Facets of Power

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The diamond fields of Chiadzwa, among the world�s largest sources of rough diamonds have been at the centre of struggles for power in Zimbabwe since their discovery in 2006. Against the backdrop of a turbulent political economy, control of Chiadzwa�s diamonds was hotly contested. By 2007 a new case of �blood diamonds� had emerged, in which the country�s security forces engaged with informal miners and black market dealers in the exploitation of rough diamonds, violently disrupting local communities and looting a key national resource. The formalisation of diamond mining in 2010 introduced new forms of large-scale theft, displacement and rights abuses. Facets of Power is the first comprehensive account of the emergence, meaning and profound impact of Chiadzwa�s diamonds. Drawing on new fieldwork and published sources, the contributors present a graphic and accessibly written narrative of corruption and greed, as well as resistance by those who have suffered at the hands of the mineral�s secretive and violent beneficiaries. If the lessons of resistance have been mostly disheartening ones, they also point towards more effective strategies for managing public resources, and mounting democratic challenges to elites whose power is sustained by preying on them.

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Publié par
Date de parution 18 avril 2016
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781779222909
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0048€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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FACETSOFPOWER
FACETSOFPOWER Politics, Profits and People in the Making of Zimbabwe’s BloodDiamonds
edited by
Richard SaundersandTinashe Nyamunda
Published by Weaver Press Box A1922, Avondale, Harare, Zimbabwe <www.weaverpresszimbabwe.com> and in South Africa by Wits University Press 1 Jan Smuts Avenue Johannesburg, 2001 www.witspress.co.za First published in 2016 © Each individual chapter, the author, 2016 This compilation, the editors, 2016
Maps on pages x and xvi by Street Savvy, Harare We are grateful to the following for permission to use their photographs: Tsvangirai Mukwazhi (photos i and iii on the back cover and on pp. 69, 116 and 158); Panos and Robin Hammond (pp. 95 and 111); Avi Krawitz and Rapaport USA (p. 47); Annie Mpalume (p. 128); Clayton Masekesa andThe Zimbabwean(p. 173, top); Melanie Chiponda (p. 173). Every effort has been made to identify the source of the other photographs. Any information subsequently received about these will be acknowledged in future editions.
Cover Design: Danes Design, Harare Typeset by Weaver Press Printed by Directory Publishers, Bulawayo
ISBN: 978-1-77922-288-6 (print) Weaver Press ISBN: 978-1-77922-289-3 (digital) Weaver Press ISBN: 978-1-86814-975-9 (print) Wits University Press ISBN: 978-1-86814-976-6 (digital) Wits University Press
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, elec-tronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the publisher, Weaver Press.
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For the people of Marange,
who have endured the most and gained the least from their rich lands
and
Edward ChindoriChininga (19552013)
who knew these stories.
The country is starving, civil servants are going on strike, hospitals have no medicine, agriculture have no chemicals and schools have no books. We cannot continue to be playing around like you guys are doing… Are our diamonds meant to benefit certain individuals, or are they intended to benefit the nation?
* – Edward ChindoriChininga, MP
*Statement by the Chair of the Parliamentary Committee on Mines and Energy, in response to a government witness during proceedings of the Committee, Harare, Febru-ary 8, 2010.
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InacountryrIddledwIthwIdespreadandchronIcabuseof author-ity and breakdown of law and order, Marange’s diamonds stand out as an emblem of the toxic mix of state power, poor governance and private greed. This book shines a light on both the murky dynamics of Marange’s exploitation and the underlying political and legal order which enabled and encouraged them. An impor-tant contribution to the documentation of the full range of rights abuses of recent years – and to making a way forward from them. Beatrice Mtetwa, Human Rights lawyer.
notonlydoesthIsverynecessarybookexamine Zimbabwe’s new and unsavoury political-economic networks of accumulation and power in ever widening circles around its diamonds, but it illuminates with great clarity and sophistication the com-plexities of local and global responses to this elite predation, state repression – and ruling party attempts to regain slipping hegemony. As suchFacets of Powerraises important questions about the possibilities of forging ‘post-nationalist’ political forms in the Zimbabwean state-society complex and further aîeld. Even better, this book introduces some very sharp new minds to Zimbabwe’s critical mass of public intellectuals and young academics: a huge bonus in itself.– David Moore, Professor of Development Studies, University of Johannesburg
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CONTENTS
Acronyms Contributors Acknowledgements Foreword 1. Richard Saunders –Introduction: The Many Facets of Marange’s Diamonds 2.Richard Saunders –Geologies of Power: Conflict Diamonds, Security Politics and Zimbabwe’s Troubled Transition 3. Alan Martin –Reap What You Sow: Corruption and Greed in Marange’s Diamond Fields 4.Shamiso Mtisi –Enforcer or Enabler? Rethinking the Kimberley Process in the Shadow of Marange 5.Farai Maguwu –Marange Diamonds and the Kimber ley Process: An Activist’s Account 6.Tinashe Nyamunda –FreeforAll? Artisanal Diamond Mining and Economic Redistribution on the Edges of the State, 20062008 7. Mathew Ruguwa –The Social Impact of Mining on Schools in Marange, 200620138.Crescentia Madebwe and Victor Madebwe –Forced Removals and Hidden Power: Involuntary Displace ment and Resettlement in Marange 9.Melanie Chiponda and Richard Saunders –Holding Ground: Community, Companies and Resistance in Chiadzwa10.Richard Saunders –Epilogue: Back to the Beginning  Bibliography
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ACR AMV CCDT BICC CIO CNRG CPHT CRD CSO CSOT CSR CSU DA DMC DRC DRI EMA EPO GNU HRC JOC JWP KP LFP MDC MMCZ MZCT NANGO PAC RBZ SRSDIL WDC
ACRONYMS
African Consolidated Resources plc African Mining Vision Chiadzwa Community Development Trust Bonn International Centre for Conversion Central Intelligence Organisation Centre for Natural Resources Governance Carats per hundred tonnes Centre for Research and Development Civil Society Organisation Community Share Ownership Trust Corporate Social Responsibility Counselling Services Unit District Administrator Diamond Mining Corporation Democratic Republic of the Congo Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, India Environmental Management Agency Exclusive Prospecting Order Government of National Unity Human Rights Commission Joint Operations Command Joint Work Plan, Kimberley Process Kimberley Process Certiîcation Scheme Local Focal Point Movement for Democratic Change Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe Marange-Zimunya Community Trust National Association of NGOs Partnership Africa Canada Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Surat Rough Diamond Sourcing India Limited World Diamond Council
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WGM ZANU-PF ZELA ZIMRA ZLHR ZMDC ZNA ZRP
Working Group on Monitoring, Kimberley Process Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association Zimbabwe Revenue Authority Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation Zimbabwe National Army Zimbabwe Republic Police
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