Two Sides of a Barricade
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190 pages

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Two Sides of a Barricade argues that to construct global democracy, conflict and dissent must be taken seriously. Christian Scholl explores the political significance of the confrontations within four sites of interaction: bodies, space, communication, and law. Each site of struggle provides a different entry point to understand the influence of protester and police tactics on each other. At the same time, the four sites of struggle allow a comprehensive analysis of how the contestation of global hegemonic forces during summit protests trigger a preemptive shift in social control through increased deployment of biopolitical forms of power.

This book is freely available in an open access edition thanks to Knowledge Unlatched—an initiative that provides libraries and institutions with a centralized platform to support OA collections and from leading publishing houses and OA initiatives. Learn more at the Knowledge Unlatched website at:, and access the book online at the SUNY Open Access Repository at

1. Barricades are back

2. Global dissent: tactical trajectories

3. Understanding interaction tactically

4. Bodies that matter: the epistemology

5. “Leave them no space!” The microphysics of spatial interactions

6. Psy(c)ops, spin-doctors and the communication of dissent

7. ‘A revolt is a revolt is a revolt.’ Violence, law, and the exception

8. Back to the barricades




Publié par
Date de parution 28 décembre 2013
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781438445144
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0005€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


SUNY series, Praxis: Theory in Action

Nancy A. Naples, editor

(Dis)order and Summit Protest in Europe
Christian Scholl

Cover images © Mat Jacob/Tendance Floue and Meyer/Tendance Floue
Published by State University of New York Press, Albany
© 2012 State University of New York
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.
For information, contact State University of New York Press, Albany, NY
Production by Diane Ganeles Marketing by Fran Keneston
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Scholl, Christian, 1980–
Two sides of a barricade : (dis)order and summit protest in Europe / Christian Scholl.
p. cm. — (Praxis : theory in action)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4384-4512-0 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN 978-1-4384-4513-7 (hardcover : alk. paper)
1. Social movements—Europe—History—21st century. 2. Protest movements—Europe—History—21st century. 3. Opposition (Political science)—Europe—History—21st century. 4. Dissenters—Europe—History—21st century. I. Title.
HN377.S257 2012
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

To Saskia Poldervaart

Lenin's wager—today, in our era of postmodern relativism, more actual than ever—is that universal truth and partisanship, the gesture of taking sides, are not only not mutually exclusive, but condition each other: in a concrete situation, its universal truth can only be articulated from a thoroughly partisan position—truth is by definition one-sided.
—Slavoj Žižek, The Universal Exception
Through my teaching at the Political Science Department of the University of Amsterdam in the past years, many inspiring students have shown me again that good teaching should not follow the “banking model,” but create a context for critical dialogue and engagement. It's a shame that these activities and (sometimes slow) processes receive little care in current academia. Besides inspiring students, I have met many dear colleagues at my department and especially hope to continue my collaboration with Annette Freyberg-Inan, Eelke Heemskerk, Marlies Glasius, Maruja Bobo Remijn, Marcel Maussen, Frances Gouda, Boris Slijper, and Chris Bickerton.
From the first moment I met her, Saskia Poldervaart has remained an inspiration. Throughout my undergraduate and graduate years, she has been a source of instruction, motivation, and (productive) confusion. Her attempt to think politics (without the capital letter) from the perspective of social movements and daily life are hopefully reflected in this work. Jan Willem Duyvendak has been a rigorous supervisor and commenter of my work. He challenged me many times to push my initial analysis of summit protests further and elaborate on my critique of conventional approaches to social movements.
I am also thankful to my former colleagues at the Amsterdam School for Social Science Research—Victor Toom, Jasper Blom, Malini Sur, Silke Heumann, Nazima Kadir, and Ana Miskovska Kajevska—for discussing, disputing, and sharing with me. Laurence Cox's extensive comments as well as two anonymous reviews have been very helpful in turning my manuscript into a book. Thanks also here to the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, who funded my research project for four years, and to Nancy Naples, Beth Bouloukos, and Diane Ganeles from State University of New York Press for their excellent cooperation.
Transnational networks and weak ties have again been proven to work. My work has greatly benefited from the theoretical insights and critical eyes of Ron Eyerman, Michael Mann, Jeff Goodwin, Doug McAdam, Dieter Rucht, and Rosanne Rutten, who commented on my work in various phases. They all have enriched my conceptual thinking and my ability to relate my own findings to various theoretical discussions. Next to these incidental but intensive encounters, throughout the past years, I have enjoyed regular activist-intellectual contact. AK Thompson, Emma Dowling, Amory Starr, Luis Fernandez, Marianne Maeckelbergh, Matthias Monroy, and Tadzio Mueller have all helped me to shape these ideas through constant debate, reflection, and the reading of each other's work. Susan Stocker has been the most impressive editor I can imagine. It is tempting to say that, if this is a good read at all, it's her fault.
Special thanks go to my family. Although my parents keep wondering where my activist engagement comes from, they should know better. They continue to be an inspiration as critics, pedagogues, and humans. And if anyone is responsible for me ever finishing this book, it is Joanna; her support and good energy goes without comparison.
Cooperation with activist groups has been pivotal for this research. I am especially indebted to the Gipfelsoli Infogruppe. Their extensive archive and expertise has been of great value. I will always remember the passion for historical detail of the group around Globalinfo, as well as the always friendly assistance of the Fort van Sjakoo bookshop in finding the weirdest book titles. Keep up the great work! Mentioning a few names surely does not really tell how indebted I am to all of you out there on the barricades. For all those not mentioned here, remember, identification means control …
Abbreviations ASEM summit Asia Europe Meeting ATTAC Association pour la Taxation des Transactions financières pour l'Aide aux Citoyennes et citoyens (Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens) BAO Kavala Besondere Aufbauorganisation Kavala (special police department for the 2007 G8 in Germany) BND Bundesnachrichtendienst (foreign intelligence agency of Germany) CIRCA Clandestine Insurgent Rebel Clown Army CN gas Phenacyl chloride. Used as a crowd control agent. CS gas o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile. Used as a crowd control agent. DIGOS Divisione Investigazioni Generali e Operazioni Speciali (Italian Division of General Investigations and Special Operations) EGF European Gendarmerie Forces (EUROGENDFOR) EU European Union EU-SEC Coordinating National Research Programs on Security during Major Events EZLN Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (Zapatista Army of National Liberation) FBI US Federal Bureau of Investigation FTAA The Free Trade Area of the Americas G7 The Group of Seven (France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK, Canada, and US) G8 The Group of Eight (G7 plus Russia) G20 The Group of Twenty (The world's 20 largest national economies) GDP Gewerkschaft der Polizei (Trade Union of the Police in Germany) GDR German Democratic Republic GPS Global Positioning System IMF International Monetary Fund Indymedia Independent alternative media network INPEG Iniciativa Proti Ekonomické Globalisaci (Initiative Against Economic Globalization) IPO International Permanent Observatory on Security during Major Events J18 The London Global Carnival Against Capitalism (18 June 1999) to coincide with the 25th G8 Summit in Cologne, Germany MST Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (Landless Workers' Movement) N30 Protests around the WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle, Washington (30 November 30 1999) NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NGO Nongovernmental organization OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries PGA Peoples' Global Action RAF Rote Armee Fraktion (Red Army Fraction) RTS Reclaim The Streets S26 Protests against the IMF/WB 55th Summit in Prague, Czech Republic (26 September 2000) SECON Security Conference SIM card Subscriber Identity Module card UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNICRI United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute US United States WB World Bank WSF World Social Forum WTO World Trade Organization ZDF Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (German public TV station)

Barricades Are Back
An event can be turned around, repressed, co-opted, betrayed, but there still is something there that cannot be outdated. Only renegades would say: it's outdated. But even if the event is ancient, it can never be outdated: it is an opening to the possible. It goes as much inside individuals as in the depths of society.
—Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, “May 68 did not take place”
June 19th 2001. We had finally reached Genoa. After getting the few things we brought with us to the Carlini Stadium, which had transformed into a busy and crowded sleeping and convergence space, we enter a joyful parade for open borders and freedom of movement. There is music and chants everywhere, masses of bodies, and riot police in full gear who remain at a certain distance. I briefly ponder whether it will be the same the day after. June 20th is the day scheduled for direct actions against the G8. Protest groups had announced a symbolic attack against the red zone that enclosed the G8 summit meeting. The next morning my whole body feels excited. Everywhere around me people prepare themselves for one of the marches by padding up their bodies with foam, old tires, and other creative materials. It takes a while before the march can start. We are many thousands and the hot sun heats up bodies under the protective gea

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