Lire l’autre dans l’Europe des Lumières

Lire l’autre dans l’Europe des Lumières

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171 pages

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Recueil des contributions d'un colloque organisé à Wittenberg sur les modes de lecture dans l'Europe du XVIIIe siècle et en particulier sur l'interculturalité du savoir. Réflexions sur la traduction, l'impression et la lecture appartenant à une culture étrangère durant cette période.


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Date de parution 01 août 2017
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9782367812304
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Lire l’autre dans l’Europe des Lumières Reading the Other in Enlightenment Europe Andréa Gagnoud et Thomas Bremer (éd.)
DOI : 10.4000/books.pulm.1435 Éditeur : Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée Année d'édition : 2007 Date de mise en ligne : 1 août 2017 Collection : Collection des littératures ISBN électronique : 9782367812304
http://books.openedition.org
Édition imprimée ISBN : 9782842697716 Nombre de pages : 171
Référence électronique GAGNOUD, Andréa (dir.) ; BREMER, Thomas (dir.).Lire l’autre dans l’Europe des Lumières. Nouvelle édition [en ligne]. Montpellier : Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2007 (généré le 24 août 2017). Disponible sur Internet : . ISBN : 9782367812304. DOI : 10.4000/books.pulm.1435.
Ce document a été généré automatiquement le 24 août 2017. Il est issu d'une numérisation par reconnaissance optique de caractères.
© Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée, 2007 Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540
Recueil des contributions d'un colloque organisé à Wittenberg sur les modes de lecture dans e l'Europe du XVIII siècle et en particulier sur l'interculturalité du savoir. Réflexions sur la traduction, l'impression et la lecture appartenant à une culture étrangère durant cette période.
SOMMAIRE
Introduction (en anglais) Thomas Bremer
Introduction (en français)
Boswell Reading Boswell: a Chapter in Autobiographical Misconstruction Allan Ingram
Reading as Ideology: Robinson Crusoe, Spiritual Autobiography and the Bible Stuart Sim 1 Introduction 2 Life as Narrative: Spiritual Autobiography 3 Life as Narrative:Robinson Crusoe 4 Reading Your Fate: The Bible And the Conversion Experience inRobinson Crusoe 5 Conclusion: The Ideology of Reading
Am falschen Ort? German Printers and Booksellers in 18th Century London Graham Jefcoate 1 Introduction 2 Why a German Press in Eighteenth-Century London? 3 The Pietist Connection 4 The Main Phases of German Book Trade Activity 5 A Market for German Books? 6 Diversification: Haberkorn and Gussen's Programme after 1750-51 7 Innovation and Diversification 8 Conclusions
Les lecteurs de Courlande face à une revue éclairée : laMitauische Monatsschrift Anne Sommerlat 1 Le rédacteur de la revue, Karl August Kütner 2 Objectif, réalisation et lecture de la revue 3 Une revue vouée à l'échec ?
e Lsiècle : collections, lectures, médiationsire des romans français dans l'espace allemand du XVIII Nathalie Ferrand 1 Trois bibliothèques privées
e Lire les philosophes français dans l’Italie de la seconde moitié du XVIII siècle Sabine Schwarze 1 Diffusion et édition des livres français 2 Lecture des livres français : les problèmes linguistiques 3 Les traductions italiennes des philosophes français
e Les Portugais lisent l’Europe : panorama des traductions au Portugal au XVIII siècle Claude Maffre
1 Le règne de Jean V : un bilan décevant 2 Après 1750 : un bilan contrasté 3 Le poids de la censure
Rupture et déconstruction des codes de lecture du roman espagnol : le cas du Fray Gerundio de José Francisco Isla (1703-1781) Martina Bender
Voltaire, Reading. TheCorpus des notes marginalesand Voltaire’s Annotations to his Books on Spain, Portugal and Latin America Thomas Bremer 1 A Theory of Marginalia 2 Voltaire’s Marginalia 3 Voltaire’s Marginalia in Books on Spain and Portugal 4 Voltaire’s Reading on Latin America 5 Conclusion
Abstracts/Résumés
Auteurs
Contributors
Introduction (en anglais)
Thomas Bremer
Reading in the age of Enlightenment may be regarded as a revolution of the media with an important (if not a complete) change within the sys tem of knowledge, the literary market, its agents, motivations and appearances. The aspect of quantity is only the most obvious part of it. As we have already pointed out in the introduction to the first volume of the papers read at the CIRBEL conference in Wittenberg on “Reading in Enlightenment Europe”, a fact which can be observed all over Europe, is the increasing number of printers, books ellers, and publishers, as well as a new structure of readers. This “new readership” included persons who had been removed from nearly any kind of intellectual life, as for example domestic servants. In the same period the leading European booksellers (of which Giles Barber listed a total of 34 in the mid eighteenth-century) acted on an ever increasing inte rnational level. The Société Typographiqueof Neuchâtel produced 500 editions on its four printing presses in 20 years and today still holds a well-preserved correspondence of around 250,000 letters (Darnton, 1979). A commercial circulating library like Johan Bell's “British Library” claimed to house 10,000 volumes in 1771, 31,000 in 1776, 50,000 in 1778 and 150,000 in 1793 (Raven, 1996: 181),1 and within the “library revolution in eighteenthcen tury England” (Raven), the twenty circulating libraries operating only in London in 1 760 had increased to more than 200 nationwide by 1800.2The increase in the number of reviews — of titles as well as copies — is a well-known fact. For the French bookmarket, Jac k Censer shows the enormous speed with which this process occurred; the number of periodicals available to the reading public in France, that lasted three or more years, increased from 15 in 1745 to 37 in 1765 and to 82 in 1785.3And as far as the German language library market is concerned, figures in recent research indicate similar developments: in 1740, 11 44 new books were published, against 2569 in 1800, 38.54% being in Latin in 1740, agains t only 3.97% sixty years later. In 1740, 38.54% of the new publications in the German speaki ng countries refer to theological subjects, against a third of that number, namely 13 .55%/in 1800. In the same period, the proportion ofbelles lettresincreases from 5.83% to 21.45% (Mix, 2005). Aspects which are less present in the recent reasearch on reading processes in the European eighteenth century refer, however, to cross-cultural studies. It is precisely this point which is highlighted by the contributions of the present volume. “Reading the Other” points to the intercultural aspects of knowledge which find their reference in translating, printing and reading texts of the respective non-domestic culture . The contributions range from analyzing the print history of German language work s edited in London (Jefcoate), the distribution and reception of French philosophy in Italy (Schwarze) and of French novels in German speaking countries (Ferrand), to a study on the translations of works from other European cultures in eighteenth century Portugal (Maffre) or of Voltaire's marginal notes in books he read to get information on Iberian culture (Bremer), to cite only some examples.
Thedes lettres République increasingly supranational, the rising number of periodicals gets and encyclopedias being only one sign of a broader distribution of critical information on foreign knowledge and debates, and the “Europeanization” of communication finds its most prominent expression in reprints, pirate editions, translations and adaptations of spectacular texts originated from outside the domes tic culture. A Social History of Knowledge does not only consist of professing, esta blishing, classifying, controlling and of course selling knowledge, as Peter Burke reminds us , but also of locating and importing knowledge (Burke, 2000: 53 ff., 61 ft.). Let's keep in mind that “Reading the Other” may also mean reading to understand one's self (Ingram, Sim) , get a critical perspective on one's society (Bender) or create an enlightened review fa r away from the centres of Enlightenment (Sommerlat). At a national level this development may be understood — as Roger Chartier insists4— as the formation of a new type of civil public and public sphere in the sense of Habermas'well-known thesis, and as a consequence of the restructu ration of the whole intellectual field from about 1750 in nearly every national culture in Europe. Henri-Jean Martin says the process was like an intellectual acceleration around 1770, when he writes, “on a le sentiment qu'aux environs des années 1770 la circulation du l ivre s'accélère à travers l'Europe” (Martin, 1987: 125). At a non-national level this de velopment may be interpreted as an emerging constitution for the new pan European space of communication. Voltaire reads on Portugal and Paraguay, is reprinted in Switzerland and the Netherlands, read in Spain and translated in Italy and Germany, and his library is sold to the Russian tsarina; the Encyclopédie,despite its enormous price, can be found in the libraries of most European court cities, even in Scandinavia, Hungary and the Balean states, and is a perfect example of the businessof Enlightenment (Darnton, 1979); and the smuggling of books (those of philosophy as well as those of pornography) is an economic factor for more than one European frontier region. The increasing “circulation of ideas” (not necessarily from books) within the changing landscape of the media in the last third of the eighteenth century also implies the chances of an intellectual decentralization and an increasing independence from the previous centres of knowledge with their ports and the “geography of libraries” (Burke, 2000: 67), as they had still existed a few decades back, and were substituted (at least in part) by an increasing network of intellectual exchange i n this pan-European space of communication, which tried to ignore political and religious restrictions. These questions may give some clues for further con siderations like those we are glad to present in this and the previous volume of the European Spectator which were presented at the Wittenberg colloquium of the CIRBEL. Once more the organizers wish to express their warmest thanks to all who contributed to the succes s of the meeting and the present publication.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
References
Barber, Giles (1981): “Who Were the Booksellers of the Enlightenment”, in Barber, Giles/Fabian, Bernhard (eds.):Buch und Buchhandel in Europa im achtzehnten Jahrhundert/The Book and the Book Trade in Eighteenth-Century Europe,Hamburg: Hauswedell, 211-224.
Bots, Hans (ed.) (1988):La diffusion et la lecture des journaux de langue française sous l'Ancien Régime, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Bremer, Thomas (2006): “Introduction”, in Bremer, Thomas/Gagnoud, Andréa (eds.):Reading Processes in Enlightenment Europe/Modes de lecture dans l'Europe des Lumières(= The European Spectator,7), Montpellier: Presses universitaires, x-xx.
Burke, Peter (2000):A Social History of Knowledge. From Gutenberg to Diderot,Cambridge: Polity.
Censer, Jack R. (1994):The French Press in the Age of Enlightenment,London/New York: Routledge.
Chartier, Roger (ed.) (1995):Histoires de la lecture — un bilan de recherches.Paris: IMEC/Maison des Sciences de l'homme.
Chartier, Roger (ed.) (2000):Les origines culturelles de la Révolutionfrançaise [Paperback edition with new Postface, 1st ed. 1990], Paris: Seuil.
Dann, Otto (ed.) (1981):Lesegesellschaften und bürgerliche Emanzipation. Ein europdischer Vergleich, München: C.H. Beck.
Darnton, Robert (1979):The Business of Enlightenment: A Publishing History of the Encyclopédie, 1775-1800,Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Martin, Henri-Jean (1987): “La librairie française en 1777/1778” and “Pour une histoire de la lecture”, both in: Martin,Le livre français sous l'Ancien Régime,Paris: PROMODIS/Cercle de la librairie, 113-129 and 227-246.
Mix, York-Gothart (2005): “Schreiben, lesen und gelesen werden. Zur Kulturökonomie des literarischen Feldes 1770-1800”, in Adam, Wolfgang/Fauser, Markus/Pott, Ute (eds.):Geselligkeit und Bibliothek. Lesekultur im 18. Jahrhundert,Göttingen: Wallstein, 283-309.
Raven, James (1996): “From promotion to proscription: arrangements for reading and eighteenth-century libraries”, in Raven, James/Small, Helen/Tadmor, Naomi (eds.):The Practice and Representation of Reading in England,Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 175-201.
Sgard, Jean (ed.) (1991),Dictionnaire des journaux (1600-1789),Paris: Universitas, 2 vols.
NOTES
1.See Bremer (2006), with the corresponding sources. 2.Raven 1996:175; for a study on Europe, see Dann 1981. 3.Censer 1994: 7, 215 ff.; see also Bots 1988 and Sgard 1991. 4.Chartier 2000, ch. 2 and 3, discussing explicitly Jürgen Habermas'study on the Public Sphere ( Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit,1962).
AUTHOR
THOMAS BREMER Martin-Luther-Universitat Halle-Wittenberg Professeur et directeur du Département de Littérature ibérique et ibérico-américaine à l’université de Halle-Wittenberg. Auteur d’un grand nombre de publications, notamment dans le e e domaine des littératures espagnole, italienne et latino-américaine depuis le XVIII jusqu’au XX siècle, il est co-éditeur de plusieurs périodiques et revues internationales. Il est dix-huitièmiste et sa recherche actuelle porte sur les rapports entre la littérature espagnole et les autres littératures du Siècle des lumières, ainsi que sur l’histoire du livre et de son commerce. Dans le Spectateur européen, vol. 1, il a publié un article sur la contrebande vers l’Espagne des gravures de laSociété Typographiquede Neuchâtel