L

L'Irlande, l'Europe et 1992 / Ireland, Europe and 92

Livres
144 pages

Description

Lors du référendum d’adhésion en 1972, les Irlandais ont dit un « oui » enthousiaste à l’Europe. Malgré les apports importants de la Communauté, l’enthousiasme a depuis diminué. Il reste, cependant, une claire volonté chez les Irlandais, aussi bien du Nord que du Sud, d’intégrer de plus en plus l’Europe. Les difficultés auxquelles ils devront faire face, pour y parvenir, sont quand même nombreuses. On les dit préparés économiquement à affronter la nouvelle situation à partir de 1992, encore faut-il que l’espoir et la réalité coincident. La grande réconciliation entre des vieilles nations que représente aussi la construction de l’Europe pourra, peut-être, servir finalement de modèle pour les protestants et les catholiques de l’Ulster. Et la neutralité irlandaise, unique au sein de la Communauté, est une source de contradictions qu’il faut bientôt confronter. Le débat politique, seule voie pour exposer et résoudre ces problèmes, n’a pas été, jusqu’à maintenant, à la hauteur des enjeux.


Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 02 février 2018
Nombre de visites sur la page 0
EAN13 9782878548952
Licence : Tous droits réservés
Langue Français

Informations légales : prix de location à la page  €. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Signaler un problème
L'Irlande, l'Europe et 1992 / Ireland, Europe and 92
Paul Brennan (dir.)
Éditeur : Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle Année d'édition : 1992 Date de mise en ligne : 2 février 2018 Collection : Monde anglophone ISBN électronique : 9782878548952
http://books.openedition.org
Édition imprimée ISBN : 9782878540246 Nombre de pages : 144
Référence électronique BRENNAN, Paul (dir.).L'Irlande, l'Europe et 1992 / Ireland, Europe and 92.Nouvelle édition [en ligne]. Paris : Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 1992 (généré le 02 février 2018). Disponible sur Internet : . ISBN : 9782878548952.
Ce document a été généré automatiquement le 2 février 2018. Il est issu d'une numérisation par reconnaissance optique de caractères.
© Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 1992 Conditions d’utilisation : http://www.openedition.org/6540
PAUL BRENNAN
Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle
SOMMAIRE
Présentation
Introduction: 1992 The economic challenge for Ireland David O'Sullivan
The Irish constitution and ratification of the Single European Act J. Paul McCutcheon Introduction The Constitution and membership of the European Communities The European Communities (Amendment) Act, 1986 Title III Consequences Conclusion
Le référendum sur l’Acte Unique Européen Paul Brennan Les implications Les Forces en présence Les Résultats
Northern Ireland and the European Community An extended platform Edward P. Moxon-Browne The implication of EC membership The European Parliament Conclusion
Ireland and nuclear power Tomas Duffy
Communauté européenne et droits des femmes en Irlande : quel impact ? Elisabeth Gaudin L’héritag e du passé Les débuts du chang ement L’emploi et les prestations sociales Les questions touchant à la vie privée
La migration contemporaine irlandaise : quelques perspectives Piaras Mac Éinri Actualités et perspectives Réponses politiques et publiques à l’émig ration L’émig ration et l’exil : différentes perspectives Définir les sous-g roupes de l’émig ration actuelle L’émig ration forcée, l’émig ration choisie Découvrir les vraies raisons de l’émig ration Destinations choisies par les récents émig rés irlandais
Le rendez-vous manqué des élections européennes Catherine Maignant L’irlande et le Parlement Européen La pré-campag ne La campag ne sur le terrain Les résultats
Bibliographie sur l’Irlande et l’Europe Richard Deutsch
Présentation
Lors du référendum d’adhésion en 1972, les Irlandai s ont dit un « oui » enthousiaste à l’Europe. Malg ré les apports im portants de la Com m u nauté, l’enthousiasm e a depuis dim inué. Il reste, cependant, une claire volonté chez les Irlandais, aussi bien du Nord que du Sud, d’intég rer de plus en plus l’Europe. Les difficultés auxquelles ils devront faire face, pour y parvenir, sont quand m êm e nom breuses. On les dit préparés économ iquem ent à affronter la nouvelle situation à partir de 1992, encore faut-il que l’espoir et la réalité coincident. La g rande réconciliation entre des vieilles nations qu e représente aussi la construction de l’Europe pourra, peut-être, servir finalem ent de m o dèle pour les protestants et les catholiques de l’Ulster. Et la neutralité irlandaise, unique au sein de la Com m unauté, est une source de contradictions qu’il faut bientôt confron ter. Le débat politique, seule voie pour exposer et résoudre ces problèm es, n’a pas été, jusqu’à m aintenant, à la hauteur des enjeux.
Introduction: 1992 The economic challenge for Ireland
David O'Sullivan
I should beg in with two prelim inary rem arks. Firstly, thoug h the title of m y article m ay be "1992-The Econom ie Challeng e for Ireland", and for this reason I will focus on an econom ic analysis, this is not in any way to dim inish the ultim ate political objective of the European Com m unity. The construction of Europe is a politica l act and cannot be seen in purely econom ic term s. The functionalist approach to Europ ean integ ration followed since the creation of the EEC m ay m ean that econom ics is the m otor of European integ ration but it is no m ore than a m eans to a political end. Secondly, from a political as from an econom ic poin t of view, 1992 is not only a challeng e for Ireland but is a challeng e for the continent as a whole. 1992 is Europe's chance to initiate a real process of econom ic reg eneration al ong with the recovery of lost international com petitiveness while also laying the foundations of closer political union. I would like to divide m y article in three m ain par ts: a brief review of Ireland's situation up to the present day including the im pact of Com m unity m em bership, a review of the Sing le European Act and its im plications in particular for Ireland; and finally a look at the future.
The Past
Ireland is a sm all, poor country with few natural r esources. This is som ething which all of us are taug ht at school and it is a central part of our subconscious. The only other country that I know which attem pts to inculcate its schoolchildren with such a neg ative view of its econom ic potential is Japan and that just g oes to s how how you can start from the sam e prem ise and yet arrive at two startling ly different conclusions! Ireland's econom ic difficulties were in part attrib uted to the long years of a colonial relationship with the United King dom and it was not surprising that with the com ing of independence there was a lot of optim ism about how a national adm inistration would be better able to adm inister the econom y. Unfortunately, while som e im portant steps were m ade, it proved very difficult to overcom e the m any problem s and Ireland of the 1930s, 40s and 50s was indeed a relatively poor and underdeveloped country. Much of national policy at that tim e was based on the prom otion of local industries behind protectionist barriers. By the m id-1950s, this policy was deem ed to be insufficient and there was a period of consid erable econom ic activity which culm inated in the conclusion in 1965 of a free trad e ag reem ent with the United King dom and in 1973 with m em bership of the European Com m unity. In fact, the Ang lo-Irish Free Trade Ag reem ent took down m ost of Ireland's industrial barriers particularly in the area of clothing , textiles, cars and footware. In 1958, 79% of Irish
exports went to the United King dom and only 5% went to the EEC. The g reatest disadvantag e for Ireland of its bilate ral dependence on trade with the United King dom was in the area of ag riculture, since the B ritish policy of cheap food im ports m eant that Ireland was constantly obtaining very lo w prices for its ag ricultural produce which in fact constituted one of its m ain export it em s. This was the m ajor econom ic incentive for joining the EEC. Accession to the Com m unity cam e about in 1973 and w as accom panied by a period of relatively hig h econom ic perform ance. From 1972 to 1982 m anufacturing output went up five tim es the Com m unity averag e. There was also a vast increase in the am ount of trade with the rest of Europe. By 1985, 35% of Irish exports went to other European countries and the proportion of exports g oing to the United King dom had fallen to 33%. In ag riculture, of course, the com m on Ag ricultural Policy broug ht considerable benefits notably throug h the hig h level of g uaranteed prices. It is estim ated that the trade and transfer benefits from the CAP alone am ounted to 7% of Irish GNP in 1981. Furtherm ore, the budg etary transfers from the European Com m unity m eant a considerable injection of capital estim ated at 6% of GNP in 1986. Finally, foreig n investm ent increased because of Ir eland's potential as a jum ping off point for the European m arket. In the period 1973 to 1986, foreig n investm ent was 7.4 billion as ag ainst 1.4 billion in the previous twelve-year per iod. 7% of US investm ent in Europe is located in Ireland. So m uch for the positive side. But were there no ne g ative effects of Com m unity m em bership? It is hard to identify possible neg ative effects of Com m unity m em bership larg ely because m em bership of the Com m unity coincided with an inter national recession. This is an im portant psycholog ical factor which should not be underestim ated in term s of people’s perception of the Com m unity. I could add in passing that this is also a factor which is im portant in relation to the United King dom where a ccession to the Com m unity is associated in the m inds of the ordinary citizen with a period of rising unem ploym ent and falling living standards even thoug h any objective econom ist would say there is absolutely no relationship between the two. Indeed, quite on t he contrary m em bership of the Com m unity probably sheltered both Britain and Ireland from som e of the worst effects of the g eneral international recession. However, it is clear that Ireland experienced a hig h rise of unem ploym ent in com m on with the rest of Europe. In 1973, unem ploym ent in Irelan d was 5.6%; in 1986, it was 18%. It is worth noting , thoug h, that the Com m unity averag e over the sam e period was 2.8% for 1973 and 12% for 1986. So in relative term s Ireland’s po sition has not notably disim proved. Of course, this is not necessarily m uch consolation to the m any people who find them selves on the dole but it is im portant in term s of analysing cause and effect, particularly if one wants to find rem edies. In addition, there was a hug e increase in public bo rrowing . This is a larg ely self-inflicted wound which can hardly be blam ed on the Com m unity thoug h there is no doubt that the g eneral air of prosperity which accom panied the ear ly years of accession contributed to a som ewhat spendthrift attitude on the part of all Governm ent parties. On balance, there is no evidence to sug g est, contra ry to what was alleg ed by m any during the referendum cam paig n, that m em bership of the Eur opean Com m unity was dam ag ing