Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine

Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine

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294 pages

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This Multi-level Governance Series study focuses on Ukraine’s advances in regional development, territorial reform and decentralisation since 2014. The Government launched a reform to merge local governments and strengthen the decentralisation process, giving additional power and resources to sub-national authorities. In a short period, successful steps have been taken toward achieving municipal mergers and greater fiscal, administrative and political decentralisation, complemented by the State Strategy for Regional Development 2015-2020. The first local elections have been held and more public services are being delivered by certain local authorities. Yet, important challenges remain, ranging from a need to address rising disparities and adjusting multi-level governance practices and territorial structures, to better structuring fiscal decentralisation. This report addresses regional performance and disparities in Ukraine, provides insight into Ukraine’s current territorial reform and approach to decentralisation, explores the impact of fiscal decentralisation measures, and includes a case study of the transport sector. It also provides a set of recommendations for action to support Ukraine in meeting the conditions for successful decentralisation.


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Publié par
Date de parution 15 juin 2018
Nombre de lectures 5
EAN13 9789264301573
Licence : Tous droits réservés
Langue English

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OECD Multi-level Governance Studies
Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine
Please cite this publication as:OECD (2018),Maintaining the Momentum of Decentralisation in Ukraine, OECD Multi-level Governance Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264301436-en
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ISBN:978-92-64-30138-2 (print) - 978-92-64-30143-6 (pdf) - 978-92-64-30158-0 (HTML) -978-92-64-30157-3 (epub) DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264301436-en
Series:OECD Multi-level Governance Studies ISSN:2414-6781 (print) - 2414-679X (online)
This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of OECD member countries.
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Photo credits: Cover Illustration © Jeffrey Fisher. Corrigenda to OECD publications may www.oecd.org/publishing/corrigenda.
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Foreword
Beginning in 2014, the Ukrainian government embarked on an overhaul of its multi-level and territorial governance structures, including through decentralisation reform. For decentralisation to work effectively, a simple transfer of responsibilities to lower levels of government is not enough. A number of other conditions must be met, starting with the sufficient and appropriate resources to fulfil new responsibilities. Resources need to be complemented by adequate capacities at the subnational level, proper co-ordination mechanisms, effective monitoring systems and a good balance in the way various policy functions are decentralised.
The Ukrainian government and its Ministry of Regional Development, Construction and Utilities requested the OECD to support the successful implementation of decentralisation reform by following up on the OECD Territorial Review of Ukraine conducted in 2013. The current work is undertaken as part of the OECD's three-pillar Action Plan for Ukraine, signed in April 2015. The Action Plan covers three pillars: i) anti-corruption; ii) governance and rule of law; and iii) investment and business climate. The second pillar on governance issues includes, among other areas, support to the decentralisation reform agenda.
This report updates and extends the OECD’s prior regional economic analysis of Ukraine with development trends since the Donbas conflict, offers insight into Ukraine’s territorial and decentralisation reform agenda, and explores the impact of fiscal decentralisation. The report’s analysis of the structure and implementation of Ukraine’s multi-level governance and decentralisation reform highlights successes, identifies areas for additional improvement, and offers recommendations for short, medium and long-term action.
The work has been undertaken as part of the programme of work of the OECD’s Regional Development Policy Committee (RDPC), a leading international forum in the fields of regional, urban, and rural development policy and in multi-level governance, and served by the Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities. It is the result of a partnership with the OECD Global Relations Secretariat’s Eurasia Division.
The RDPC has long advocated for recognising the importance of multi-level governance and place-based approaches tailored to local and regional needs. To support the RDPC's leadership in this area, the OECD created the Multi-Level Governance Studies series in 2016. This report dedicated to Ukraine and its reform experience contributes to the body of knowledge contained in this series.
This report was discussed at the RDPC’s 38th Session on 8 December 2017 and was approved on 15 January 2018.
Acknowledgements
This report was produced by the Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities (CFE) of the OECD led by Lamia Kamal-Chaoui, Director, in partnership with the Global Relations Secretariat of the OECD, led by Andreas Schaal.
The project was implemented in the context of the OECD-Ukraine Memorandum of Understanding. It was made possible thanks to the financial contribution of the European Union Delegation to Ukraine and the Governments of the Czech Republic, Flanders (Belgium) and the Republic of Poland.
The report was coordinated and edited by Maria-Varinia Michalun, Policy Analyst, under the supervision of Dorothée Allain-Dupré, Head of the Unit for Decentralisation, Public Investment and Subnational Finance in the Economics, Statistics and Multi-level Governance Section of CFE. Chapter 1 was written by Antoine Comps and Jibran Punthakey. Chapter 2 was written by Maria-Varinia Michalun. Chapter 3 was written by Isabelle Chatry. Chapter 4 was drafted by Jibran Punthakey with input from Antoine Comps. The report benefited from significant contributions from Jörn Grävingholt, Senior Researcher, German Development Institute/Deutsche Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE) for Chapter 2 and Rosario Macario, Professor, CERIS, Insituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal for Chapter 4. Valuable research and translation was provided by Lyudmyla Tautyeva, and equally valuable comments, input and support on the report and report process were received from Luke Mackle, Gabriela Miranda, Joaquim Oliveira Martins and William Tompson (OECD). In Ukraine, operational, logistical and administrative support was provided by Mykhailo Semchuk, and interpretation and translation provided by Liudmilla Taranina.
The OECD would like to thank the Ukrainian authorities at the national and subnational levels for their co-operation and support during the review process. Special thanks are due to Mr. Hennadiy Zubko, Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Regional Development, Construction, Housing and Communal Services, for his commitment to the project, and to the First Vice-Minister of Regional Development, Construction, Housing, and Communal Services, Mr. Vyacheslav Nehoda, and his team, for their collaboration. Thanks are also due to representatives of the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Infrastructure, Ministry of Ecology, Cabinet of Ministers, the State Statistics Service of Ukraine (SSSU), the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, and the Presidential Administration of Ukraine for accepting to meet with the OECD team and share valuable information during the missions. Special thanks go to the representatives of the Association of Ukrainian Cities, the Association of Amalgamated Territorial Communities, and the Ukrainian Association of Rayon and Oblast Councils for their participation in the seminars and the study visits, and for their support in hosting OECD seminar.
Thanks for their continued support, insight and input are also given to Benedikt Herrmann and Dominik Papenheim of the European Union Delegation to Ukraine, to Serhiy Maksymenko and Yuri Tretyak, U-LEAD with Europe Programme, to Alexandra Linden and Mariana Semenyshyn from GIZ-Ukraine and the House of Decentralisation. The OECD is grateful for the useful
discussions and information shared by the international community in Ukraine during the meetings of the Donor Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Decentralization, co-ordinated by Christian Disler and Ilona Postemska from the Swiss Cooperation Office in Ukraine.
The OECD extends its thanks also to the stakeholders from central government ministries, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, subnational governments, academia, civil society and the international donor community who met with the OECD team during their missions and who participated in the OECD seminar series organised in Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Lviv, Zhytomyr and Kharkiv between December 2016 and June 2018. Special thanks are also given to the country representatives and OECD experts who shared their experience and knowledge in the OECD seminar series: François Bafoil (CNRS, Sciences-Po Paris, France), Jean-Christophe Baudouin (General Office for Territorial Equality, France), Mirosław Czekaj (National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Management, Poland), Alba Dakoli Wilson (Foundation for Local Autonomy and Governance, Albania), Christof Delatter (Flemish Association of Cities and Municipalities, Belgium), Tatiana Escovar Fadul (Department of National Planning, Colombia), Iris de Graaf (Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations, The Netherlands), Małgorzata Lublińska (Ministry of Regional Development, Poland), Adrian Mazur (Ministry of Infrastructure and Construction, Poland), Artur Modrzejewski (University of Bialystok, Poland), Dawid Szesciło (University of Warsaw, Poland), Julián Talens (Ministry of the Presidency and Territorial Administrations, Spain), and Michał Wolański (Warsaw School of Economics).
The report is based on a variety of information sources, including interviews during the missions, information and presentations shared during the seminars, OECD reviews and research on Ukraine’s governance and finance practices published by the international community, as well as good practices and evidence collected during the two study visits organised for a selected group of Ukrainian stakeholders as part of this project, one to Flanders, Belgium (April 2017) and a second to Lublin and Rzeszów, Poland (September 2017).
The implementation of this project would not have been possible without the administrative and logistical support of Maria Ferreira and Théa Chubinidze during the preparation of the missions and events. Pilar Philip provided guidance to prepare the publication. Jennifer Allain edited the final manuscript and prepared it for publication.
Regional development agency
State Strategy for Regional Development
Small and medium-sized enterprise
Territorial Level 2/Territorial Level 3
Personal income tax
Public-private partnership
Acronyms and abbrEviations
Ukrainian hryvnia (currency)
Non-government controlled area
International Monetary Fund
CEE
ASC
United States dollar (currency)
State Employment Service
ACU
Demand-responsive transport
AATC
CBA
CIS
HDI
NGCA
NAPA
Foreign direct investment
Internally displaced person
Inter-municipal co-operation
Human Development Index
PPP
Square kilometre
Job vacancy rate
Association of Amalgamated Territorial Communities
Corporate profit tax
Functional urban area
Accounting Chamber of Ukraine
Commonwealth of Independent States
SSRD
USD
RDA
SFRD
Community-Based Approach to Local Development
Central and Eastern Europe
SME
SES
TL2/TL3
UAH
Administrative service centre
State Fund for Regional Development
Gross domestic product
European Union
GDP
DRT
EU
CPT
FDI
National Academy for Public Administration
FUA
km²
IMC
JVC
IDP
IMF
PIT
UTC
Unified territorial community
Executive summary
When the OECD published itsTerritorial Review of Ukrainein early 2014, the country faced many significant and inter-related territorial development challenges. These included large regional disparities; productivity shifts; high levels of unemployment and informal employment; poor public services; and top-down, centralised multi-level governance structures rooted in pre-independence practices. The social unrest, political change and armed conflict that Ukraine has experienced since then served to amplify these challenges and highlight the need for greater state resilience. To help address these challenges and harness the potential of regional economic development, territorial reform – including more decentralised subnational governance – became a pressing need.
Since 2014, Ukraine has made significant advances in regional development, territorial reform and decentralisation. The Cabinet of Ministers launched a multi-level governance reform that includes an extensive decentralisation process. In a short period of time, successful steps have been taken toward achieving municipal mergers and greater fiscal, administrative and political decentralisation. This process is complemented by the State Strategy for Regional Development 2015-2020.
Yet, multi-level governance and regional development challenges persist. These range from a need to address rising disparities to adjusting multi-level governance practices and territorial structures, and better conceptualising fiscal decentralisation. This report offers a diagnosis of the multi-level governance mechanisms in place and provides a set of recommendations for action to better ensure Ukraine’s ability in meeting the conditions for successful decentralisation reform.
The asymmetric nature of economic shocks across Ukraine’s regions highlights the need for a differentiated policy response and appropriate multi-level governance arrangements to support regional development.differences in The performance of individual sectors had a clear impact on the spatial distribution of economic growth. While industrial production in 2016 reached only 82% of its 2010 level, the agriculture and fisheries and high-end business services sectors demonstrated consistent growth and remained above 2010 levels. These patterns of development clearly favour regions with an agricultural specialisation, and the Kyiv agglomeration. Almost 60% of national growth over the 2004-14 period was generated by Kyiv city and Kyivoblast, which together generated 28% of GDP in 2015. Opportunities to address the challenges arising from asymmetric shocksinclude strengthening agglomeration economies in Kyiv and the largest cities (including by allowing the amalgamation large cities with neighbours); adjusting the urban planning system; revising labour market policies to reduce informality and close the skills gap. Directly linking amalgamation to fiscal and administrative decentralisation as an incentive mechanism is a double-edged sword.This approach has led to a successful
voluntary merger process: between 2015 and October 2017, over 2 000 local self-governments merged to form 614 unified territorial communities (UTCs) and the process continues. Yet, implementation has not always generated municipalities with sufficient capacity to meet the challenges of decentralised local governance. In addition, it has created parallel territorial administrations with the intermediate government level (rayons) in a number of instances, further confusing the allocation of service and administrative responsibilities and inequality in public service quality, type and access at the local level. Opportunities to further reinforce territorial reform processesincludeimproving the stability and clarity of the amalgamation and decentralisation process to ensure the formation of more capacitated UTCs, reforming therayonlevel, including a revised and clearly established set of responsibilities. Horizontal and vertical co-ordination mechanisms to support reform implementation could be strengthened,to better promote more coherent aiming planning and programming. Doing so could also ensure better aligned cross-sector and national/subnational priorities, and clearer lines of responsibility and accountability. Opportunities to strengthen co-ordination mechanisms includeboosting co-ordination capacity by introducing an explicit decentralisation policy, more clearly assigning responsibilities among levels of government, strengthening centre-of-government practices and establishing dialogue mechanisms, such as a high-level inter-ministerial council for decentralisation and a multi-level, cross-sector dialogue body. Tools to support regional development based on more competitive regions have been introduced, although there is room for greater balance between “hard” and “soft” infrastructure projects.Project planning capacities require further development. In addition, with changes introduced in 2017 to the funding and allocation methods of the State Fund for Regional Development, care should be taken to avoid a return to counterproductive practices from the past. Opportunities to establish a better balance between hard and soft infrastructure projects include strengthening subnational civil service capacity in development-project design; reintroducing the original funding and disbursement stability associated with the State Fund for Regional Development. Ukraine’s subnational expenditure structure remains quite centralised: 78% of subnational government spending is executed on behalf of the central government. Greater progress in fiscal decentralisation will require a clearer definition of spending responsibilities and better adjusting these according to delegated tasks. More subnational spending autonomy would permit these authorities to prioritise spending as appropriate to their needs and objectives. Opportunities to advance in fiscal decentralisation includebetter articulating a strategic fiscal framework and implementing it with a clear road map, as well as tools and indicators to monitor progress and assess reform outcomes. Subnational government revenue is limited – as is autonomy in revenue generation and management – with subnational governments controlling only about 30% of their resources.This affects their ability to meet “exclusive” responsibilities, such as infrastructure maintenance and provision of municipal services and amenities.