Business Impacted by Various Pandemic (Series-1)
319 pages
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The book Business Impacted by Various Pandemic (Series-1) is published by ISL Publications and contributed by 10 global authors. Currently, as we all in globally affected directly or indirectly by the pandemic situation. Since from time to time globe had been affected by various Virus pandemic effects throughout different social, economic & other areas. Which changes a lot of things in different layers of human society how time to time different virus effect and affect in different global landscape (economy, tourism, trade, education, policy, innovation, circular economy, public infrastructure, mobility, sanitation, energy, industrial, water, biodiversity, agriculture, food, medicine, technology, social, behavior, public health, governance, health care, new industry & others) & others. The book virus economy is published under the ISL Publications. The book depicts lots of thoughts from various countries’ global leaders. The book is available in all leading digital and offline stores globally.

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Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2021
Nombre de lectures 5
EAN13 1230004451716
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 7 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0512€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

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2 Business Impacted by Various Pandemic (Series-1) Chief Editor Professor Doctor Sanjay Rout Sub-Editor Professor Prangyan Biswal
Publisher ISL Publications
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Copy Right
The chapter book writtern by multiple authors from various countries edited & Published by ISL Publications India
© Copyright and Publishing right is with Innovation Solution Lab
All rights reserved to innovation solution lab. Any unauthorized reprint or use of this material is prohibited. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system without express written permission from the author/publisher.
Please do not participate in or encourage piracy of copyrighted materials in violation of the author’s rights. PurĐhase only authorized editions.
ISL Publications
India
Website- https://innovationsolutionlab.weebly.com
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EDITORIAL NOTE
With the bountiful Grace of God Almighty. We have immense pleasure to pen a message on the editorial desk. Various authors of different institutions contributed their original book papeƌ oŶ the ͞Viƌus EĐoŶoŵLJ͟.
This book chapter is a compendium of the discussions, sharing, interactions and feedback of the platform stag practically to express the views of the authors of the papers as the contents are purely their own views based on their knowledge, intake and initiations grabbed and experienced empirically and orally besides reading of the thematic definitions explanations from various sources and resources. Hence it is published here as their own originals for interring and interpersonal discussions. We are indebted to all the Professors, Research scholars, Students and other well-wishers who have contributed their papers and efforts with full commitment and conviction to make this publication meaningfully purposeful and successful with knowledge value and thematic conceptual credit.
At this moment we make our Sincere thanks to Innovation Solution Lab team & all Global Researcher, Thinkers in particular for their wholehearted support and encouragement for the successful publication.
Chief Editor
Professor Sanjay Rout
Sub-Editor
Professor Prangyan Paramita Biswal
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Viruses and its History Professor Sanjay Rout, Global Scientist & Advisor (NCCHWO) Covid-19 and Social Impact Professor Prangyan Paramita Biswal, President (ISL) Poliovirus Scientist Ahmed Ali Warda (Egypt)Community(Role of civil society in Combating the corona virus) Birendra Rai (Nepal & India) 5 Most Consistent Blue-Chip Shares of Indian Stock Market during the COVID-19 Situation- What and Why? Dr. Priyanka Raheja & Ms. Stuti Saria (India)Impact of the Pandemic on EV Industry Mr.Ashhar Ahmed Shaikh (CTO),Bharatmobi A Study On Problems And Difficulties Faced By Lic Agents During The Sale Of Insurance Policies Withspecial Reference To The Mumbai Branch Prof. Sachin Arjun Kadam, Assistant Professor, Department Of Commerce,Viva College, Virar, Mumbai, IndiaTraditional Offices into Flexible Shared Workspace for Socio Economic Good Danish Jhatial (C.E.O) @ Paletteform, Pakistan The Inimical effects of viruses on trade in the history of mankind Mr.Paul Raj,Software Engineer (India) The Global Economic Impact Of The Pandemic On Public Healthcare Infrastructure OMOLOLA Adams Olatayo RN RM RPHN HHM Bnsc (France) AJISAFE Lateepha Busari RN RM RPHN BnscEconomic Crisis At Grassroot Level In Covid -19 Prof. Sachin Arjun Kadam Assistant Professor, Mumbai University, IndiaConclusion
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Viruses and its History
Author: Professor Sanjay Rout
Short Bio:-Professor Sanjay Rout(Global Advisor (Research & Media) NCCHWO is an International Acclaimed Author, Researcher, Futurologist, Knowledge Heuristic, Think-tank, Policy Expert & Journalist. Honored as Global Best 50 Future Leader in Open Innovation & Future Technology. Had received many National /International Awards & honors for his work in Research, Innovation, development, Coach, Policy with lot of publication in different journals, papers and author of various popular books.
Introduction
Víruses are mícróscópíc órganísms that exíst almóst everywhere ón earth. They can ínfect anímals, plants, fungí, and even bactería. Sómetímes a vírus can cause a dísease só deadly that ít ís fatal. Óther víral ínfectíóns trígger nó nótíceable reactíón. A vírus may alsó have óne effect ón óne type óf órganísm, but a dífferent effect ón anóther. Thís explaíns hów a vírus that affects a cat may nót affect a dóg.
Víruses vary ín cómplexíty. They cónsíst óf genetíc materíal, RNA ór DNA, surróunded by a cóat óf próteín, lípíd (fat), ór glycópróteín. Víruses cannót replícate wíthóut a hóst, só they
7 are classífíed as parasítíc.They are cónsídered the móst abundant bíólógícal entíty ón the planet.
Díscóvery
Hów much smaller are móst víruses ín cómparísón tó bactería? Quíte a bít. Wíth a díameter óf 220 nanómeters, the measles vírus ís abóut 8 tímes smaller than E.cólí bactería. At 45 nm, the hepatítís vírus ís abóut 40 tímes smaller than E.cólí. Fór a sense óf hów small thís ís, Davíd R. Wessner, a prófessór óf bíólógy at Davídsón Cóllege, próvídes an analógy ín a 2010 artícle publíshed ín the jóurnal Nature Educatíón: The pólíó vírus, 30 nm acróss, ís abóut 10,000 tímes smaller than a graín óf salt. Such dífferences ín síze between víruses and bactería próvíded the crítícal fírst Đlue óf the fóƌŵeƌ͛s edžísteŶĐe.
Tóward the end óf the 19th century the nótíón that mícróórganísms, especíally bactería, cóuld cause dísease was well establíshed. Hówever, researchers lóókíng íntó a tróublíng dísease ín tóbaccó the tóbaccó mósaíc dísease were sómewhat stumped as tó íts cause.
ÍŶ aŶ ϭϴϴϲ ƌeseaƌĐh papeƌ títled ͞CóŶĐeƌŶíŶg the MósaíĐ Dísease óf TóďaĐĐó,͟ Adólf MaLJeƌ, a German chemíst and agrícultural researcher, publíshed the results óf hís extensíve experíments. Ín partícular, Mayer fóund that when he crushed up ínfected leaves and ínjected the nóxíóus juíce íntó the veíns óf healthy tóbaccó leaves ít resulted ín the yellówísh specklíng and díscólóratíón characterístíc óf the dísease. Mayer córrectly surmísed that whatever was causíng tóbaccó mósaíc dísease was ín the leafy juíce. Hówever, móre cóncrete results eluded hím. Mayer felt certaín that whatever was causíng the dísease was óf bacteríal órígín, but he was unable tó ísólate the dísease-causíng agent ór ídentífy ít under a mícróscópe. Nór cóuld he recreate the dísease by ínjectíng healthy plants wíth a range óf knówn bactería.
ÍŶ ϭϴϵϮ, a ‘ussíaŶ studeŶt Ŷaŵed Dŵítƌí ÍǀaŶóǀskLJ esseŶtíallLJ ƌepeated MaLJeƌ͛s juíĐíŶg experíments but wíth a bít óf a twíst. Accórdíng tó a 1972 artícle publíshed ín the jóurnal Bacteríólógícal Revíews, Ívanóvsky passed the juíce fróm ínfected leaves thróugh a Chamberland fílter, a fílter fíne enóugh tó capture bactería and óther knówn mícróórganísms. Despíte the síevíng, the líquíd fíltrate remaíned ínfectíóus, suggestíng a new píece tó the puzzle; whatever was causíng the dísease was small enóugh tó pass thróugh the fílter. Hówever, Ívanóvsky alsó cóncluded that the cause óf tóbaccó mósaíc dísease ǁas ďaĐteƌíal, suggestíŶg the fíltƌate ͞ĐóŶtaíŶed eítheƌ ďaĐteƌía óƌ a sóluďle tódžíŶ.͟ Ít
8 ǁasŶ͛t uŶtíl ϭϴϵϴ ǁheŶ the pƌeseŶĐe óf ǀíƌuses ǁas aĐkŶóǁledged. DutĐhscíentíst Martínus BeíjeƌíŶĐk, ǁhíle ĐóŶfíƌŵíŶg ÍǀaŶóǀskLJ͛s ƌesults, suggested that the Đause óf tóďaĐĐó ŵósaíĐ dísease ǁas Ŷót ďaĐteƌíal ďut a ͞líǀíŶg líƋuíd ǀíƌus,͟ ƌefeƌƌíŶg tó ít ďLJ the Ŷóǁ óutdated teƌŵ, "fílterable vírus."
The experíments óf Ívanóvsky, Beíjerínck and óthers that fóllówed ónly póínted tó the exístence óf víruses. Ít wóuld take a few móre decades befóre anyóne actually saw a vírus. Accórdíng tó a 2009 artícle publíshed ín the jóurnal Clínícal Mícróbíólógy Revíews, ónce the electrón mícróscópe was develóped ín 1931 by German scíentísts Ernst Ruska and Max Knóll, the fírst vírus cóuld be vísualízed wíth the new hígh resólutíón technólógy. These fírst ímages taken by Ruska and cólleagues ín 1939 were óf the tóbaccó mósaíc vírus. Thus, the díscóvery óf víruses came full círcle.
Structure
Víruses teeter ón the bóundaríes óf what ís cónsídered lífe. Ón óne hand, they cóntaín the key elements that make up all lívíng órganísms: the nucleíc acíds, DNA ór RNA (any gíven vírus can ónly have óne ór the óther). Ón the óther hand, víruses lack the capacíty tó índependently read and act upón the ínfórmatíón cóntaíned wíthín these nucleíc acíds.
͞A ŵíŶíŵal ǀíƌus ís a paƌasíte that ƌeƋuíƌes ƌeplíĐatíóŶ ;ŵakíŶg ŵóƌe Đópíes óf ítselfͿ íŶ a hóst Đell,͟ saíd Jaquelín Dudley, a prófessór óf mólecular bíóscíences at the Uníversíty óf Tedžas at AustíŶ. ͞The ǀíƌus ĐaŶŶót ƌepƌóduĐe ítself óutsíde the hóst ďeĐause ít laĐks the ĐóŵplíĐated ŵaĐhíŶeƌLJ that a ΀hóst΁ Đell póssesses.͟ The hóst͛s Đellulaƌ ŵaĐhíŶeƌLJ allóǁs víruses tó próduce RNA fróm theír DNA (a prócess calledtranscríptíón) and tó buíld próteíns based ón the ínstructíóns encóded ín theír RNA (a prócess called translatíón).
When a vírus ís cómpletely assembled and capable óf ínfectíón, ít ís knówn as a víríón. AĐĐóƌdíŶg tó the authóƌs óf ͞MedíĐal MíĐƌóďíólógLJ ϰth Ed.͟ ;UŶíǀeƌsítLJ óf Tedžas MedíĐal Branch at Galvestón, 1996), the structure óf a símple víríón cómpríses óf an ínner nucleíc acíd córe surróunded by an óuter casíng óf próteíns knówn as the capsíd. Capsíds prótect víral nucleíc acíds fróm beíng chewed up and destróyed by specíal hóst cell enzymes called nucleases. Sóme víruses have a secónd prótectíve layer knówn as the envelópe. Thís layer ís usually deríved fróm the cell membrane óf a hóst; líttle stólen bíts that are módífíed and repurpósed fór the vírus tó use.
9 The DNA ór RNA fóund ín the córe óf the vírus can be síngle stranded ór dóuble stranded. Ít ĐóŶstítutes the geŶóŵe óƌ the suŵ tótal óf a ǀíƌus͛s geŶetíĐ íŶfóƌŵatíóŶ. Víƌal geŶóŵes aƌe generally small ín síze, códíng ónly fór essentíal próteíns such as capsíd próteíns, enzymes, and próteíns necessary fór replícatíón wíthín a hóst cell.
Functíón
The pƌíŵaƌLJ ƌóle óf the ǀíƌus óƌ ǀíƌíóŶ ís tó ͞delíǀeƌ íts DNA óƌ ‘NA geŶóŵe íŶtó the hóst Đell só that the geŶóŵe ĐaŶ ďe edžpƌessed ;tƌaŶsĐƌíďed aŶd tƌaŶslatedͿ ďLJ the hóst Đell,͟ accórdíng tó "Medícal Mícróbíólógy."
Fíƌst, ǀíƌuses Ŷeed tó aĐĐess the íŶsíde óf a hóst͛s ďódLJ. ‘espíƌatóƌLJ passages aŶd ópeŶ wóunds can act as gateways fór víruses. Sómetímes ínsects próvíde the móde óf entry. CeƌtaíŶ ǀíƌuses ǁíll hítĐh a ƌíde íŶ aŶ íŶseĐt͛s salíǀa aŶd eŶteƌ the hóst͛s ďódLJ afteƌ the íŶseĐt ďítes. AĐĐóƌdíŶg tó the authóƌs óf ͞MóleĐulaƌ BíólógLJ óf the Cell, ϰth Ed͟ ;GaƌlaŶd “ĐíeŶĐe, 2002) such víruses can replícate ínsíde bóth ínsect and hóst cells, ensuríng a smóóth transítíón fróm óne tó the óther. Examples ínclude the víruses that cause yellów fever and dengue fever.
Víruses wíll then attach themselves tó hóst cell surfaces. They dó só by recógnízíng and bíndíng tó cell surface receptórs, líke twó ínterlóckíng puzzle píeces. Many dífferent víruses can bínd tó the same receptór and a síngle vírus can bínd dífferent cell surface receptórs. Whíle víruses use them tó theír advantage, cell surface receptórs are actually desígned tó serve the cell.
After a vírus bínds tó the surface óf the hóst cell, ít can start tó móve acróss the óuter cóveríng ór membrane óf the hóst cell. There are many dífferent módes óf entry. HÍV, a vírus wíth an envelópe, fuses wíth the membrane and ís pushed thróugh. Anóther envelóped vírus, the ínfluenza vírus, ís engulfed by the cell. Sóme nón-envelóped víruses, such as the pólíó vírus, create a póróus channel óf entry and burrów thróugh the membrane.
Ónce ínsíde, víruses release theír genómes and alsó dísrupt ór híjack varíóus parts óf the cellular machínery. Víral genómes dírect hóst cells tó ultímately próduce víral próteíns (many a tíme haltíng the synthesís óf any RNA and próteíns that the hóst cell can use). Ultímately, víruses stack the deck ín theír favór, bóth ínsíde the hóst cell and wíthín the hóst
10 ítself by creatíng cóndítíóns that allów fór them tó spread. Fór example, when sufferíng fróm the cómmón cóld, óne sneeze emíts 20,000 dróplets cóntaíníng rhínóvírus ór córónavírus partícles, accórdíng tó "Mólecular Bíólógy óf the Cell." Tóuchíng ór breathíng thóse dróplets ín, ís all ít takes fór a cóld tó spread.
Anatómy and Structure óf Víruses Scíentísts have lóng sóught tó uncóver the structure and functíón óf víruses. Víruses are uníque ín that they have been classífíed as bóth lívíng and nónlívíng at varíóus póínts ín the hístóry óf bíólógy. Víruses are nót cells but nón-lívíng, ínfectíóus partícles. They are capable óf causíng a number óf díseases, íncludíng cancer, ín varíóus dífferent types óf órganísms.
Víral pathógens nót ónly ínfect humans and anímals, but alsó plants, bactería, prótísts, and archaeans. These extremely tíny partícles are abóut 1,000 tímes smaller than bactería and can be fóund ín almóst any envírónment. Víruses can nót exíst índependently óf óther órganísms as they must take óver a lívíng cell ín órder tó repróduce.
Vírus Anatómy and Structure
A vírus partícle, alsó knówn as a víríón, ís essentíally nucleíc acíd (DNA ór RNA) enclósed wíthín a próteín shell ór cóat. Víruses are extremely small, appróxímately 20 - 400 nanómeters ín díameter. The largest vírus, knówn as the Mímívírus, can measure up tó 500 nanómeters ín díameter. By cómparísón, a human red blóód cell ís aróund 6,000 tó 8,000 nanómeters ín díameter.
Ín addítíón tó varyíng sízes, víruses alsó have a varíety óf shapes. Símílar tó bactería, sóme víruses have spherícal ór ród shapes. Óther víruses are ícósahedral (pólyhedrón wíth 20 faces) ór helícal shaped. Víral shape ís determíned by the próteín cóat that encases and prótects the víral genóme.
Víral Genetíc Materíal
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