Rituals of white magic
77 pages
English

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Rituals of white magic

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77 pages
English

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Description

* What are magic, spells and enchantments really? What is the difference between white, black and red magic? What are magical ceremonies for?
* What are the different ancient and modern practices, such as voodoo, shamanism, ancient Egyptian ceremonies, etc.? In this book, the author explains with great clarity the characteristics of the main magical traditions and the theoretical principles related to them: the Kabbalah, alchemy, the Rosicrucian doctrine, etc.
* What preparation must a true magician have? In this book, you will find all the exercises to strengthen the power of mental concentration and help you face the first magical operations.
* How can pentacles and talismans be made that can bring fortune and protect against negative energies? In this book, you will find the necessary explanations about the magic symbols, the moment, the colours and the most appropriate materials to reach the objective.

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Publié par
Date de parution 15 juillet 2019
Nombre de lectures 2
EAN13 9781644618127
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

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Exrait

Lucia Pavesi




Rituals of
WHITE MAGIC





EDITORIAL DE VECCHI
The author or publisher cannot be held responsible for the information (formulas, recipes, techniques, etc.) contained in the text, even though the utmost care has been taken in the writing of this work. In the case of specific - often unique - problems of each particular reader, it is advisable to consult a qualified person to obtain the most complete, accurate and up-to-date information possible. EDITORIAL DE VECCHI, S. A. U.
© Editorial De Vecchi, S. A. 2019
© [2019] Confidential Concepts International Ltd., Ireland
Subsidiary company of Confidential Concepts Inc, USA
ISBN: 978-1-64461-812-7
The current Penal Code provides: “Anyone who, for profit and to the detriment of a third party, reproduces, plagiarizes, distributes or publicly communicates, in whole or in part, a literary, artistic or scientific work, or its transformation, interpretation or artistic performance fixed in any medium or communicated by any means, without the authorization of the holders of the corresponding intellectual property rights or their assigns, shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of six months to two years or a fine of six to twenty-four months. The same penalty shall be imposed on anyone who intentionally imports, exports or stores copies of such works or productions or performances without the said authorization.
Table of contents
INTRODUCTION
Part One THE MAGIC DIMENSION: LEXICON, HISTORY AND ACCESS ROUTES
Definition of the term magic
The characteristics of the magician
The initiation
The approach to magic: ideological perspectives
Some Facts about the History of Magic
From Egyptian Culture to Kabbalah
From Celtic culture to Renaissance
From the Enlightenment to the present day
The relationship between magic and divinity
Magic and religion in ancient Egypt
Voodoo
The magic of the Rosicrucians
Magic and spirits
A small reflection
Part Two THE PRACTICE OF MAGIC
Altered states of consciousness
Singing as a method of suggestion
Yoga
Alternative methods
Concentration exercises: a practical example
Symbolism as a means of expression
The Kabbalistic Symbolic System
Pentacles and talismans
The amulets and the fortune bearers
Final Reflection
Ceremonial magic
Place, objects and clothing
Essential accessories: choice and symbology
The magic name
Rituals
Love Ceremonies
Notes
INTRODUCTION
Before beginning to travel through a foreign country, and in order to have the possibility to understand in depth the customs, it is necessary to know, at least in a partial way, the language that is spoken in that place, paying special attention to the meanings of the expressions and their respective intonations. Otherwise, we run the risk of limiting our knowledge to a very superficial level or, in the worst case, we risk misinterpreting the reality with which we come into contact.
Magic can also be considered an unknown territory that we must explore. Undoubtedly it is a vast country, mysterious and fascinating but for whose visit and understanding it is necessary to prepare and provide the necessary instruments.
In this case, the preparation must be spiritual and intellectual because it is necessary to prepare the spirit to receive and at the same time to learn all the meanings of the words and expressions of the different magic rituals so that we are able to recognize and denounce the improper uses. The work of preparation is a long work and sometimes also complicated; learning respect for a world, for an unknown culture and difficult to know implies the effort of all one’s being. We must never be discouraged: with patience and goodwill we can go very far. The prize is assured and surpasses the best hopes.
Part One THE MAGIC DIMENSION: LEXICON, HISTORY AND ACCESS ROUTES


The drawn veil represents the appearance of the world that hides the truth that can only be revealed at the end of an exciting investigation.
Definition of the term magic
For many centuries, the word magic has been part of the common language, appearing in many expressions of remote origin that attest to the interest shown by all societies for these practices. I am convinced that everyone has an idea about its meaning, although it may not be based on the most accurate definition of the word.
Many people will be inclined to define as magical all phenomena that happen without a clear logical explanation or that are characterized in a way that makes you immediately think of the supernatural. In everyday language there are very frequent phrases such as “it has appeared at the precise moment, as if by magic “, “I would like to have a magic wand to get out of this situation”, “it is a magical moment that will hardly be repeated”, “you can breathe magical air in this place”, and so on. These are all phrases that many people have uttered or have surely heard a lot of times; these phrases give us a fairly accurate idea of the meaning and role commonly attributed to magic.

The most superstitious people pronounce this word with great caution so as not to distort its meaning, whose implications are still unknown to us and always arouse a reverential fear. That is why, more than once, in the course of a conversation that may take these directions, someone changes the subject abruptly saying, “it is better not to talk about these things; it can bring us bad luck”.
Much more different is the definition given by those who deal with or are interested in the paranormal or the esoteric, who prefer to approach the subject under the premise that magic is a discipline that helps to come into contact with astral forces. Although there is some truth to each of the definitions we have just seen, the complexity and subtlety of the latter require a much more extensive and detailed explanation.
Since I want to deal with the subject in a serious and profound way, I cannot be content to mention these ideas in a vague way, but I must try to sketch out a much more precise definition that will help us to understand this phenomenon in all its complexity.
One of the most important magicians of our time, Allister Crowley, whom I will quote often throughout this book, defined magic as the “art of bringing about change in accordance with the will. Each change can be obtained by applying the most suitable grade and species of force, in the most suitable way and through the most suitable means directed towards the most suitable object”.
Thus, for this scholar, magic is a form of knowledge that, moreover, is not abstract nor is it an end in itself but tries to project itself towards the attainment of a concrete end. In other words, we can affirm in more modern terms that magic is an operative knowledge of reality .
Anyway, although this definition is true, in my opinion, it is totally insufficient because it does not differentiate the magic of other completely different disciplines, such as, for example, science, because the latter, in fact, also teaches how to use the appropriate instruments to obtain the desired effects.
What differentiates the two disciplines is essentially the method used. While science constantly aspires to an impersonal and objective point of view, magic is based precisely on the personal and subjective experiences of those who practice it.
I would like to clarify this concept as much as possible because it seems fundamental to me for the correct understanding of the whole book.
When a scientist discovers one of the many laws governing nature, he strives to describe it in a universal way that can be applied in all cases. Above all, it is concerned with ensuring that the process that has led to the discovery is repeatable by all those people who, knowing the appropriate scientific method, want to verify the value. In this way, an American scientist seeking to build a radar will use the same formulas and the same basic principles that have guided the work of a Russian or Japanese colleague of his. This is because, in the specific case, the functioning of the radar depends on factors that do not change depending on the place, time and human intervention, i.e. that it is based on universal principles.
Another similar example is formed by the law that regulates the movement of falling weights, which Galileo Galilei and other physicists studied at the dawn of modern science.
This law was established after long and patient sessions of observation of the movement of various objects of various shapes and weights that were dropped on planes of various inclinations and of different length.
In this way, the times of fall and the length travelled were measured and compared; this led to the drafting of mathematical formulas that related them, describing the phenomenon in the totality of its factors. These formulas continue to be valid today, although no one is no longer observing the fall of objects: the principles that regulate the phenomenon are somehow innate in the natural phenomenon itself and, as everyone knows, they were true even before anyone discovered them.
Unlike what we have just seen, the magician does not behave in any case like a scientist, but tries to produce extraordinary events or tries to change different realities in a substantial way with a methodology based on the traditional knowledge of his people and his own personal experience.
For this reason, a sorcerer from Mexico who wants to invoke rain to fall on the arid meadows of his tribe will use formulas and operations very different from those that a Chinese or African magician would use.
I would also like to point out that all events that are really magical are never repeated, either qualitatively or quantitatively, by the same operator, because they depend on various physical and psychological factors. It is still less possible that another magician will be able to reproduce them exactly.
In other words, while scientific laws refer to nature itself (and are, therefore, also called “natural laws”), magical principles are based on the interaction between the magician himself and nature.
As an aside, it is precisely because of this radical difference that official science observes magic and other collateral disciplines with such suspicion and sufficiency.
However, despite the subjective essence of the magical event, it is true that magic can be taught and can be learned, if we stick to the existence of traditions and magical practices spread in a more or less extensive way and in addition some fundamental traces of magic are found in almost all the cultures of the earth.
But each magician, after having initiated his own path of knowledge, must develop on his own the different techniques which he has learned and make them his own in order to take flight; otherwise, everything he has learned will have no validity. It is precisely part of the essence of magic itself to involve not only the intelligence of the adepts, but also a whole series of other aspects of the personality, among which the will stands out in a particular way, which is the motor necessary to make magical knowledge real. The training of the will constitutes an essential part of the preparation and maintenance of the forces of each magician, together with the study and accumulation of theoretical knowledge.
I don’t want to dwell on this elementary concept because later on, we will find all the explanations and, above all, the most suitable exercises to strengthen the mind and the will (see the second par t of the book ). Here it will be enough to specify that it must be a constant and serious training, oriented to internalize the personal knowledge of each one. Those who wish to access the magic dimension must behave as if they were professional sportsmen and women, accustomed to carrying out all the exercises of their speciality with great naturalness as if it were something that belonged to their own essence, and not bound by external orders or demands, which only provoke mechanical attitudes.
Also from this point of view, the difference between the magician and the scientist is very profound: the latter, in fact, does not really have to do preparatory work on himself, but only has to study and learn methods, criteria, techniques and notions. The work required of those who wish to learn magic, on the other hand, provides the adept who does not get lost along the way with remarkable inner growth, comparable to that obtained with other mental or mystical disciplines, such as yoga, for example.
In this sense, it can be said that magic takes place in the magician himself and that its external manifestations are nothing more than emanations of this first and fundamental “work” carried out in the magician’s personality. In order to complete this process of learning and initiation, magic, as it is necessary to face now the discourse that refers to the so-called “colour” of magic.
In fact, it is commonly heard that it can be white, pink or black magic as if the discipline had three different natures. Actually, magic is unique and has no colours. What changes are the motifs and the content of the ceremony used: only the content “changes colour”. The expression white magic is intended to define all practices with good aims (purification, ceremonies of health, serenity, approaching people, work, welfare, etc.). The expression “red magic” refers mainly to rituals of love and passion, which are often of sexual background (bonds, sexual strengthening, etc.).
The expression black magic has very delicate aspects and deserves a separate treatment. Too often, when one hears about black magic, the mind imagines rituals of satanic origin, characterized by wild and bloody acts. At best, black magic is thought of as the arena in which rituals aimed at provoking evil are performed on someone (evil eye, spells, spells with the intention of dividing, destroying and even killing someone). According to this point of view, black magic would only be exercised by evil people and deprived of any kind of scruples.
However, the reality is not exactly like this: even the most spiritually elevated magician is obliged to perform “black” rituals, precisely to combat and destroy negative operations produced in the same way. To explain ourselves better, we can use as an example the principle on which homeopathic medicine is based: to cure a disease, it is necessary to provoke in the organism the symptoms of the disease itself.


Mercury next to the bonfire used for alchemical operations; the image symbolizes the knowledge that works on the person to refine it.
However, it must be clear that working with black magic in a positive way is extremely complicated and requires a lot of experience, so it is best to refrain from such practices. It is superfluous to say that people who, on the other hand, wish to devote themselves to this discipline in order to act in a negative sense, that is, to provoke evil, will have to pay a very high price, and not only in relation to their own conscience but even from a physical point of view.
In fact, in these cases, the energy that moves is so intense and dangerous that it is difficult to control it since the so-called return wave has caused enormous misfortune in many cases. Unquestionably, the methods adopted by these rituals are very powerful and effective; so, if anyone wanted to try them, the damages that would be produced would be such and so many that they would make even the most inconsiderate of men give up. After having brought to light, until now, all the outstanding aspects of the matter, I can define magic as a profound form of operative knowledge of the interactions between nature and subject, completely realized in the person who practices it.
In reading this definition, one may come to believe that magic is a very compromising discipline reserved only for a few adepts or higher spirits. Certainly, this is true for those who claim to make magic their raison d’être, who wish to undertake a professional activity and reach the highest levels of knowledge and power. Surely, some of the people who read this book will achieve it after a hard and awfully long initiatory path, but most of the readers will know how to be satisfied with more modest results, although not less interesting. On the other hand, many are born with a passion for skiing or football, but not everyone can or wants to sacrifice so much and reach the levels of a true champion.
The characteristics of the magician
The fundamental characteristics that a person who wishes to practice magic on a professional level must own are, in the first place, of strictly moral order. In addition, as we have already announced, a strong will, extreme discipline, rapid intelligence and humility are needed. All these qualities will allow the interested person to engage in a detailed and profound study of magical practices.
Even for amateurs, who can limit their studies, the exercise of a very correct morality is indispensable.
The first thing the initiate must do is to undertake serious work on himself. Using the most appropriate techniques, he will have to start a descent to the deepest part of himself, digging into the meanders of his own psyche in order to free himself from the weight of the taboo and all those traumas that could be too heavy a burden for him.
Only by knowing oneself and discovering one’s own qualities and abilities as well as one’s own defects and limitations, will one be able to manage each situation with complete security.
It is obviously not a simple thing, but it is indispensable. It’s a bit like “waking the sleeping dragon”: no one can know its intimate nature beforehand and, above all, no one is able to value one’s own moral force before it is put to the test.

Many people lead a respectable and correct life, but only because destiny has never put them to the test. If they had seen themselves in some trance of difficult solution it is very possible that they would not criticize so harshly those people who by bad luck or inexperience have committed errors. Let us also remember that learning to understand the people around us, knowing how to accept and listen, is the best way to start for those who want to devote themselves to magic.
But first of all, I would like it to be clear that it is essential to know each other well. Those who, for example, take seriously the practice of meditation - which, as we shall see, is one of the indispensable exercises for the initiation of the magician - may come face to face with all their hidden passions. In time, you will become more clearly aware of all your faults and will then be able to find the best way to improve yourself.
In any case, both initiates and those who are simply curious about the matter must be very clear about what the objective is (i.e., what you want to obtain), and only this, which makes any magic practice beneficial or malefic.
While working, the magician must forget all selfish desires, unless he does not want what he wants to be accomplished and wants negative forces to be unleashed, which he will hardly be able to master. If the intentions are not clean, the results of each magical practice can be terrible, especially for those who practice it.
The person who remains enslaved by his own instincts, negative prejudices and social conventions, can never truly get to know magic.
It is necessary to learn to have truth and justice as the only points of reference, without feeling infallible or unique on the other hand. Presumption and arrogance have nothing to share with the higher spirit that the magician must own.
But magic is above all, as I have already repeated, profound knowledge of reality, both visible and invisible. No one can be considered a sorcerer just because he knows some rules or because he has a certain idea of some more or less effective rituals.
I conclude by recalling that to arrive at magical knowledge it is necessary to possess four fundamental qualities: intelligence illuminated by study, intellectual audacity, inflexible will and discretion.
To know, to dare, to desire and to be silent are the four verbs that describe, with a formula easy to remember, the behaviour that must be maintained at all times and in all places in order to practice magic in the most correct way possible. We must not believe that the amateur must correspond perfectly, right from the start, to this model of behaviour: to begin with, it is only necessary to be willing to work hard and constantly. If we proclaim laziness and negligence, we will be able to fortify and mould our personality in such a way that our attitude obeys the four rules of behaviour.


The image depicts a dragon inside a cavern, the target of a knight. The cavern symbolizes the heart of man and the dragon passions that have to be overcome.
The initiation
In no human society, however archaic it may seem to us, can any person become a magician from one day to the next, but a long and tiring learning process is foreseen, during which the aspirant has to be attended to by a prepared teacher who guides him at all times supervising his progress and errors.
This process causes such a radical change in personality that primitive civilizations saw in it the death of the aspirant, the dismemberment of his body, and its reconstitution by the work of the spirits.
Without going so far, I also recommend undertaking this process of renewal through a series of preliminary exercises, which should be conducted before starting the real course. The first series of exercises has precisely the purpose of reinforcing the will. Perhaps someone might find this advice ridiculous, mistakenly thinking that desire is a spontaneous action and therefore easy to carry out.
Certainly, it is quite easy to say: “I want a car and as I have the necessary money, I am going to buy it right now”. We want to do it; we have the means to do it: nothing seems easier to us. But let’s try to imagine what we would have to do if, for example, we did not have all the money we needed.
To begin with, we would have two possibilities: either we give up our dream or we try to save a little more to reach our goal. In both cases, we would have to make some sacrifices. And we would achieve it only if our desire were firm, that is if our will could overcome any fatigue. But how is it possible to learn to desire?
Laziness and forgetfulness are sworn enemies of the will and are therefore the first obstacles to be removed.
We must bear in mind that the more we worry about our goal, the more we will accumulate in ourselves the necessary forces to achieve it.
On the contrary, those practices that appear to be more insignificant and may seem strange and far from what we have set ourselves, are very important; the essential thing is to carry them forward with perseverance and faith. Only in this way do they become very important instruments, because they educate, exercise and direct the will.
Furthermore, it is necessary to underline the fact that to be able to carry out an action, it is indispensable to believe that this certainty can be immediately transformed into action. To venture into the magical world, we must at once impose simple and orderly rules of life, obviously always respecting our natural biorhythms and our daily requirements. These are the rules that must always be followed:
•   We should get used to getting up every day at the same time and start the day with this little breathing exercise:
—   relaxed, in a supine position and keeping your eyes closed, breathe in slowly through your nose, trying to hold your breath for a few seconds and then breathe out through your mouth, striving to lower the diaphragm as far as possible;
—   hold your breath for a few moments and repeat the operation five times;
—   stand up and, whatever the weather, open the window;
—   stand upright and bring your right foot closer until it touches your left calf (if you are left-handed, do the exercise in reverse order);
—   raise your arms above your head, so that the palms of your hands touch; in this way, we will have formed a kind of catalytic antenna that will put us in direct contact with the forces of nature; after a few moments we will lower our arms and begin our journey.


Ordination of a knight by the king holding the star of David in his left hand. The image symbolizes the initiation of the adept by the master.
•   We must be careful and clean, dress in an orderly manner and maintain an educated behaviour in every situation.
•   Each day we have to devote at least a quarter of an hour to ourselves, isolating ourselves in a suitable place so that we can carry out the exercises of concentration and meditation which will be illustrated later on (see the section “ Exercises of concentration: a practical example ”).
•   It is advisable to keep a kind of diary in which we will write down with great care our thoughts, our dreams, the small or big changes that we will be able to notice in ourselves, the mistakes we have made and our victories.
•   At night, before going to sleep, we have to do again the breathing exercise described above and then make an effort to mentally review everything that has happened during our day in a prominent way, trying to judge the actions carried out with impartiality.
•   We have to be very discreet (this is a very important rule): we have to force ourselves not to talk to anyone about what we are doing and I am convinced that for many people this will be a remarkable challenge but indispensable and enriching.
•   Over time, we will also have to change our behaviour with the people we meet, trying to be cordial and respectful to everyone, without letting ourselves be too absorbed by the passions of others. The great magician is the one who knows how to understand each situation without letting himself be carried away by dangerous sentimentalisms that would not allow him to maintain the necessary distance and the mental lucidity indispensable to work well.
•   Finally, we must find a personal way to practice these exercises. The repetition of any action that we are not accustomed to doing and that may bother us a little will be a training of the will. We could, for example, drink a glass of water every morning before getting up (if we are among those who drink too little), do gymnastics if we are lazy, and so on. The essential thing is that we persevere and that we remember in every moment that with this system we are building our “magic will”.
The approach to magic: ideological perspectives
The study of magical phenomena can be approached from very varied points of view: I am convinced that it is useful to try to know at least some of them. The most important study perspectives are fourfold:
—   the perspective of the magician, i.e. that of the adept at magic, who studies traditional techniques and deepens them through his professional experience;
—   the perspective of the parapsychologist, who confronts magical phenomena from the scientific point of view, as he would do for any other aspect of nature, and would try to reproduce them in the laboratory;
—   the perspective of the historian, who finds himself - whatever period he is interested in - with an impressive number of magical or at least extraordinary phenomena; he must refer to them as historical facts and possibly make a judgement in relation to them;
—   the perspective of the anthropologist, who studies primitive populations; he is also faced with an enormous number of magical traditions and rituals that he must describe and understand.
In general, the four points of view on this list are often adopted by people who are very different in terms of training and culture and who have difficulty collaborating with each other, so it is unfortunately difficult to find a single point of view.

A satisfactory synthesis of the various points of view that allows a deepening of the knowledge of the true nature of magic. However, although difficult, this research is not entirely impossible: in fact, some scientists have begun to adopt this multidisciplinary method. I quote, by way of example, the American psychologist and parapsychologist Charles T. Tart (born in 1937) who states: “We will have to develop a psychology of mediation that has meaning for a medium, a phenomenology of magic that makes a sorcerer say: “by framing these facts in your schemes, we will have resolved many paradoxes inherent in our field”. It is true that to develop this phenomenology we cannot be satisfied with the “aseptic” parapsychology that we have cultivated until now”.
Unfortunately, these ideas are still rare. The majority of scientific communities have been pigeonholed in religious sentiment reductive rationalism that leads them to label in a very derogatory way as superstition everything that is inexplicable for science and they judge it antiquated insofar as it moves away from modern European thought.
For this reason, Western civilized cultures consider all those who practice magic as tricksters. In Eastern cultures, on the other hand, these people are esteemed and respected, just as they were in primitive civilizations. Because of this, magical phenomenology encounters much more fertile ground when it looks closely at the thinking of traditional civilizations.
That is why, throughout the book, I will keep in mind, in addition to Western magical traditions, those aspects of archaic and Eastern traditions, to allow a broader and deeper overview.
However, I would like to stress at the outset that, on the basis of an examination of all these traditions, there are certain elements, more or less relevant, which are common to all of them:
—   the relationship between magic, official religion and the religious sentiment is very important;
—   the magician’s inspiration is regarded as coming from divinity, so he works in the name of God and the gods;
—   there is a direct relationship between magic and beliefs in the underworld, inasmuch as the spirits are regarded as the servants of the magician;
—   in magical practices altered states of consciousness and related techniques are contemplated and resorted to;
—   great value is attached to symbolism;
—   magic possesses its own ceremonial;
—   prodigies are expected as a result of magical operations.
Some Facts about the History of Magic
If I were to expound the argument in its entirety, I could not forget any religious tradition, any ancient chronicle, or any culture, since all the peoples of the Earth, at any time, have practised and studied magic. A story of these proportions, however, is impossible to conduct in this book. Therefore, limiting this brief historical chronicle to the most outstanding moments of the universal magical tradition, I will also avoid dwelling on all those ancient legends that consider magic as a revealed gift of divine or demonic origin: since I have preferred to delve deeper into this subject in the chapter “ The relationship between magic and divinity ”.
From Egyptian Culture to Kabbalah
The origin of magic as such is unknown and probably impossible to know since it is lost in the most remote past. Although there are many theories about the magical practices of primitive societies, the first news we have seem to point out that it was the ancient Egyptians who first transmitted descriptions of magical rituals. In fact, one of the oldest collections that have reached us is the Book of the Dead .
Among these people, magical practices were reserved exclusively for the pharaohs, who were consented to by the people and centred above all on the moment of their transfer from earthly life to eternal life.

The body of the Pharaoh was washed and smeared with precious perfumed oils; from the corpse the heart and the viscera were extracted, which were preserved in special urns called canopic vessels. The body then underwent the very delicate process of embalming and was wrapped in long white layers of linen. Besides all this, the jewellery and ornaments most appreciated by the dead were placed, in addition to food and drink to support the transfer. Numerous rolls of papyrus were placed next to the body on which all the praiseworthy actions that the deceased had carried out in his life had been written down so that he would be judged in an appropriate manner by the various Gods who had to welcome him.
It was also believed that the deceased had to undergo some sort of examination in order to reach the higher kingdom; for this reason, both the hypothetical questions and the most appropriate answers were written on papyrus.
All this was followed by the indispensable accompaniment of formulas and prayers recited by the great priests.
Gradually, with the passage of time, these rituals spread even among the nobles and, finally, among the ordinary people who could afford the onerous expenses involved in preparing each of the rituals.
However, beyond the funeral rituals we find a characteristic of the Egyptian religion that seems to me to be particularly significant: the gods were considered fallible; they could be flattered, blackmailed, corrupted, threatened and even dominated, just like the common mortals, so it was possible to try to know and perform the right enchantment for that purpose. The essential thing, to be able to perform the enchantment, was to know the true and secret name of the God and to know how to pronounce it correctly, with the appropriate rhythm.
Many aspects of Egyptian magic were passed on to later civilizations and esoteric traditions, such as, for example, the famous magic circle - which I will deal with in more detail later on - invented precisely by this people. The main channels of transmission of Egyptian magical culture in the western world were:
—   the Greek Pythagorean school, which studied the magical meaning of numbers;
—   the Gnostic philosophy, which was born in the centuries preceding the birth of Jesus and spread in the centuries immediately following; its followers were convinced that man had to free himself absolutely from his own materiality and had to elevate his own spirit to the maximum in order to attain the salvation of the soul. In order to obtain such elevation they used particular and secret esoteric practices;
—   the Kabbalah, that is, the Hebrew mystical-esoteric tradition;
—   the Gnostic philosophy, which was born in the centuries preceding the birth of Jesus and spread in the centuries immediately following; its followers were convinced that man had to liberate himself absolutely from his own materiality and had to elevate his own spirit to the maximum in order to attain the salvation of the soul; in order to obtain such elevation they used particular and secret esoteric practices;
—   the Kabbalah, that is the Hebrew mystical-esoteric tradition.


The struggle between matter (the lion) and spirit (the winged lioness)
The latter deserves a much more detailed and profound explanation. The first object of study of the Kabbalah is the mystical understanding of God and the creation of the universe. From this point of view it is placed on the same level as all revealed religious traditions: it would have been transmitted, in fact, by revelation of God himself to a group of angels, who in turn taught it to the first human beings (Adam, Abraham or Moses, according to the different versions). Beyond these theological and cosmological aspects, the Kabbalistic tradition also provided for the use of incantations to compel intermediate entities between God and men to obey the magician’s wishes. Solomon would have used these means for the construction of the great temple of Jerusalem.
According to tradition, this great sage and sovereign would have been the first to put the secrets of the Kabbalah into writing in the work Clavicula Salomonis (“The Clavicles of Solomonis”), a work of great complexity and hermeticism that although it is true that many scholars date from around 1400, has not ceased to be one of the fundamental texts for acquiring magical knowledge. Throughout its pages are described the rules of behaviour to be followed by the magician to the letter, the appropriate clothing for each practice, the symbols, the pentacles and seals of the spirits, the instruments of the magician and how to make them and give a series of indications about the times required by the different magic operations always based on the transit of the stars.
The Kabbalah reached its maximum development in the Middle Ages when the rabbis began to transmit it to the non-Hebrew initiates. Initiation is fundamental for the understanding of the Kabbalah which, precisely, for this reason, is also called “secret wisdom”.
Another ancient tradition that must be taken into account is that of the Celts, the ancient peoples who in the fourth century BC were spread over a vast territory ranging from Ireland to much of the German lands.
From Celtic culture to Renaissance
Another ancient tradition that must be considered is that of the Celts, the ancient peoples who in the 4th century B.C. were spread over a vast territory ranging from Ireland to much of the German lands. The conception of the world that these peoples had was extremely mystical: the world was surrounded by terrifying forces of extraordinary power that the majority of men did not know and feared. The Gods, within that tremendously diverse and complex cosmos, represented the incarnation of those forces closest to man. The Celts had no divine laws, neither written nor oral, and to come into contact with the divinities and to know their will, they entrusted themselves to particular rituals.
Their priests, called druids, had, according to tradition, remarkable magical powers: they could evoke storms, talk to animals and transform warriors into trees capable of fighting and defeating the fiercest enemy. A good part of medieval literature drank from those ancient Druidic legends which, together with Christian doctrine, gave rise to the saga of King Arthur , The Knights of the Round Table , The Magician Merlin and the mystical cycle of The Holy Grail . The latter, according to legend, is the chalice in which Joseph of Arimathea would have collected the blood of Christ when he was crucified. This sacred vessel, transported to the British Isles, would have been guarded by the Templars, among whom were Parsifal and Galaad. Diverse legends narrate mysterious disappearances, transfers, searches and reunions of the Grail; but all agree in affirming that the reunion and contemplation of the sacred chalice require absolute moral rectitude and heroic firmness against temptations: only the gentleman who possesses these qualities is worthy of the Grail and of the life-giving power of Christ Himself. But on the other hand, the unwary who ventures into the search without possessing the right qualities will have problems because for him there will only be terrible sufferings and he will suffer eternal condemnation for his sacrilegious daring. It is evident that the authors of the time tried to describe with these legends, in an allegorical way, the indispensable way to become an “initiate” in true knowledge.

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