Race in Mind
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These essays analyze how race affects people's lives and relationships in all settings, from the United States to Great Britain and from Hawaiʻi to Chinese Central Asia. They contemplate the racial positions in various societies of people called Black and people called White, of Asians and Pacific Islanders, and especially of those people whose racial ancestries and identifications are multiple. Here for the first time are Spickard's trenchant analyses of the creation of race in the South Pacific, of DNA testing for racial ancestry, and of the meaning of multiplicity in the age of Barack Obama.



Publié par
Date de parution 19 novembre 2015
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780268182007
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

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Critical Essays
with Jeffrey Moniz and Ingrid Dineen-Wimberly
University of Notre Dame Press
Notre Dame, Indiana
University of Notre Dame Press
Notre Dame, Indiana 46556
Copyright 2016 by the University of Notre Dame
All Rights Reserved
Published in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Spickard, Paul R., 1950- Moniz, Jeffrey, Dineen-Wimberl, Ingrid
Race in mind : critical essays / Paul Spickard ;
with Jeffrey Moniz and Ingrid Dineen-Wimberly.
Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press, [2015]
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 9780268041489 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN 0268041482 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Race. Ethnicity. Race relations. Multiculturalism.
HT1521.S624 2015
ISBN 9780268182007
The paper in this book meets the guidelines for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources .
This e-Book was converted from the original source file by a third-party vendor. Readers who notice any formatting, textual, or readability issues are encouraged to contact the publisher at ebooks@nd.edu .
In memory of
Win Jordan
List of Figures and Tables
1 The Illogic of American Racial Categories
2 Mapping Race: Multiracial People and Racial Category Construction in the United States and Britain
3 What s Critical about White Studies
4 Race and Nation, Identity and Power: Thinking Comparatively about Ethnic Systems
5 From the Black Atlantic to the Racial Pacific: Rethinking Racial Hierarchy in Colonial and Postcolonial Contexts
6 The Return of Scientific Racism? DNA Ancestry Testing, Race, and the New Eugenics Movement
7 What Must I Be? Asian Americans and the Question of Multiethnic Identity
8 The Power of Blackness: Mixed-Race Leaders and the Monoracial Ideal
9 Pacific Islander Americans and Multiethnicity: A Vision of America s Future?
10 Carving Out a Middle Ground: Making Race in Hawai i with Jeffrey Moniz
11 Does Multiraciality Lighten? Me-Too Ethnicity and the Whiteness Trap
12 It s Not That Simple: Multiraciality, Models, and Social Hierarchy with Ingrid Dineen-Wimberly
13 Obama Nation? Race, Multiraciality, and American Identity
Suggested Reading
Figures and Tables
I.1. Statue of W. E. B. Du Bois on the campus of Fisk University. Photo by DeAundra Jenkins-Holder. Courtesy of Fisk University.
1.1. Walter White and Poppy Cannon. Courtesy of Ebony magazine.
6.1. Family tree of humankind. From A. H. Keane, Ethnology (1901).
8.1. W. E. B. Du Bois in Sisters Chapel, Spelman College, February 1938. Courtesy of Special Collections and Archives, W. E. B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
8.2. A darkened, stylized view of W. E. B. Du Bois. Portrait by Laura Wheeler Waring. Courtesy of Special Collections and Archives, W. E. B. Du Bois Library, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
8.3. A view of W. E. B. Du Bois darkened for the cover of an important biography of the great man. Portrait by Addison N. Scurlock. Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
8.4. Jean Toomer, herald of the Harlem Renaissance, ca. 1934. From the Marjorie Toomer Collection. Copyright Estate of Marjorie Content. Courtesy of the National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.
8.5. Abolitionist Frederick Douglass. Photo by Mathew Brady Studio. Courtesy of Ronald L. Harris.
10.1. Conceptualizing Midaltern Space
10.2. Local Identity Models
10.3. Local Identity Model Illustrating the Fluidity of an Individual s Identity
12.1. US Senator Blanche K. Bruce of Mississippi. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
12.2. Mary Church Terrell, founder of the National Association of Colored Women. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
12.3. Belle da Costa Greene. Courtesy of the Morgan Library.
12.4. Governor P. B. S. Pinchback of Louisiana. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.
12.5. Paramount chief John Ross of the Cherokee Nation. Courtesy of the J. B. Milan Collection, Oklahoma Historical Society Research Division.
13.1. Abolitionist Robert Purvis. Courtesy of the Simon Gratz Collection, Image no. 2137, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
13.2. Novelist Charles W. Chesnutt. Courtesy of the Cleveland Public Library.
13.3. Vice President Charles Curtis. Courtesy of the Kansas State Historical Society.
13.4. Novelist and screenwriter Winnifred Eaton before she became Onoto Watanna. Courtesy of the Glenbow Museum, Calgary, image no. NA-4320-2.
13.5. Hawaiian nationalist Robert Wilcox. Courtesy of the Hawaiian Historical Society.
6.1. Racial Types in Pseudoscience
9.1. Ancestry
9.2. Identity Choices of People Who Report Multiple Ancestries
10.1. Types of Midaltern Expressions in Hawai i and Racialized Identity by Worldview
As this manuscript goes to press, I find I owe debts of gratitude beyond my capacity to repay to two people. Patrick Miller has been a fellow traveler on many, many adventures over the years. He has never failed to retain his good humor while doing his best to restrain some of my rhetorical excesses. Reginald Daniel s name appears often in the notes to the pages that follow, but he deserves special mention, for he has been a boon companion and is the single person to whom my thinking about race owes the greatest debt.
At the University of Notre Dame Press, Chuck Van Hof showed enthusiasm for the project from the start. He and his colleagues Stephen Little, Rebecca DeBoer, and Sheila Berg have done a more than professional job of editing. I am grateful for both. Among those he recruited to help me make this book better are Roger Daniels, the dean of American immigration historians, and Maria Diedrich, the foremost African Americanist in Europe. Each encouraged my work and helped me make key improvements to the manuscript.
I would not have come to many of the understandings that appear in these pages were it not for three institutions where I have done time. The people at Garfield High School in Seattle and the Central District around it nurtured me as a youth and taught me more about the way race works in America than any other single source. The people of Brigham Young University-Hawai i and the towns of La ie, Kahuku, and Kane ohe helped me understand that identities are not only constructed, but complex and variable. The University of California, Santa Barbara, gave me a place to work, space to pursue my ideas, and colleagues to encourage me. I am especially grateful to librarians at these institutions, among them Riley Moffett, Barbara Lansdon, Sherri Barnes, and Gary Colmenar.
DeAundra Jenkins-Holder of Fisk University went far out of her way to take a photo of the statue of W. E. B. Du Bois that stands on her campus. Special thanks are due to Francisco Beltran and Laura Hooton, whose generous, skillful, and persistent research on another project freed me to complete this one.
For the past couple of decades I have enjoyed the company of the Hui-an endless stream of brilliant students who have taught me much and who never failed to provide entertainment as they went about their own projects. My wife, Anna Lucky Louise Spickard, has been a constant solace and source of intellectual engagement. My other debts are marked in the notes. By the time you reach the end of the book, you will likely understand why it is dedicated to Winthrop Jordan.
In 1903, W. E. B. Du Bois famously foretold that the problem of the Twentieth Century is the problem of the color-line,-the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea. 1 Surely he was correct. No problem more deeply troubled the American people, 2 throughout the century that he was then entering and we have just left, than race, for which Du Bois chose the metaphor, the color-line. Never just a matter of Black and White, race in all its pain and complexity was a problem for America throughout the twentieth century-from Jim Crow segregation to the orgy of lynching that spasmed across the decades; from attempts to wipe out Native peoples by dismantling Indian reservations in the 1920s to the racialized immigration laws of that same decade; from World War II race riots to the incarceration of the entire Japanese American people; from the midcentury fight for civil rights for African Americans to similar movements for the rights of Latinos, Native Americans, and others; from racial divides in opportunity and access to life s good things (even physical safety) that persisted into the twenty-first century to the racialized anti-immigrant, anti-Mexican, and anti-Muslim movements of our own generation. 3
Du Bois lived ninety-five years. He published dozens of books, scores of pamphlets, and hundreds of articles. He wrote on many topics, but race was always at the core of his concern. I want to focus in this prefatory essay on three themes that seem to me to have been especially central to Du Bois s theoretical thinking about race. 4

Fig. I.1. Statue of W. E. B. Du Bois on the campus of Fisk University. Photo by DeAundra Jenkins-Holder. Courtesy of Fisk University.
The first was a tension between seeing race as a biological essence and understanding it as a set of relationships that are constructed in t

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