Community Pharmacy - E-Book
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273 pages

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Now in a new edition – the leading Australian community pharmacy guide, covering common conditions seen by community pharmacists throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Fully revised and now in its second edition, Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2e is an essential pharmacy resource.

Ideal for both pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists, Community Pharmacy provides a guide to differential diagnosis of symptoms commonly seen by community pharmacists throughout Australia and New Zealand.

Organised by body system, Community Pharmacy provides symptom-specific pharmaceutical questions and algorithms for the purposes of differential diagnosis.

More than 12 new treatment medicines have been added to this new edition, along with eight new case studies.

All conditions, products and recommendations have been revised to reflect current local drug scheduling and clinical practice, and the book’s evidence base has been updated in line with sources including the National Prescribing Service, Australian Prescriber, Australian Medicines Handbook, the Therapeutic Guidelines and Pharmaceutical Society of Australia guidelines.

Community Pharmacy: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2nd edition incorporates evidence-based practice into every chapter, and addresses current issues like alternative treatments and complementary therapies, weight loss products and pre-quit nicotine use.

This full-colour pharmacy text also offers students and instructors additional web-based resources through Elsevier’s Evolve online platform including additional images for dermatology and ophthalmology, additional case studies and an additional chapter on Evidence-Based Practice.

This new edition also has the added benefit of providing online activities for practicing pharmacists undertaking essential Continuing Professional Development. These activities have been accredited for 10 hours of Group 2 CPD (or 20 CPD credits) suitable for inclusion in an individual pharmacist’s CPD plan and have been accredited by the Australian Pharmacy Council.

• covers the most common conditions seen in community pharmacies • evidence base for over-the-counter (OTC) recommendations for each condition • provides symptom-specific questions and algorithms for the purposes of differential diagnosis • discusses prevalence and epidemiology of each condition • practical prescribing summary tables • Hints and tips boxes covering product use advice • self-assessment – multiple choice questions, review questions and case studies • full-colour throughout, with colour photographs of important conditions • Helpful abbreviations • Glossary of terms • Useful websites • Online Evolve resources for students and instructors • Online activities for Continuing Professional Development (CPD)



Publié par
Date de parution 20 octobre 2011
Nombre de lectures 4
EAN13 9780729580793
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,7306€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Table of Contents

Cover Image
Front Matter
Preface to the UK edition
How to use this book
UK acknowledgements
Useful websites
Chapter 1. Respiratory system
Chapter 2. Ophthalmology
Chapter 3. Otic conditions
Chapter 4. Central nervous system
Chapter 5. Women's health
Chapter 6. Gastroenterology
Chapter 7. Dermatology
Chapter 8. Musculoskeletal conditions
Chapter 9. Paediatrics
Chapter 10. Specific product requests
Evidence Based Pharmacy Practice
Answers to case study questions
Glossary of terms

Front Matter

Community Pharmacy
Australian and New Zealand edition
Paul Rutter BPharm, MRPharmS, PhD
Principal Lecturer, School of Pharmacy,
University of Wolverhampton, UK
David Newby BPharm, PhD
Associate Professor, Faculty of Health,
University of Newcastle, Australia
Original UK edition by Paul Rutter

Sydney Edinburgh London New York Philadelphia St Louis Toronto


Churchill Livingstone
is an imprint of Elsevier
Elsevier Australia. ACN 001 002 357
(a division of Reed International Books Australia Pty Ltd)
Tower 1, 475 Victoria Avenue, Chatswood, NSW 2067
This edition © 2012 Elsevier Australia
First edition published by Elsevier Australia in 2008
This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment (Digital Agenda) Act 2000, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior written permission from the publisher.
Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. The publisher apologises for any accidental infringement and would welcome any information to redress the situation.
This publication has been carefully reviewed and checked to ensure that the content is as accurate and current as possible at time of publication. We would recommend, however, that the reader verify any procedures, treatments, drug dosages or legal content described in this book. Neither the author, the contributors, nor the publisher assume any liability for injury and/or damage to persons or property arising from any error in or omission from this publication.
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
Rutter, Paul.
Community pharmacy: symptoms, diagnosis and treatment /
Paul Rutter, David Newby.
2nd ed.
ISBN 978 0 7295 4079 7 (pbk.)
Newby, David.
Publisher: Melinda McEvoy
Developmental Editor: Rebecca Cornell
Publishing Services Manager: Helena Klijn
Project Coordinators: Karthikeyan Murthy & Lisa Shillan
Edited by Shaukia Mir
Proofread by Annette Musker
Technical edit by Jerry Perkins & Lynne MacKinnon
Cover design by Georgette Hall
Internal design by George Ajayi
Index by Robert Swanson
Typeset by Toppan Best-set Premedia Limited
Printed by China Translation & Printing Services Ltd

Community pharmacy has evolved significantly over the last few decades. Although the role of pharmacists in delivering primary healthcare has been longstanding, the demand for self-care in the community has increased dramatically. In Australia it is estimated that over $4 billion is spent annually on self-care items, most of which are medicines. This contrasts with just over $8 billion spent annually on medicines subsidised on prescription by the government through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.
A number of factors have influenced the trend towards greater self-care, including increased patient autonomy, better access to information about treatments and the availability of more effective non-prescription medicines. The latter has come about partly through the rescheduling of prescription medicines to non-prescription. Pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand are in a unique position in that the scheduling of medicines in these countries includes a special classification, Pharmacist Only (or Restricted in NZ), which falls between the Prescription Only and Pharmacy Only schedules, and requires involvement of the pharmacist in their sales. This contrasts with the UK, which only has Prescription Only and Pharmacy classifications, and the USA, where medicines are either Prescription Only or they can be sold in a range of retail outlets. Drugs that fall into the Pharmacist Only category are those that, it has been decided, would benefit from the input of the pharmacist. This should be seen as a privilege, and not be taken for granted. It is important that pharmacists use this opportunity to demonstrate that the public gains by these additional restrictions.
Some may argue that community pharmacy has clear conflicts of interest. On the one hand, as a healthcare professional, the health and safety of the patient are paramount. However, as a retailer, profitability and making sales are important. Community pharmacists make a significant amount of their income by selling things, in contrast to other healthcare professionals who are largely remunerated for their cognitive services. Therefore, it is important that, when assisting the public in making choices about purchasing medicines, pharmacists ensure their advice and guidance is based on the best available evidence to maximise the outcomes for the patient. It is hoped that this book will help pharmacists, both practising and in training, to diagnose and differentiate problems that are amenable to self-care, and then make choices of appropriate management that have evidence to support their efficacy.
David Newby

Preface to the UK edition
Demand on healthcare professionals to deliver high quality patient care has never been greater. A multitude of factors impinge on healthcare delivery today, including an ageing population, more sophisticated medicines, high patient expectation, health service infrastructure as well as adequate and appropriate staffing levels. In primary care the medical practitioner role is pivotal in providing this care and they remain the central member of the healthcare team, but demands on their time mean other models of service delivery are being adopted in the UK and in other developed countries that utilise other healthcare professionals.
This is leading to the traditional boundaries of care between doctors, nurses, and pharmacists being broken down. In particular, certain medical practitioner responsibilities, which were once seen as their sole domain, are now being performed by nurses and pharmacists, for example it is now common practice in many doctors’ surgeries to have practice nurses who run specialist clinics, for example asthma and diabetes clinics, and more recently nurse and pharmacist prescribing.
Probably of greatest impact to community pharmacy practice in the UK and elsewhere is the continued de-regulation of medicines. This has included products from new therapeutic classes (e.g. antiemetics and H2 antagonists), allowing community pharmacists scope to manage more conditions without the need to refer patients to a medical practitioner. The global market for over-the-counter medicines is considerable, and rising. In 1991 US customers spent $10.2 billion on OTC medicines, which had risen to $19.1 billion by 2000. Similar trends have been seen in UK and European markets and this upward trend looks set to continue.
A combination of factors has fuelled this worldwide increase in OTC sales: including government health-care policies that have encouraged self-care and self-medication; a greater emphasis on cost containment by healthcare organisations; an unprecedented rise in the number of medicines deregulated from prescription-only control to OTC status, aided by streamlined and less bureaucratic administration; and the profit interests of pharmaceutical companies, especially when ethical patents expire.
Pharmacists will have to demonstrate that they are competent practitioners to be trusted with this additional responsibility. Therefore pharmacists will require greater levels of knowledge and understanding about commonly occurring medical conditions. They will need to be able to recognise their signs and symptoms, and use an evidence-based approach to treatment.
This is the catalyst for this book. Although other books targeted for pharmacists on diagnosis are published, this book aims to give a more in-depth view of minor conditions and how to differentiate them from more sinister pathology that may present in a similar way. The book is intended for all pharmacists, from undergraduate students to experienced practitioners.
It is hoped that the information contained within the book is both informative and useful.
Paul Rutter


Community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals. No appointment is needed to consult a pharmacist and patients can receive free, unbiased advice almost anywhere. On a typical day a pharmacist practising in an ‘average’ community pharmacy can realistically expect to help between 5 and 15 patients who present with various symptoms for which they are seeking advice, reassurance, treatment or a combination of all three. Unlike most other healthcare professionals, community pharmacists do not

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