Beyond the Crises: Zimbabwe's Prospects for Transformation

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Over the past years, few African countries have been the focus of discussions and analyses generating a vast array of literature as much as Zimbabwe. The socioeconomic and political crises since the turn of the century have deeply transformed the country from the ideals of a vibrant freshly independent nation just two decades earlier. These transformations have necessitated the call for the restructuring of Zimbabwean society, polity, and economy. But this literature remains exclusively within the realm of academic thinking and theorising, with no concerted effort to move beyond this by explicitly drawing out the policy implications. Beyond the Crises: Zimbabwe's Prospects for Transformation is a welcome addition to the academic and policy literature with a much broader and all-embracing focus in terms of policy interventions. By focusing on different aspects of social and economic justice, Murisa and Chikweche go beyond initiating a broad discussion on these two key pillars of human development with a view to suggesting possible future directions of practical solutions and policy development for the attainment of inclusive social and economic justice for Zimbabweans.

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Publié par
Date de parution 01 décembre 2015
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781779222831
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

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Beyond the Crises:
Zimbabwe’s Prospects for TransformationPublished by TrustAfrica
Senegal and Zimbabwe
www.trustafrica.org>
with
Weaver Press, Box A1922, Avondale, Harare. 2015
www.weaverpresszimbabwe.com>
© Trust Africa, 2015
Edited by TrustAfrica
Typeset by Weaver Press
Cover Design: BluStrokes Designs, Harare
(from an original concept by Amalion Publishing)
Printed by Directory Publishers, Bulawayo
All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise
– without the express written permission of the publisher.
ISBN: 978-0-7974-6761-3 (TrustAfrica)
ISBN: 978-1-77922-285-5 (Weaver Press)
ISBN: 978-1-77922-283-1 (Weaver Press: ebook)Table of Contents
About the Authors
Introduction
CHAPTER 1
Not yet Uhuru: Zimbabwe’s Halting Attempts at Democracy
CHAPTER 2
Arrested Development: An Analysis of Zimbabwe’s Post-Independence Social Policy Regimes
CHAPTER 3
Financial Exclusion: An Analysis of the Evolution and Development of Microfinance in Zimbabwe
CHAPTER 4
Land and Agrarian Policy Reforms Post 2000 : New Trends, Insights and Challenges
CHAPTER 5
Rethinking Gender and Accumulation: The Relevance of Small-Scale Entrepreneurship and Social Capital
within a Rural Context
CHAPTER 6
Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture, Livelihood Options and Adaptation Strategies for Smallholder
Farmers in Zimbabwe
CHAPTER 7
Biodiversity and Human Development in Zimbabwe
CHAPTER 8
Business Unusual: New Markets, Doing Business with the Base of the Pyramid
CHAPTER 9
Emerging Models of Inclusive Growth: Revisiting Entrepreneurship and SMMEs in Zimbabwe
CHAPTER 10
Policy Recommendations: Towards an Inclusive Socio-Economic Development Framework
CHAPTER 11
The Democracy Manifesto for Zimbabwe
INDEXAbout the Authors
Tendai Chikweche
Tendai is an academic and independent management consultant with over 14 years extensive
handson experience. He is a holder of a Bachelor of Commerce (Honours) degree from NUST, an MBA
(Bradford), a Postgraduate Diploma in Marketing (Chartered Institute of Marketing) and a PhD
from University of Western Sydney. He is an active member of the Chartered Institute of Marketing,
of which he is a qualified Chartered Marketer. His research and consulting interests are primarily on
enquiry on the bottom of pyramid markets, emerging markets, strategic marketing, international
business, entrepreneurship and small to medium size enterprise development. He has presented and
published numerous refereed international conference and journal papers on these subject areas and
has won accolades for some of his research output, such as Emerald’s Australian Top Journal Articles
for 2013 and CIMAR Best Conference Paper.
Chipo Plaxedes Mubaya
Chipo Mubaya is currently the Deputy Director for Research at Chinhoyi University. She holds a
Ph.D in Development Studies from the Centre for Development Support at the University of the
Free State in South Africa. Her research background is Natural Resource Management with a specific
focus on policy and institutional arrangements, livelihood assessments and issues to do with access and
use of these resources. She worked with the Pan-African START Secretariat (PASS) at the
University of Dar es Salaam capacity building and research on climate change adaptation and
mitigation.
KKiinnggssttoonnee MMuujjeeyyii
Kingstone Mujeyi is a Doctoral student in the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
at the University of Zimbabwe. He holds a Masters Degree in Agriculture and Applied Economics
and a BSc (Honours) in Agricultural Economics and Extension from the University of Zimbabwe.
His research interests are agriculture and economic development in general and food security,
agribusiness, marketing and policy analysis in particular. He has experience in conducting
socioeconomic studies and evaluations in the agricultural sector of Zimbabwe.
TTeennddaaii MMuurriissaa
Tendai Murisa is a development practitioner and is currently the Executive Director of TrustAfrica.
His main areas of interest focus on promoting processes of inclusive development through research,
policy advocacy and the development of innovative systems of inclusion and equitable access to
economic opportunities. He has co-edited two books, published several book chapters and journal
articles on development issues mostly focusing on land and agrarian reforms, the role of agency in
improving livelihood opportunities and also on financial inclusion amongst the poor. Tendai holds
PhD in Sociology from Rhodes University in South Africa.
Mzime Ndebele-Murisa
Mzime Ndebele-Murisa is an Ecologist. She holds a PhD in Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
from the University of the Western Cape (South Africa). Mzime has extensive experience in
biodiversity and conservation, natural resources management, environmental change analysis, aquatic
and wildlife ecology and climate adaptation. Mzime also has working experience in field-based
research particularly in environmental issues, working with environmental management, research and
policy organizations in and outside of Africa and through various networks.
Mukundi Mutasa
Mukundi Mutasa is a social researcher with interests in environmental sustainability, gender and
social exclusion, socio-ecological resilience, disaster risk reduction, and indigenous knowledge systems
in the broader context of rural development. He possesses an MSc in Development Studies and a BSc
in Library and Information Science, and has worked for organisations including Southern African
Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, Environment Africa, Ruzivo Trust, UNEP GRID/
Arendal, and Southern Africa Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC).
Patience Mutopo
Patience Mutopo is currently a senior lecturer in the Centre for Development Studies at Chinhoyi
University of Technology. She holds a PhD awarded with a Magna Cum Laude from the Institute of
Social and Cultural Anthropology and the Cologne African Studies Centre, University of Cologne,Germany. She has published in several internationally renowned journals such as the Journal of
Peasant Studies, the Journal for Gender and Development. Her research interests are gender, land
and agrarian reforms, livelihood analysis, agricultural value chains, bio fuel production, migration,
conflict transformation approaches, human rights and policy analysis.
MMuunnyyaarraaddzzii AAuubbrreeyy NNyyaagguussee
As a practicing project manager, Munyaradzi Aubrey Nyaguse’s interests have been in identifying and
managing value in order to realize intended project benefits. e scope has largely been in the skills
development, where Nyaguse is involved in youth unemployment initiatives, such as Artisan
Development and Work & Skills Programme, for Western Cape Provincial Government in South
Africa. These are intertwined with social development and innovation management. Nyaguse has also
consulted in IT, banking and finance and FMCG industries.I n t r o d u c t i o n
Tendai Murisa and Tendai Chikweche
imbabwe, a Southern African country with a population of about 13.5 million people, hasZfeatured regularly in regional and international public conversations since the 1950s on settler
colonialism, decolonisation, independence (the politics of reconciliation), contested land redistribution
and severe economic collapse. e country is currently in the midst of an economic recovery process
after more than 15 years of a debilitating crisis during which it went from being a case study of a
semiindustrialised country to a state of economic collapse, a meltdown characterised by record runaway
inflation and a serious shortage of basic goods. Whilst the causes of the crisis remains a topic of
debate, its negative impact on our politics, the economy and the general social fabric (inclusive of
welfare and social services delivery) cannot be disputed. e ongoing recovery of sectors such as
tourism and mining accounted for the partial economic recovery. However, this has since stalled and
there is evidence of increasing social and economic challenges in the era of the multiple currency
regime. ese developments and national electoral politics have ensured continued focus and
attention on Zimbabwe.
Characterisations of the country’s politics and development trajectory mostly depend on the
1narrator. In essence any discussion on Zimbabwe has mostly been ‘contested terrain’. Debate is
essential for a healthy democracy, and in this spirit we also aim to make a contribution to the legion of
ideas on national development (inclusive of the ideas for economic development, politics, social and
cultural well-being) through a process of thinking aloud about what needs to be done to shape the
future of the country. is is mostly a daunting task especially for those of us who have mostly been
trained and equipped with skills to reflect on what has taken place and rarely to project into the future.
We are not spiritual sages of any sort, although there is always a temptation to seek for clairvoyance
skills given the tumultuous nature of the desired change. Gatsheni-Ndlovu (2013:262) has also aptly
observed that such an endeavor is common beyond the grouping behind this book. He remarks that
Zimbabweans (in general) like other human beings from across the world do not tire of trying to
make sense of their murky present with a view to prescribing the mysterious future. We join others in
this endeavour but our approach is based on the belief that recent experiences and trends provide a
sound footing for us in terms of clues and forecasting the opportunities and challenges that are likely
to shape the country’s future. Unlike economists, we do not adhere to the ceteris paribus (things being
constant/equal) principle but rather we seek to also anticipate the upheavals associated with human
life.
e chapters in this entire volume focus on different aspects of re-imagining our politics social and
economic justice processes. Our goal is to initiate a broad discussion on key tenets of these key pillars
of human development with a view to suggesting possible future directions of potential practical
solutions and policy development for the inclusive attainment of political processes, social and
economic justice for Zimbabweans. e book provides a non-prescriptive broad framework for a
political, social and economic transformation agenda. In this way we connect with those who had to
bear arms for the liberation of Zimbabwe, noting that whilst political independence, in terms of
universal suffrage, has been attained we have not made giant strides towards the achievement of
creating inclusive processes for political participation, social and economic justice. For us, social and
economic justice means, inclusive, equitable, dignified, non-discriminatory and democratic access to
the means of production and other public goods such as health and education. We are wary of limiting
what we are referring to as social and economic justice as development. For us development is too
broad a notion which at times seems to be used to denote almost everything to do with change in
society. is often includes even processes and programs that often eventually leave communities
worse off but are still positioned as part of development. To us development is dangerously close to a
vacuous concept lacking substantive meaning if it is not properly qualified thus instead we prefer to
work with a more encompassing framework of politicall and socio-economic transformation.
Furthermore, we see a need to reposition the state especially in the aftermath of the waning
influence of the Washington Consensus. Despite the euphoria over what has been referred to in the