthalmologists must recognize and be adept at treating. Each case is introduced with a figure and brief patient history. A series of questions probe the reader s knowledge of the condition by asking about further history, expected findings, differential diagnosis, workup, management, and prognosis. Additional information and figures are often presented as the case unfolds, and the suggested answers are found on the next page.
We hope you enjoy this case method of learning and find Case Reviews in Ophthalmology to be a useful aid for assessing and expanding your knowledge of ophthalmic diseases. We wish you success in your future careers.
Neil J. Friedman, MD
Peter K. Kaiser, MD
Acknowledgements
This book has been many years in the making and as such there are numerous people we wish to thank for their contributions.
We are grateful to our instructors, mentors, and colleagues who introduced us to and taught us with this method of learning. We are also thankful to the ophthalmologists who volunteered to read initial drafts of the cases and contributed helpful comments and revisions to the text, in particular Dilsher Dhoot, MD.
We have had the privilege of working with one of our former editors on this project as well, Russell Gabbedy, to whom we are indebted for making this book a reality. We proposed the concept for the book years ago, and his unwavering support of this project has finally been realized. We are also indebted to his wonderful editorial and publishing team at Elsevier including Nani Clansey and Beula Christopher, and their staff.
Finally, we owe a special thank you to our families, Mae, Jake, Peter (PJ), and Stephanie, who have always supported us; even during those family times we spent writing instead of with them.
Neil J. Friedman, MD
Peter K. Kaiser, MD
1. OPTICS / REFRACTION
CASE 1-OPTICS/REFRACTION


A 48-year-old woman with myopia complains of progressive deterioration in distance and near vision in both eyes for the past 2 years. She can improve her vision by sliding her glasses down her nose. Her past medical history is significant for diabetes for 10 years, for which she takes glyburide. She reports blood sugar levels usually between 120 and 140 mg/dL and a recent hemoglobin A1c of 6.8%.
1 . What is the differential diagnosis?
2 . What other history would you like to know?
3 . What would your exam entail?
Additional information: her current glasses are 5.00 D with an add of +1.25 D OU, her manifest refraction is 4.25 D OD and 4.50 D OS with +1.50 D add OU. The crystalline lenses are clear OU and there is no diabetic retinopathy. Cycloplegic refraction reveals 4.25 D OU.
4 . What is your diagnosis and treatment plan?

ANSWERS
CASE 1

1 . Decreased myopia and increased presbyopia. The change in refractive error may be due to overcorrection in her current distance spectacle prescription, cataracts, diabetic macular edema, or medications (i.e. chloroquine, phenothiazines, antihistamines, benzodiazepines).
2 . How old is her current prescription and what type of glasses are they? Does she have glare/halo/starburst from lights? Has the diabetes ever affected her retina and if so did she ever have any retinal treatment? Is she taking any other medications?
3 . Measure her current glass prescription, perform a manifest refraction, and then a complete eye exam with attention to the crystalline lens for cataract and retina for diabetic macular edema.
4 . Myopia/presbyopia with overminused glasses. A new glasses prescription should be given using the power from her manifest refraction. She should continue good blood sugar control and return for annual eye exams.
CASE 2-OPTICS/REFRACTION
A 50-year-old man with low myopia is noticing more difficulty reading with his distance glasses. He usually takes his glasses off to read but says this is becoming a hassle, and therefore he wants a new pair of glasses.
1 . What is the problem?
2 . What are his options?
3 . What are the 2 prismatic effects that occur with bifocals?
4 . Discuss the pros and cons of different bifocal designs.

ANSWERS
CASE 2

1 . Presbyopia.
2 . The glasses options are progressive, bifocal, or single vision lenses. Glasses for the computer can be single vision, trifocal, or computer bifocals.
3 . Image jump and image displacement.
Image jump is related to the position of the optical center of the add segment. It is produced by the sudden prismatic power at the top of the bifocal segment (it is not influenced by the type of underlying lens). As the patient s line of sight crosses from the

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