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Cultural Diversity in Music Education

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Over the past decade, cultural diversity in music education has come of age, both in terms of content and approach. The world of music education is now widely considered to be culturally diverse by definition.Within this environment, appropriate strategies for learning and teaching are being reconsidered. Many scholars and practitioners have abandoned rigid conceptions of context and authenticity, or naive perceptions of music as a universal language that appeals to all.

In four sections, this volume offers contemporary views from scholars, educationalists, classroom practitioners and experts in specific disciplines. From this diversity of perspectives, the challenges posed by music travelling through time, place and contexts are being addressed for what they are: fascinating studies in the dynamic life of music, education and culture. In this way, Cultural diversity in music education chronicles the latest insights into a field that has convincingly moved from the sidelines to centre stage in both the practice and theory of music education.



Publié par
Date de parution 01 décembre 2005
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9781875378869
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

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Cultural diversity in music education
Directions and challenges for the 21st century
with an introduction by Patricia Shehan Campbell and Huib Schippers
EDITED BY Patricia Shehan Campbell John Drummond Peter DunbarHall Keith Howard Huib Schippers Trevor Wiggins
Directions and challenges for the 21st century
First published in 2005 by Australian Academic Press Pty Ltd in collaboration with Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre (QCRC), Griffith University, on the occasion of the VIIth International Symposium on Cultural Diversity in Music Education (CDIME), held in Brisbane, Australia, from 10–13 November, 2005.
© 2005. Copyright for each contribution in this book rests with the listed authors.
The contributions to this publication were blind peer-reviewed by a panel consisting of Brydie-Leigh Bartleet, Patricia Shehan Campbell, Scott Harrison, Keith Howard, Elizabeth Mackinlay and Trevor Wiggins.
Editors: Patricia Shehan Campbell John Drummond Peter Dunbar-Hall Keith Howard Huib Schippers Trevor Wiggins
Subeditors: Jocelyn Wolfe Brydie-Leigh Bartleet
Publication coordination: Brydie-Leigh Bartleet and Huib Schippers for QCRC www.griffith.edu.au/centre/qcrc
eBook ISBN 9781875378869
Designed and typeset by Australian Academic Press www.australianacademicpress.com.au
Section One Challenges and Issues Cultural Diversity in Music Education:Why Bother? John Drummond Cultivating Shadows in the Field?: Challenges for Traditions in Institutional Contexts Trevor Wiggins
The Local and the Global in Musical Learning: Considering the Interaction Between Formal and Informal Settings Göran Folkestad
Taking Distance and Getting Up Close: Transmission Model (SCTM) Huib Schippers
Section Two
The SevenContinuum
Approaches to Learning and Teaching
Going Behind the Doors: The Role of Fieldwork in Changing Tertiary Students Attitudes to World Music Education Kathryn Marsh
Musical Vernaculars as a Starting Point: Inspiration for Creative Composition in Formal and Informal Educational Environments Jolyon Laycock
Prospects and Challenges of Teaching and Learning Musics of the Worlds Cultures: An African Perspective Rose OmoloOngati
Trusting the Tradition:The Meaning of the Irish Session Workshop Christopher Smith
Singing Together: A Crosscultural Approach to the Meaning of Choirs as a Community Jukka Louhivuori, VeliMatti Salminen and Edward Lebaka
Section Three
Voices From the Classroom
Creating a Balance: Investigating a New Model for Music Teaching and Learning in the Australian Context Georgina Barton
Dabbling or Deepening  Where to Begin?: Global Music in International School Elementary Education Melissa Cain
Wholl Come a Waltzing Matilda?: in Australian Music Education Scott Harrison
Section Four
The Search for Identity
Case Studies From Asia,Africa and Australia Training, Community and Systemic Music Education: The Aesthetics of Balinese Music in Different Pedagogic Settings Peter DunbarHall Teaching SamulNori: Challenges in the Transmission of Korean Percussion Keith Howard Indian Classical Music as Taught in the West: The Reshaping of Tradition? Chad Hamill
I Sing My Home and Dance My Land: Crossing Music Boundaries in a Changing World Dawn Joseph
Honouring and Deriving the Wealth of Knowledge Offered by Mother Music in Africa Christopher Klopper
Professional Development in the Diamond Fields of South Africa: Musical and Personal Transformations Kathy Robinson
Collision or Collusion?:The Meeting of Cultures in a Church Choir Kay Hartwig
Without a SongYou Are Nothing: Songwriters Perspectives on Indigenising Tertiary Music and Sound Curriculum Steve Dillon and Jim Chapman
Local Musics, Global Issues
en years ago, the landmark publicationTeaching Musics of the World(Philipp T Verlag, 1995) celebrated the explosion of initiatives across the world to do jus tice to a musical diversity that has now become the norm for most cultures. It documented a lively interaction between musicians, educators and scholars, and helped to launch a new platform for interdisciplinary discourse addressing the trans mission and learning of musical cultures in formal and nonformal settings. With a decade of additional experience, Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Directions and Challenges for the 21st Centurydocuments recent achievements and issues in this excit ing and dynamic field. In terms of content and approach, we can see that the field has come of age. Many practices of cultural diversity in music education have shed dogmatic approaches from 19th century music education and 1960s ethnomusicology. At least in some areas, we can witness a receding emphasis on notation and analytical teaching methods in the way material is being presented to learners of all backgrounds and levels. Issues such as context and authenticity are increasingly approached from their delightfully confusing contemporary realities. The challenges posed by music travelling through time, place and contexts are being addressed for what they are: fascinating studies in the dynamic life of music, education and culture. Although a number of promising projects have sizzled out over the years, underlin ing the vulnerability of young initiatives to institutional constraints and their depen dency on passionate and visionary individuals, other projects and initiatives signalled 10 years ago have come to further fruition. The total immersion programs piloted by the Malmö Academy (University of Lund) have set the standard for programs to introduce future music educators to learning and teaching world music by making them live a different musical culture. Dutch initiatives of world music schools and the world music department of the Rotterdam Conservatoire (CODArts) are merging into a 12 million euro, custombuilt World Music and Dance Centre in Rotterdam. A number of tertiarylevel programs worldwide now prepare performers, teachers and composers for their professional work through a core of academic and applied courses that offer considerable depth of experience in some of the world’s musical cultures. And introductory courses on world music’ are gaining popularity with a generation of students for whom cultural diversity in music is almost as common as cultural diversity in food for the previous generation.
Cultural Diversity in Music Education
At the same time, there have been worrying developments. The movements against tolerance that we have witnessed in the United States from the late 1990s have now found resonance in many European countries. Xenophobia has struck in even the most tolerant environments, and the feardriven desire to return to an idylli cised monocultural past is a force to be reckoned with in maintaining established pro jects and developing new initiatives. Yet as the doors and windows of many nations were newly opened to the world only a generation ago, the masses of newly arrived peoples have required solutions to the hardpressed questions of accommodating dif ferences in societies that recognise the beauty and logic of intercultural communities of this age. We have time on our side. Even with borders closing, societies are getting increas ingly diverse, and the tastes of music lovers across the world are getting more eclectic. A young African may listen to Ghanaianhighlife, reggae and Bach; a Turkish teenager to traditionalsaz,arabeskand hiphop; and an Australian of Greek descent to gamelan, jazz and klezmer. The direct links between ethnicity and musical tastes are weakening, but the interest in diversity in music is increasing. At the same time, musical identi ties are holding in the ways that a Navajo retains the monophonic melody of tradi tional vocables above the full texture of his country band, and an Irishsean nossinger continues her melodic embellishment for international audiences despite the fact that they may understand neither the Gaelic language nor the complexities of the impro visational style. All of this makes for a complex and demanding, but at the same time rewardingly fertile field of activity. The richness of the past 10 years of harvesting is evident in this volume. While the emphasis in the 1990s was much on handing down pure’ traditions from (mostly Asian)Hochkulturen, and on collecting and reworking material for use in schools and theoretical courses, we are now witnessing the rise of community music activities and African music as major sources of learning and inspiration. Indigenous music of a nation, and national heritage musical styles, have emerged as important curricular and programmatic inclusions in primary and secondary schools, and in university programs in music education. Where there was once an overemphasis on performing authen tic’ music authentically’, there is a growing understanding that no music is frozen in time. Individual differences do occur from performer to performer, and from one per formance to the next. A hesitation to perform or even participate in music outside one’s own culture’ has given way to a more sensible and sensitive approach to per forming world music, taking into account the origin of the tradition and its new cir cumstances in each musical event. This is leading to a deeper awareness that many types of music transform in new times and places. With that, appropriate strategies for learning and teaching are being reconsidered as well. This was initially brought on by the very obvious challenges of teaching forms of world music outside their cultures of origin. However, at the forefront of the debate, this now does not only concern music traditions from nonwestern cultures trans planted into western settings, but also western music. Successful strategies from other cultures have made us question preconceptions we have about learning and teaching music in western mainstream traditions and institutions. In that way, our musical cul ture has almost come full circle: from exotism to tolerance to acceptance to inclusion. It is safe to say that the world of music education is now intrinsically culturally diverse, and so are its challenges and potential.
Cultural Diversity in Music Education
Local Musics, Global Issues
This book is divided into four sections. In Section One, four essays outline key issues in cultural diversity in music education. Drummond investigates claims made for mul ticultural music education over the past 40 years, Wiggins examines institutional challenges in teaching cultures other than one’s own, Folkestad explores the signifi cance of community music activities for world music, and Schippers presents a new model to understand learning and teaching practices from a global’ perspective. In Section Two, Marsh speaks of fieldwork to change preconceptions in tertiary students, and Laycock pleads for a greater use of musical vernaculars in composi tion. OmoloOngati provides an African perspective on learning and teaching, while Smith takes Irish music in workshop format as a starting point. Finally, Louhivuori, Salminen and Lebaka take an intercontinental choral perspective from Africa to Europe. In Section Three, the classroom is the focus. Cain looks at the challenges of world music at elementary school level, while Barton links Indian and Australian practices to more general considerations. In the final essay of this section, Harrison searches for a national identity in music education. Culture specific approaches are highlighted in Section Four. DunbarHall, Howard and Hamill present Asian perspectives based on practices from Bali, Korea and India respectively. Joseph, Klopper and Robinson represent African approaches. To con clude, Hartwig and Dillon and Chapman add views and experiences from Australia. In that way, this volume traces local traditions that have become global in their dissemination, not only through concerts and recorded sound, but embedded in prac tices of learning and teaching across the world. Conversely, it documents global issues and concerns in music education feeding back into a rich diversity of local practices. This diversity leads to a great variety of perspectives, depending on working environments, cultures, countries and levels of experience. Some contributors are overtly searching for directions; others have clearly taken positions. Contradictory viewpoints are put forward in this volume. No effort has been made to homogenise these, as they accurately represent a field in constant movement. In fact, in this flu idity and constant questioning may well lie the key strength of cultural diversity in music education for the 21st century.
Patricia Shehan Campbell Huib Schippers
PAT R I C I ASH E H A NCA M P B E L Lis Professor of Music at the University of Washington, and widely considered as a leading authority and advocate for cultural diversity in music education. She is a teacher and an active musician, and authored numerous books on music for children. She has lectured on world music education and childrens musical involvement throughout the United States; in much of Europe and Asia; and in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.
HUIBSCHIPPERSis Director of the Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre at Griffith University, Brisbane. He was trained as a sitar player, and has headed numerous projects bringing world music to new audiences for over 20 years, publishing and lecturing on the subject across the globe. In 1992, he established the international Cultural Diversity in Music Education (CDIME) network, which has become a lively platform for exchange of practices and ideas between performing musicians, educators and scholars.
Cultural Diversity in Music Education
Cultural Diversity in Music Education
Section One
Challenges and Issues