349 pages
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Vocal Science for Elite Singers

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Once again, noted tenor, teacher, researcher, and operatic director, Joseph Talia, delves deep into the world of singing with this exploration of the voice. Having addressed at length persistent issues of voice production in his recent book History of Vocal Pedagogy, he now turns his mind to the benefits of vocal science. 
He introduces a cavalcade of colourful historical characters whose diligent work and unrelenting pursuit of excellence have made a tremendous and enduring contribution to the art of singing, promoting a more direct, objective and secure route towards the goal of bringing elite singers and artists to fruition.
He analyses and clarifies the knowledge accruing from the early vocal scientists, including that from Ferrein, Müller, García, Mandl, Helmholtz, and having elaborated on its true value, he gives it perspective, and moves on to the contemporary scientists. Among the most notable of these modern scientists and pedagogues we find such modern luminaries as van den Berg, Bouhuys, Fant, Hixon, Rothenberg, Rubin, Appelman, Vennard, Miller, Sundberg, Titze and many others whom we encounter in the pages of this book.
Talia proclaims the value of physiologic and scientific work and is passionate about its possibilities, but is ultimately persuaded that in order to produce elite singers, this knowledge must be combined with intuition, and passion, balanced with a penetrating intellect and an unrelenting pursuit of greatness. Mediocrity in art, will never do. 
Vocal Science for Elite Singers is a vital resource for voice teachers, vocal researchers, serious vocal students, and vocal connoisseurs. 

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Publié par
Date de parution 30 janvier 2018
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781925644036
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 29 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0057€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Vocal Science for Elite Singers
A TribuTe To The uNrElENTiNg purSuit Of ExcEllENce in The art Of siNGiNg
J O S E P H T A L I A
Vocal Science for Elite Singers
A tribut t th unrelentin pursui o excellenc i th ar o ingin
J O S E P H T A L I A
AUSTRALIANACADEMICPRESS
Other books by this author: A History of Vocal Pedagogy: Intuition and Science
First published 2017 by: Australian Academic Press Group Pty. Ltd. 18 Victor Russell Drive Samford Valley QLD 4520, Australia www.australianacademicpress.com.au
Copyright © 2017 Joseph Talia
Copying for educational purposes TheAustralian Copyright Act 1968(Cwlth) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited, 19/157 Liverpool Street, Sydney, NSW 2000. Email info@copyright.com.au
Production and communication for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act, for example a fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
Vocal Science for Elite Singers ISBN 9781925644029 (paperback) ISBN 9781925644036 (ebook)
Publisher: Stephen May Copy editing: Rhonda McPherson Cover design: Luke Harris, Working Type Studio Typesetting: Lizelle van Antwerpen, Precisio Limited Illustrations: Heather Macallan Printing: Lightning Source
I’d like to dedicate this book to my beautiful grandchildren: Maxy, Frankie and Tommy.
FOREWORD
What distinguishes singing from other kinds of music making is that the singer is the instrument. Historical writings on pedagogy going back to the 17th century reflect this fact that player and instrument are one: the singer or singingteacher author makes no distinction between the knowledge of voice, the experience of singing, and the practice of teaching. Until the mid20th century, books on singing and the teaching of singing described the author’s own subjective approach built on years of experience — as student, singer, and teacher. This continued the centuriesold practice, where wisdom was passed from master to student in an oral tradition emphasising listening, observing, and doing. In 1968 William Vennard published the fifth edition of his seminal work, Singing: The Mechanism and the Technic. In the Preface he wrote: ‘As the title indicates, this book is frankly mechanistic. It is an attempt to compile under one cover objective findings from various reliable sources and to relate them to the art of singing’. Vennard’s approach broke new ground, marking a distinct departure from the body of writings on singing up to that time. This need to deal with the person as the musical instrument means that the centuriesold master–apprentice tradition of vocal pedagogy continues, despite a breakdown in many of the assumptions underpinning it, and despite modern educational and performance pressures. There is pressure on teachers to be time efficient and to work with students of all voice types and across a wide repertoire. And there is pressure on elite singers to perform demanding repertoire all over the world at a consistently high standard. While there are basic musical and vocal principles that may well be taught in small groups, the need remains for individual work geared to the specific needs and abilities of the student. Since Vennard’s time there has been a rapidly growing body of literature on the physical operation of the vocal instrument, most of it published in scientific journals. However, of necessity, much scientific research is limited to isolated factors in a small number of research subjects. For this informa tion to be applied to singing it needs to be incorporated into a detailed, but holistic approach of broad application. It is Vennard’s approach of compiling objective findings and relating them to the art of singing that is required in training elite singers to meet the demands of 21st century international performance, and that is the approach taken by Joseph Talia in this book. Like Richard Miller, Talia has
an extensive knowledge of the teaching of the old masters, as well as a com prehensive knowledge of recent voice science. In this book he brings them together to answer the questions raised by current practitioners striving for the technical excellence to meet the musical and emotional demands ofelite performance. Talia examines the physical coordinations influencing resonance, pitch, and dynamics. This leads him to a detailed examination of the central role of breath management in control of the vocal instrument, which is followed by analysis of the factors involved in the voice source and the vocal tract, and their interrelation. What happens above the larynx has a great influ ence on the final product, requiring elite singers to have fine control of the resonators and the elements that change their shape. This includes a very valuable analysis of the dominant role of the tongue, the articulation of vowels and consonants, the production of formants and formant tuning. Talia applies his research to assess the diverse techniques advocated by different writers, from those of the historical international singing schools to current individual authors. He points out that building the physiological and mechanical elements needed by elite singers is very much the same process as that needed for developing elite athletes: ‘The thing to remember is that the human body is your instrument’. Dr Jean Callaghan, PhD, FTCL, LMusA Author of Singing and Science: Body, Brain and Voice (2014)
CONTENTS
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction: A Holistic View of the Vocal Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 1: BREATHING FOR SINGING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Teacher’s Ear: His/Her Greatest Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Muscles of Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Muscles of Inspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Central Tendon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Research Findings on the Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Action of the Diaphragm in Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 2: THE VOCAL SUPPORT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Muscles of Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Active and Passive Expiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Lung Volume, Pressure and Recoil Force. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Lung Capacity – Volumes and Muscle Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Breathing Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 3: SUBGLOTTIC PRESSURE: THE VOCAL DRIVING FORCE . . . . . . . . Airflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection Between the Breath and Larynx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bernardo Mengozzi’s Method De Chant: The Sostegno System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contemporary Science and the Historical Italian Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  William Vennard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Miller and Appoggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary to Subglottal Pressure and Breath Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions To Breathing Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 4: SOURCEBREATH CONNECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Vocal Instrument: BreathSource Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 5: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LARYNX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Brief History of the Larynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Antoine Ferrein and Johannes Müller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Janwillem Van den Berg’s Big Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Van den Berg’s Attack on Husson’s NeuroChronaxic Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Myoelastic/Aerodynamic Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v xiii
1 3 8 10 10 10 13 18
21 23 24 37 38 42 46
49 52 53 57 66 66 70 75 77
83 86
87 87 89 91 91 93
vii
Vocal Science for Elite Singers
The Bernoulli Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vocal Fold Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusions of Vocal Fold Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 6: THE LARYNX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Extrinsic Muscles of the Larynx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Suprahyoid Muscle Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Infrahyoid Muscle Group: Laryngeal Depressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laryngeal Cartilages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Thyroarytenoids: The Muscularis and Vocalis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conus Elasticus (Cricovocal Membrane) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Composition of the Vocal Folds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vocal Fold Interaction in the Body Cover Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prephonatory Tuning and the Voluntary Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Prephonatory and Motoneurone Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 7: VOCAL ONSET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simultaneous or Soft Onset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Forms of Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Breathy Onset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hard Onset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 8: GARCÍA’S COUP DE GLOTTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Continuing Attack on the Coup de Glotte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sustained Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Wyke’s Acoustic Automonitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vocal Fold Behaviour. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Vocal Folds in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Phonation Frequency (Pitch). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phonation Frequency Combined With Register Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Increases in Intensity and Messa di Voce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Crescendo in Modal Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Lowering Pitch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Vocal Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 9: REGISTRATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of Research Findings Relating to Registers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collective Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Characteristics of Heavy Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Characteristics of Light Register or Falsetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
viii
94 96 102
105 105 106 106 106 107 108 111 112 113 114 114
117 118 119 119 120 122
127 130 137 137 138 139 141 143 144 144 145 145
149 151 152 152 152
Contents
Transition Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chest Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lower Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upper Middle Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Falsetto Register. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hirano’s Work On Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body/Cover Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Register Blending and Styles of Unification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Old School Method Of Register Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Harmonic/Formant Matching or Aggiustamento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Covering or Collecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . French Couverture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Register Unification Through Muscle Adjustment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aiding Register Change through Voce Chiusa (Closed Voice) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion on the Voice Source. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion to Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER10: LINEAR AND NONLINEAR SOURCETRACT INTERACT. . . . . . . . Fant’s Source/Filter Linear Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interactive SourceTract Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Interactive Model of Voice Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Titze’s Resonant Voice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Conclusions to the Linear and Interactive Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
CHAPTER 11: THE PHARYNX AS A RESONATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Anatomical and Physiological Elements of the Pharynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Oropharynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Tongue: The Mobile Floor of the Mouth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Nasopharynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Nasalance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Laryngopharynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Roof of the Mouth: The Hard Palate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Roof of the Mouth: The Soft Palate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Constrictors: Wall of the Larynx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Anatomy of the Lips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Role of the Lips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The Jaw (Mandible). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Cardinal Vowels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  International Phonetic Alphabet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Vowel Modification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Conclusions of Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
153 154 154 154 155 155 155 157 160 164 166 167 168 169 169 170 171
173 173 174 177 184 189
191 192 194 195 199 200 202 203 203 205 206 208 209 212 214 216 218
ix