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One of the key elements in Brazil´s foreign policy is his challenge to the distribution of power on the international level. The current system of world governance is considered unfavorable to developing countries and unfavorable to Brazilian interests. Hence Brazil's efforts with developing countries and its BRICS partners to work together to replace hegemony and unilateralism with a greater democratization of world governance.
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BRAZIL THE DISPUTED RISE OF A REGIONAL POWER 2003-2015 Prologue by Celso Amorim, Brazil´s Minister of External Relations - 1993-1995/2003-2010 Minister of Defense - 2011-2015
Collection « Inter-National » dirigée par Denis Rolland, Joëlle Chassin et Françoise Dekowski Cette collection a pour vocation de présenter les études les plus récentes sur les institutions, les politiques publiques et les forces politiques et culturelles à l’œuvre aujourd’hui. Au croisement des disciplines juridiques, des sciences politiques, des relations internationales, de l’histoire et de l’anthropologie, elle se propose, dans une perspective pluridisciplinaire, d’éclairer les enjeux de la scène mondiale et européenne. Série générale (dernières parutions) : Salim TOBIAS PEREZ,Religion, immigration et intégration aux Etats-Unis. Une communauté hispanique à New York, 2015. Daniel GRANADA DA SILVA FERREIRA,Pratique de la capoeira en France et au Royaume-Uni, 2015. Patrick HOWLETT-MARTIN,La coopération médicale de Cuba. L’altruisme récompensé, 2015. Maria Teresa GUTTIEREZ HACES,La continentalisation du Mexique et du Canada dans l’Amérique du Nord. Les voisins du Voisin, 2015. Eric DICHARRY,Théâtre, résidence d’artiste, médiation et territoire, 2014. Catherine DURANDIN et Cécile FOLSCHWEILLER,: la guerreAlerte en Europe dans les Balkans (1942-1913), 2014. Estelle POIDEVIN,L’Europe : une affaire intérieure ? Ce qui change en Europe, 2014. Juliette MAFFRE,La légalisation du mariage homosexuel en Argentine, 2014. Pierre-Philippe BERSON,Sous le soleil de Chávez. Enquête sur le Venezuela d’Hugo Chávez, 2014. Mathieu CRETTENAND,Le rôle de la presse dans la construction de la paix, Le cas du conflit basque, 2014. Pierre JOURNOUD,La Guerre de Corée et ses enjeux stratégiques de 1950 à nos jours, 2014. Philippe SAUNIER,Politique de la comptabilité publique, 2014. Laurent BORZILLO,La Bundeswehr. De la pertinence des réformes à l’aune des opérations extérieures, 2014. Jean-Yves PARAÏSO,La perception de la théologie latino-américaine de la libération en République Fédérale d’Allemagne. L’exemple du cercle d’étude « Eglise et libération » (1973-1978), 2013. Edouard BOINET,Hydropolitique du fleuve Sénégal. Limites et perspectives d’un modèle de coopération, 2013. Eric DICHARRY,L’écologie de l’éducation. Un anthropologue à l’école du bertsularisme en Pays basque, 2013. Sébastien BARRERE,Les Etats-Unis face au franquisme. 1936-1956, la croisée des chemins, 2013. Marc PAVE,La pêche côtière en France (1715-1850). Approche sociale et environnementale, 2013. Marianne GUILLEMIN,Femmes officiers de communication dans l’armée de Terre. Le parcours des combattantes, 2013. Ariane LANDUYT & Denis ROLLAND (org.),Construire l’espace politique européen. Historiographies, politiques et territoires, 2012.
PATRICK HOWLETT-MARTINBRAZIL THE DISPUTED RISE OF A REGIONAL POWER 2003-2015 Translation : Robert Burns, PatrickHowlett-MartinPrologue by CelsoAMORIM, Preface by José Mauricio BUSTANI
First Published: L´Harmattan 2014, French edition.© L’HARMATTAN, 2015 5-7, rue de l’École-Polytechnique ; 75005 Paris http://www.harmattan.fr diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr harmattan1@wanadoo.fr ISBN : 978-2-343-08073-4 EAN : 9782343080734
CONTENTS PROLOGUE. Celso Amorim PREFACE. José Mauricio Bustani INTRODUCTIONCHAPTER1 IDEOLOGICALFOUNDATIONS ANDPRIORITIESCHAPTER2 REDUCINGPOLITICALVUNERABILITY .Mercosur, Latin America and the Caribbean  .The Security Council CHAPTER3 REDUCINGECONOMICVULNERABILITY .Arab Countries .Africa  .The IBSA Dialogue Forum (India, Brazil, South Africa)  .BRICS Countries  .China .Multilateral Trade Negociations .Intellectual Property .Global Financial Governance: World Bank and IMF CHAPTER4 AFFIRMATION ON THEGLOBALSCENE.Innovative Financing and UNITAID .Climate and the Environment .Human Rights  Respect for Basic Rights  The Fight Against Poverty .UNSTAMIH- Haiti .The Honduran crisis .Disarmament and Nuclear Non-Prolifertaion  Disarmament  Nuclear Non-Proliferation .The Middle-East  Afghanistan  Iraq  The Arab Spring  -Yemen  - Islam and Islamophobia  - Lybia  - Syria  - Egypt  Israel and Palestine  Mediation in the Iranian Nuclear Issue CONCLUSIONBIBLIOGRAPHY
9 13 17
45 45 59
63 63 65 82 83 89 95 105 109
113 114 126 126  143 146 146 154 154 160 171 179 187 194 195 198 203 209 221 225 257
271 277
PROLOGUE Etymologycally prologue is what comes before the discourse. And so I shall not attempt to expand on the questions addressed in detail by the author in 400 richly informative pages with their comments and analyses. Nor do I believe I can add any new concepts to the preface written by Ambassador José Mauricio Bustani for the French edition, upon which this duly expanded and updated English edition is based. As an active participant in the actions and events that took place during the period covered by Patrick Howlett-Martin, I would have one or two observations to make, without taking anything away from the general meaning of the book. I would say, for example, as regards Iraq, the author might have gone into greater depth on Brazil’s role on the Security Council in the years 1998-99, when it proposed and chaired three panels on the situation in that country, which was overwhelmed by economic sanctions and under the constant threat of a devastating military attack. Brazil showed important leadership at the time, adopting an approach that would have a positive influence on how further initiatives were received some years later. I had the privilege of writing the preface to the book by Hans von Sponeck (cited in this work) on the humanitarian disaster resulting from the coercive measures imposed on Baghdad on the eve of the first Gulf War. The outcome of these efforts was the replacement of the notorious UNSCOM, whose inspections increasingly seemed to be intended as provocations, by the more flexible UNMOVIC, led by Hans Blix. Under the leadership of the former Swedish Minister for Foreign Affairs, later head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, inspections moved forward and perhaps could have prevented the ill-fated unilateral military action against Saddam Hussein had an unfortunate sequence of events not intervened (chief among them the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers on September 11 fueling the bellicose zeal of George W. Bush’s first term), which sundered our hopes for a peaceful outcome. Blix resigned, UNMOVIC was disbanded, and Iraq was left virtually in ruins. No weapon of mass destruction was ever found. To a country in tatters, we bequeathed scorched earth and a terrorist movement far more destructive than anything seen before (and, contrary to the news we were fed, the Iraqi government had nothing to do with it). Brazil joined with other countries such as France and Germany in opposing any military solution without Security Council authorization, condemning the bombings and subsequent ground invasion. But at the time, when all seemed dominated by an apparently seamless unipolarity, these efforts were to no avail. Another thing that shines forth in Howlett-Martin’s work is how it reveals, in great detail, the density of diplomatic initiatives and processes in which Brazil was involved, especially in the years of President Lula’s two terms in office.