Physiology, E-Book
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898 pages

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Physiology is a comprehensive presentation of core physiologic concepts with a focus on mechanisms. Renowned physiology instructor Linda S. Costanzo covers important concepts in the field, both at the organ system and cellular levels. Easy to read and user-friendly, the revised fourth edition stresses essential and relevant content with absolute clarity and includes concise step-by-step explanations complemented by numerous tables and abundant illustrations. It provides information on the underlying principles of cellular physiology, the autonomic nervous system, and neurophysiology, as well as the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid-base, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive organ systems. This book is ideal as both a textbook and as a review guide for the boards.

  • Provides step-by-step explanations and easy-to-follow diagrams clearly depicting physiologic principles.
  • Integrates equations and sample problems throughout the text.
  • Presents chapter summaries for quick overviews of important points.
  • Contains boxed Clinical Physiology Cases to provide you with more clinical examples and a more thorough understanding of application.
  • Provides questions at the end of each chapter for an extensive review of the material and to reinforce your understanding and retention.
  • Offers a full-color design and all full-color illustrations throughout.
  • Features increased coverage of pathophysiology in the neurophysiology, gastrointestinal, renal, acid-base, and endocrine chapters to emphasize this important component of the USMLE exam.
  • Incorporates further practice in solving physiology equations through the inclusion of additional problem-solving questions throughout the text.



Publié par
Date de parution 04 décembre 2009
Nombre de lectures 18
EAN13 9781437722246
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 8 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0196€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Fourth Edition

Linda S. Costanzo, PhD
Professor of Physiology, Assistant Dean for Preclinical Medical Education, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia
1600 John F. Kennedy Blvd.
Ste 1800
Philadelphia, PA 19103-2899
ISBN: 978-1-4160-6216-5
Copyright © 2010 by Saunders, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies, and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: . This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher (other than as may be noted herein).

Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein. In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. With respect to any drug or pharmaceutical products identified, readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and duration of administration, and contraindications. It is the responsibility of practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of their patients, to make diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the authors, contributors, or editors, assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions, or ideas contained in the material herein.
Previous editions copyrighted 2006, 2002, 1998.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Linda S. Costanzo
Physiology / Linda S. Costanzo.—4th ed.
p. ; cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4160-6216-5
1. Physiology. I. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Physiological Phenomena. 2. Physiology. QT 104 C838p 2010]
QP31.2.C67 2010
Acquisitions Editor: William Schmitt
Developmental Editor: Barbara Cicalese
Project Manager: Bryan Hayward
Design Direction: Lou Forgione
Printed in China
Last digit is the print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Heinz Valtin and Arthur C. Guyton ,
who have written so well for students of physiology
Richard, Dan , and Rebecca ,
who make everything worthwhile

Linda S. Costanzo
Physiology is the foundation of medical practice. A firm grasp of its principles is essential for the medical student and the practicing physician. This book is intended for students of medicine and related disciplines who are engaged in the study of physiology. It can be used either as a companion to lectures and syllabi in discipline-based curricula or as a primary source in integrated or problem-based curricula. For advanced students, the book can serve as a reference in pathophysiology courses and in clinical clerkships.
In the fourth edition of this book, as in the previous editions, the important concepts in physiology are covered at the organ system and cellular levels. Chapters 1 and 2 present the underlying principles of cellular physiology and the autonomic nervous system. Chapters 3 through 10 present the major organ systems: neurophysiology and cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, acid-base, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and reproductive physiology. The relationships between organ systems are emphasized to underscore the integrative mechanisms for homeostasis.
This edition includes the following features designed to facilitate the study of physiology:
♦ Text that is easy to read and concise: Clear headings orient the student to the organization and hierarchy of the material. Complex physiologic information is presented systematically, logically, and in steps. When a process occurs in a specific sequence, the steps are numbered in the text and often correlate with numbers shown in a figure. Bullets are used to separate and highlight the features of a process. Rhetorical questions are posed throughout the text to anticipate the questions that students may be asking; by first contemplating and then answering these questions, students learn to explain difficult concepts and rationalize unexpected or paradoxical findings. References at the end of each chapter direct the student to monographs, texts, review articles, and classic papers that offer further detail or historical perspective. Chapter summaries provide a brief overview.
♦ Tables and illustrations that can be used in concert with the text or, because they are designed to stand alone, as a review: The tables summarize, organize, and make comparisons. Examples are (1) a table that compares the gastrointestinal hormones with respect to hormone family, site of and stimuli for secretion, and hormone actions; (2) a table that compares the pathophysiologic features of disorders of Ca 2+ homeostasis; and (3) a table that compares the features of the action potential in different cardiac tissues. The illustrations are clearly labeled, often with main headings, and include simple diagrams, complex diagrams with numbered steps, and flow charts.
♦ Equations and sample problems that are integrated into the text: All terms and units in equations are defined, and each equation is restated in words to place it in a physiologic context. Sample problems are followed by complete numerical solutions and explanations that guide the student through the proper steps in reasoning; by following the steps provided, students acquire the skills and confidence to solve similar or related problems.
♦ Clinical physiology presented in boxes: Each box features a fictitious patient with a classic disorder. The clinical findings and proposed treatment are explained in terms of underlying physiologic principles. An integrative approach to the patient is used to emphasize the relationships between organ systems. For example, the case of type I diabetes mellitus involves a disorder not only of the endocrine system but also of the renal, acid-base, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems.
♦ Practice questions in “Challenge Yourself” sections at the end of each chapter: Practice questions, which are designed for short answers (a word, a phrase, or a numerical solution), challenge the student to apply principles and concepts in problem solving rather than to recall isolated facts. The questions are posed in varying formats and are given in random order. They will be most helpful when used as a tool after studying each chapter and without referring to the text. In that way, the student can confirm his or her understanding of the material and can determine areas of weakness. Answers are provided at the end of the book.
♦ Abbreviations and normal values presented on the inside back cover spread: As students refer to and use these common abbreviations and values throughtout the book, they will find that they become second nature.
This book embodies three beliefs that I hold about teaching: (1) even complex information can be transmitted clearly if the presentation is systematic, presented in steps, and logical; (2) the presentation can be just as effective in print as in person; and (3) beginning medical students wish for nonreference teaching materials that are accurate and didactically strong but without the details that primarily concern experts. In essence, a book can “teach” if the teacher’s voice is present, if the material is carefully selected to include essential information, and if great care is paid to logic and sequence. This text offers a down-to-earth and professional presentation written to students and for students.
I hope that the readers of this book enjoy their study of physiology. Those who learn its principles well will be rewarded throughout their professional careers!

Linda S. Costanzo
I gratefully acknowledge the contributions of William Schmitt and Barbara Cicalese at Elsevier and Nancy Lombardi, production editor, in preparing the fourth edition of Physiology. The artist, Matthew Chansky, revised existing figures and created new figures—all of which beautifully complement the text.
Colleagues at Virginia Commonwealth University have faithfully answered my questions, especially Drs. Clive Baumgarten, Margaret Biber, Robert Downs, Diomedes Logothetis, Roland Pittman, and Raphael Witorsch. Sincere thanks also go to the medical students worldwide who have generously written to me about their experiences with earlier editions of the book.
As always, my husband, Richard, and our children, Dan and Rebecca, have provided enthusiastic support and unqualified love, which give the book its spirit.

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