Managing Coral Reefs
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Detailed analysis of reef management and outcomes in Indonesia and Malaysia.

Managing Coral Reefs examines Indonesia’s and Malaysia’s pathways to implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), focusing specifically on how regional and national policies in Southeast Asia have fared when implementing the Aichi Targets of the CBD. Kelly Heber Dunning examines CBD implementation through marine protected areas (MPAs) for coral reefs in Indonesia and Malaysia. While Indonesia uses a co-managed framework, whereby villages and governments share power, to implement its MPAs, Malaysia uses a top-down network of federally managed marine parks. Using mixed methods through interviews and surveys as well as coral reef ecology surveys conducted over a year of fieldwork, Dunning argues that co-managed systems are the current best practice for implementing the CBD’s Aichi Targets in tropical developing countries.

List of Figures; List of Tables; Acknowledgments; List of Abbreviations; 1. Introduction; 2. Theory, Practice and Policy Context of Coral Reef Management; 3. Governing Natural Resources in Indonesia and Malaysia; 4. Case Study Sites and the Coral Triangle; 5. Integrated Management of Marine Protected Areas; 6. Legitimate Marine Protected Areas; 7. Adaptive Capacity of Marine Protected Areas; 8. Policy Recommendations for Marine Protected Area Management in Developing Countries; Appendix A. Research Design; Appendix B. Data and Methods; Appendix C. Coral Cover Results; References; Index.



Publié par
Date de parution 30 juillet 2018
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781783087983
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0076€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Managing Coral Reefs

The Anthem Ecosystem Services and Restoration Series presents lessons for practical decision making by governments, businesses and NGOs seeking to incorporate the language and logic of ecosystem services into their activities. Ecosystems provide valuable services to individuals, organizations and society more generally, but the practical application of this principle is not at all straightforward. Policymakers, businesses and advocacy organizations around the world are developing innovative ways of incorporating ecosystem services into decision making through the creation of markets, trusts and policies of various kinds. This series seeks to develop a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these initiatives and to generate a more informed understanding of which interventions result in the most effective and sustainable outcomes.

Series Editor

Lawrence Susskind – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA

Editorial Board

Marina Alberti – University of Washington, USA
Jayanta Bandyopadhyay – Independent policy researcher in environment and development, India
Robert Costanza – Australian National University, Australia
Marta Echavarría – Ecodecision, Ecuador
Pushpam Kumar – UNEP and University of Liverpool, UK
Matthias Ruth – Northeastern University, USA
Anne Spirn – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
Managing Coral Reefs
An Ecological and Institutional Analysis of Ecosystem Services in Southeast Asia
Kelly Heber Dunning
Anthem Press
An imprint of Wimbledon Publishing Company

This edition first published in UK and USA 2018
75–76 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HA, UK
or PO Box 9779, London SW19 7ZG, UK
244 Madison Ave #116, New York, NY 10016, USA

© Kelly Heber Dunning 2018

The author asserts the moral right to be identified as the author of this work.

All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above,
no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or introduced into
a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise),
without the prior written permission of both the copyright
owner and the above publisher of this book.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book has been requested.

ISBN-13: 978-1-78308-796-9 (Hbk)
ISBN-10: 1-78308-796-X (Hbk)

This title is also available as an e-book.
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations
1. Introduction
1.1 Reefs and People
1.1.1 Structure of the text
1.1.2 Societies, economies and reef ecosystems
1.1.3 Contrasting governance
1.1.4 Institutions: Marine protected areas
2. Theory, Practice and Policy Context of Coral Reef Management
2.1 Multilateral Frameworks for Conservation in Indonesia and Malaysia
2.2 Theorizing about Institutions and Change
2.2.1 Socioecological systems: Comparing institutions
2.3 Significance of This Research: Development Trends and Institutional Norms
2.3.1 Defining adaptive co-management
2.3.2 Adaptive capacity
2.3.3 Criticisms of adaptive co-management
2.4 Conventional Wisdom on Reef Management
2.4.1 Designing institutions for reef management
2.4.2 Reef management and stakeholder perception
2.4.3 Linking ecological outcomes to institutions
3. Governing Natural Resources in Indonesia and Malaysia
3.1 Indonesia’s Road to Decentralization
3.1.1 Colonial legacies and changing governance
3.1.2 New Order Indonesia and centralized control
3.1.3 Contemporary rise of co-management
3.2 The Origins of Centralized Malaysian Governance
3.2.1 Precolonial kingdoms
3.2.2 British colonial rule and centralization
3.2.3 Contemporary Malaysia
3.2.4 Malaysian Marine Parks
4. Case Study Sites and the Coral Triangle
4.1 Situating This Research in Global Environmental Research Agendas
4.2 Why MPAs in the Coral Triangle?
4.3 Indonesian Case Sites: Co-managed MPAs
4.3.1 Lovina
4.3.2 Pemuteran
4.3.3 Amed
4.4 Malaysian Case Sites: Centrally Managed MPAs
4.4.1 Perhentian Islands
4.4.2 Tioman Island
4.5 Controlling for Differences across Case Sites
4.6 Ecological Results: Overview of Coral Cover Results
4.7 Summary of Living Coral Cover Findings
5. Integrated Management of Marine Protected Areas
5.1 Overview
5.2 Survey Results
5.3 Different Perceptions on Conservation and Livelihood Links
5.3.1 Malaysia: Conservation is not my problem
5.3.2 Indonesia: The reef economy
5.4 Businesses That Promote Conservation
5.4.1 Malaysia: Out of gas
5.4.2 Indonesia: Put your money where your mouth is
5.5 MPAs Help Business
5.5.1 A tale of two mooring points
5.5.2 Fishing is banned. Or is it?
5.6 The Role of Civil Society
5.6.1 NGOs and scientific monitoring
5.6.2 NGOs link communities and ecology
5.7 Summary and Conclusions
6. Legitimate Marine Protected Areas
6.1 Overview: Stakeholder Perceptions on Legitimacy
6.2 Survey Results
6.3 Different Perceptions of Institutional Efficacy
6.3.1 Malaysia: Invisible maintenance and park facilities
6.3.2 Malaysia: “Where is the science?”
6.3.3 Indonesia: MPAs “get the job done”
6.3.4 Indonesia: All for show?
6.3.5 Indonesia: Strength in mandatory membership
6.3.6 Indonesia: Again, where’s the science?
6.4 Different Perceptions of Institutional Value
6.4.1 Malaysia: Hardly working?
6.4.2 Indonesia: Reefs as income generators
6.5 Sharing Power with Stakeholders
6.5.1 Malaysia: When information is not enough
6.5.2 Indonesia: Genuine leaders
6.6 Summary and Conclusions
7. Adaptive Capacity of Marine Protected Areas
7.1 Overview
7.2 Survey Results
7.3 Different Stakeholder Perceptions on Learning
7.3.1 Malaysia: Fear and learning
7.3.2 Indonesia: Learning with pride
7.4 Changing MPA Management
7.4.1 Malaysia: Bureaucratic obstacles to change
7.4.2 Indonesia: Change is possible—but not without graft
7.5 Innovation
7.5.1 Indonesia: Widespread innovation
7.5.2 Malaysia: Fear of fragmented responses
7.6 Summary and Conclusions
8. Policy Recommendations for Marine Protected Area Management in Developing Countries
8.1 Overview
8.2 Insights on Integrated Management of MPAs
8.2.1 Linking economics and conservation
8.2.2 Trust of business
8.2.3 Too many cooks in the kitchen: The future of coral-focused NGOs
8.3 The Legitimacy of MPAs
8.3.1 Enhancing Malaysian legitimacy using lessons from Indonesia
8.3.2 The need for top-down action in Indonesia
8.3.3 Posters are not enough
8.4 Insight on Adaptive Capacity of MPAs
8.4.1 Revising management
8.4.2 Innovation cannot stave off global crises
8.5 Summary of Key Policy Recommendations for Indonesia
8.5.1 Co-management needs greater support in government
8.5.2 The role of local youth
8.5.3 Ending graft
8.6 Policy Recommendations for Malaysia
8.6.1 Recruiting the best people and increasing scientific expertise
8.6.2 Underwater patrols and increased fines
8.6.3 Highly visible violations need to be stopped
8.6.4 Courting communities
8.7 Conservation of Coastal Biodiversity
Appendix A. Research Design
A.1 Overview
A.1.1 Creating analytical constructs: Institutions
A.1.2 Comparing analytical constructs: The socio-ecological systems framework
A.1.3 Measuring ecological output
A.1.4 Problems with research design
Appendix B. Data and Methods
B.1 Overview
B.2 Interviews
B.3 Surveys
B.4 Reef Surveys
B.5 Analysis
Appendix C. Coral Cover Results
C.1 Comparing Coral Cover across Malaysia and Indonesia
C.1.1 Coral bleaching
C.1.2 Ecological impacts of the dive industry
C.2 Comparing Coral Cover Findings with Other Studies
C.3 Images from Surveys and Stakeholder Perceptions on Reef Health
C.3.1 Lovina, Indonesia
C.3.2 Pemuteran, Indonesia
C.3.3 Amed, Indonesia
C.3.4 Perhentian Islands, Malaysia
C.3.5 Tioman Island, Malaysia
References 197
Index 209
1.1 A Balinese boatman wearing an udeng launching his jukung
4.1 The Coral Triangle
4.2 Indonesian field sites in the province of Bali
4.3 Lovina
4.4 Traditional jukung boats in Lovina for sailing, tourism and fishing
4.5 A Lovina tourism worker, offering a variety of rentals and activities
4.6 Pemuteran
4.7 The Pemuteran MPA
4.8 A tourism worker’s business in Pemuteran
4.9 An MPA manager and NGO worker in Pemuteran
4.10 Signage visible throughout Pemuteran on the community-based MPA
4.11 Amed
4.12 The Amed MPA
4.13 Women porters in Amed’s dive industry
4.14 Sign indicating the “Fishermen’s Cooperative PERNETUS villa

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