English - Ciyawo Learner's Dictionary

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The English-Ciyawo dictionary has been designed to help Yawo learners improve their English language skills for undertaking secondary school and university in the following ways: It helps a Yawo learner identify and learn the 3,000 most important and frequently used words in the English language. It gives a learner the most important meanings of each English word. It shows a learner how an English word is used in a sentence and also gives a translation of each sentence in Ciyawo to help a learner fully grasp the meaning.

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Date de parution 27 février 2018
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EAN13 9789996045295
Langue English

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Copyright © 2018 Ian D. Dicks
First Published 2018
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission from the copyright holder.
Published by Mzuni Press P/Bag 201 Luwinga, Mzuzu 2 Malawi
e Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 8th Edition was originally published in English in 2010. Adapted extracts used in this bilingual edition are published by arrangement with Oxford University Press.
ISBN 978-99960-45-28-8 eISBN 97-99960-45-29-5
Mzuni Press is represented outside Malawi by: African Books Collective Oxford (also for e-books) (orders@africanbookscollective.com)
www.africanbookscollective.com www.mzunipress.blogspot.com www.facebook.com/Ciyawo-English-Dictionary-Project-271718039673958
Acknowlepgements
Cover Design - Oswald Kurten Graphic Design & Layout - Oswald Kurten Office oversight - Itumetsi Mkumpha Finance - Wendy Dicks Contractual advice - Ivan James Printed & bound by Novus Print Solutions, a Novus Holding company, Cape Town, South Africa Oxford University Press Representatives - Joseph Noble & Patrick White Dictionary Compilation Software – TshwaneLex Centre for Language Studies, Zomba, University of Malawi
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Contents
Ana ligongo cici kuli kwakusosekwa kupanganya dikishonale ja ŵakulijiganya Cingelesi mu Ciyawo? Ciyawo cili ciŵeceto cakupagwa naco ŵandu ŵakwana 2.5 miliyoni ku yilambo ya Malawi, Mozambique ni Tanzania. Ku Malawipe, ŵandu ŵakupunda 1.7 miliyoni akusaŵeceta Ciyawo ku nyumba syawo, cacili ciŵalanjilo cakupunda 13.5% ja ciŵalanjilo ca ŵandu m’cilambo cosope ca Malawi. Atamose kuti Ciyawo cikusaŵecetegwa ni ŵandu ŵajinji, pangali mabuku gakwanila gampaka gakamucisye ŵakulijiganya kuti ajawusye pasogolo ukombosi wawo wa ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi. Ku Malawi, Chichewa cili ciŵeceto cekulungwa cakusakamulisya masengo m’sukulu sya pulayimale, nambo Cingelesi cikusakamula masengo ku sekondale, m’mayunifesite ni m’makoleji. Dikishonaleji jipanganyigwe mwakwaganicisya ŵakulijiganya, mnopemnope ŵakusaka kwawusya pasogolo ukombosi wa ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi pandaŵi jakukosecela majiganyo ga ku sekondale, nambo soni m’mayunifesite ni m’makoleji. Cijakamucisye soni ŵandu ŵakusaka kwawusya pasogolo ukombosi wawo wa ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi pakwenda m’yilambo yine, pakutenda malonda ni pakukunguluka ni ŵandu ŵane. Dikishonaleji cijakamucisye ŵakulijiganya ŵa Ciyawo m’matala aga: cijape upile wakugapikanicisya maloŵe gagali gakusosekwa mnope nambo soni gagakusakamula mnope masengo m’ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi. Nambo soni dikishonaleji jikupeleka ngopolelo sya maloŵe gelega ni kulosya mwampaka agakamulicisye masengo mu yiganisyo ni m’misigasyangani.
Ana cakusosekwa mnope cakwamba maloŵe ga mu dikishonaleji ni cici? M’ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi mwana maloŵe gakwana 170,000 gagakusakamula masengo. Gagali maloŵe gejinji! Ana jwakulijiganya mpaka amanyilile kuti akwenela kulijiganya gapi mwa maloŵega? Kupitila pakuwungunya kwekulungwa, ciwanja ca Oxford University Press capatile maloŵe 3,000 gakusosekwa mnope nambo soni gagakusakamula masengo mnope mu ciŵeceto ca Cingelesi. Naga kulijiganya maloŵe 3,000 gelega, jwakulijiganya cacikola ukombosi wakupikana ciŵandika 85% ja yakulembegwa cisawu mabuku, nyusipepala, maatiko ni yine. Liloŵe lya Cingelesi lililyose lyaligopolelegwe mu dikishonaleji likutyocela mu mndandanda wa maloŵe gakusosekwa mnope nambo soni gakukamula masengo mnope wakupanganyigwa ni ciwanja ca Oxford University Press.
Ŵandu ŵa yiŵeceto yakulekangana akusayiwona ni kuyigopolela yindu mwakulekangana Pacaŵalanjeje ngopolelo sya maloŵe ga Cingelesi mu dikishonaleji komboleka kuyiwona kuti ngopolelo sine sikulekangana ni mwakusaganicisya kapena ni mwakusati kukamulisya masengo ndaŵi syosope. Kulekangana kweleku nganiwuŵa ulemwa, nambo tumanyilile kuti ŵandu ŵa ndamo syakulekanganalekangana akusayiwona ni kuyigopolela yindu mwakulekanganalekangana. Mu dikishonaleji tulinjile kugopolela maloŵe malingana ni yakusati kugapikana maloŵego acimsyene ŵaŵapali naco Cingelesi, mnopemnope ŵandu ŵakutyocela yilambo ya ku United Kingdom, Australia, Canada ni United States of America. Mwacilandanyo, m’cigopolelo cetu ca liloŵe lyakuti ‘dog’ tulondesisye kuti ‘dog’ cili cinyama cakulanga kuti cikusangalasyeje, cisakuleje kapena cilondeleje pa malo. Nambo kwa ŵandu ŵa Ciyawo mbwa ngakusajiganicisya kuŵa cinyama cakwasangalasya ŵandu. Mbwa, mnopemnope, jikusakamula masengo gakusakula yinyama kapena kulondela yindu. Nambope ŵandu ŵajinji ŵakusaŵeceta Cingelesi mpela ciŵeceto cakupagwa naco akusasunga cinyamaci mpela cakwasangalasya. Nganisyo syelesi sili syakusosegwa kusipikanicisya pakatema katukulijiganya mate ga liloŵe lyakuti ‘dog’, lyalili ku Cingelesi. Nganisyosi sikutusalila uwe kuti jemanjawo akusaciwona cinyamaci mwakulekangana ni mwakusaciwonela ŵane.
Mpaka akamulisye masengo camtuli dikishonale jeleji?
Dikishonale jeleji cijakamucisye ŵakulijiganya kumanyilila kalembe kakulondola ka maloŵe ga Cingelesi. Cijakamucisye kumanyilila ngopolelo sya maloŵe nambo soni kuti mpaka akamulisye masengo uli maloŵe gelega pakugalemba kapena kugaŵeceta m’yiganisyo ni m’misigasyangani. Dikishonaleji jikupeleka ngopolelo sya liloŵe syakwana pane mcece. Ngopolelosi sikuŵaga mate gakulekanganalekangana ga liloŵelyo. Dikishonale jeleji jikusala soni kuti liloŵelyo lili upande waci wa maloŵe. Yeleyi yikolanjigwa kuti upande wa maloŵe (part of speech). Dikishonaleji jikupitilisya kulosya upande wa liloŵe lililyosye, pakuya malamusi ga ciŵeceto. Mena ga mawupande gelega, pampepe ni maloŵe gane gakusosekwa galembegwe mu mndandanda wawupelecegwe mwiŵandamu (tables 1 & 2). Ngopolelo jilijose ja liloŵe mu dikishonaleji jikwika ni cilandanyo cakulosya mwampaka liwonecele kapena mwampaka likamulile masengo liloŵelyo m’ciganisyo.
Mpaka agapate uli maloŵe mu dikishonaleji? Maloŵe gosope ga Cingelesi gagagopolelegwago galembegwe pakuya mndandanda wa yilembo ya ciŵeceto (alphabet). Kuti alipate liloŵe lyakusosa, akwenela kuganisya kaje ya yilembo yalikutandila liloŵelyo. Akwenela kutanda kulola cilembo candanda ca liloŵelyo kaneko ni kulola yilembo yine yakuyicisya, pakulekanganya ni maloŵe gane gagakwete yilembo yakulandanila kundanda. Mwacilandanyo, liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyakuti ‘acid’ likusayika mkaniliyice liloŵe lyakuti ‘bed’ ligongo lyakuti mu mndandanda wa maloŵe ga mu Cingelesi cilembo ca ‘a’ cikusayika mkaniciyice cilembo ca ‘b’. Kaneko akwenela kusosa maloŵe gagakwete yilembo yiŵili yakundanda yakulandana ni liloŵe lyakusosalyo. Mwacilandanyo, liloŵe lya ‘bat’, mu dikishonaleji likuwoneka mkaniliyice liloŵe lya ‘bed’ ligongo lyakuti liloŵe lya ‘bat’ likwete cilembo ca ‘a’ mpela cilembo cakuyicisya ku cilembo candanda. Nambo liloŵe lya ‘bed’ likwete cilembo ca ‘e’ mpela cakuyicisya ku cilembo candanda ca liloŵelyo. Naga ali agapatile mapeji gagakwete yilembo yakutandilayo akwenela kulolecesya mwinani kapena pasi kapena pa mapeji gosopego mpaka ali alipatile liloŵe lyakulisosalyo. Akumbucile kuti maloŵe ga Cingelesi komboleka kola kalembe kakulandana nambo gali gakulekangana mawupande gakwe ga maloŵe (lina, msali, mlondecesya ni yine). Mwacilandanyo, liloŵe lya ‘back’ likwete kalembe kamo nambo lilyolyo komboleka kuŵa lina, msali, mlondecesya nambo soni mjonjecesi. Ayi yigopolela kuti kuli kwakusosekwa kulolecesya upande wa maloŵe walili liloŵelyo. Myoyo cacikombola kupikanicisya kwene mwampaka alikamulicisye masengo cenene liloŵelyo m’yiganisyo.
Yatutite kulosya yimanyilo ya makuga ga mena ga Ciyawo mu dikishonaleji Yindu yine yakusimanikwa m’mawupande ga dikishonale jeleji yili yakusosekwa kuyilondecesya mwakwanila. Maloŵe ga Cingelesi gejinji gakwete yigopolelo yakwe m’Ciyawo. Nambo maloŵe gane gangali yigopolelo ya mu Ciyawo. Pa ligongo lyeleli nganitupeleka yigopolelo ya maloŵego m’Ciyawo. Kwa maloŵe ga Cingelesi gane, yili yangakomboleka kulemba maloŵe gakulandana nago ngopolelo ga m’Ciyawo, ligongo yeleyi mpaka yimale malo. Pa lyele ligongoli tukamulisye masengo maloŵe gaŵili gagakwimila maloŵe gane gosope, gagakwete cimanyilo ca makuga ga mena ga cindu ‘ci’ ni cimanyilo ca makuga ga mena ga mundu kapena ŵandu ‘ju’ kapena ‘ŵa’. Cilandanyo ca yeleyi cili mkwimilam’malo jwa liloŵe lya Cingelesi ‘other’. Mu dikishonale jetuji, cagawoneje maloŵe gaŵili ga Ciyawo gagakugopolela yiganisyo yayigopolela liloŵe lya Cingelesili ‘other’. Maloŵe gelega gali ‘cine’ ni ‘ŵane’. Nambo maloŵe gaŵili gelega nganigaŵa gagogopego gagakugopolela liloŵe lya ‘other’. Pana mena gane m’Ciyawo gagakugopolela liloŵe lya ‘other’ nambo gakwete yimanyilo ya makuga ga mena yakulekanganalekangana. Mwacilandanyo, tukajonjecesye maloŵe gakuti ‘jine’, ‘yine’, ‘gane’, ‘wine’ ni maloŵe gane. Nambo soni ndaŵi sine mu cigopolelo ca cilandanyo ngatukusakamulisya kaŵe kasyesyene ka cilandanyoco. Mwacilandanyo mu ngopolelo jaŵili ja liloŵe lyakuti ‘other’ mu cilandanyo cakuti ‘Mwanjawo ŵajimice mkono umo kaneko soni wine’ tukamulisye masengo liloŵe lyakuti ‘wine’ m’malo mwa ‘cine’ ligongo liloŵe lyakuti ‘wine’ likamulana ni lina ‘mkono’.
Yejinji Mu dikishonaleji caliwone liloŵe lyakuti ‘yejinji’. Liloŵeli likulosya kutupiya kwa lina mu Cingelesi. Lina mpaka liŵe lya mundu, cinyama, cindu kapena nganisyo nambo pakusaka kuti yipikanice mwangasawusya tukamulisye masengo liloŵe lyakuti ‘yejinji’ pakusaka kulosya kutupiya kwa linalyo mu Cingelesi. Libokosi lyakuyicisyali likulosya mawupande ga maloŵe m’Cingelesi ni m’Ciyawo.
Yindu yakusosekwa yakulekanganalekangana yakutukamucisya kuyimanyilila yakwamba liloŵe lyalikugo- polelegwa Pakusaka kwakamucisya ŵakulijiganya kuti apikanicisye yindu yayikupanganya ngopolelo sya liloŵe lya Cingelesi, tulosisye cilandanyo ca yindu yayikusimanikwa mu cigopoleloco yayili pa mtwe wakuyicisya wakutiKandandanganye ka peji ja dikishonale (Diagram 1). Liloŵe lyaligopolelegwe lililyose likwete yindu ayi: Liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwa.Ali lili liloŵe lyakulisosasosalyo. Mate ga liloŵe.Asi sili sine mwa ngopolelo syakulekangana sya liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwalyo. Ngopolelo ja liloŵe m’Ciyawo.Aci cili cigopolelo ca liloŵe lya Cingelesi m’Ciyawo (maloŵe gane ga Cingelesi nganigakola yigopolelo yakulandana nayo m’Ciyawo). Ngopolelo.Ngopolelo jikusalondesya mate ga liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwalyo. Cilandanyo.Cikusalosya mwalikusakamulila masengo liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwa m’ciganisyo kapena mu msigasyangani. Cigopolelo ca cilandanyo.Aji jili ngopolelo ja cilandanyo ca Cingelesi mu Ciyawo. Kaŵe kane ka liloŵe.Yikusalosya kawonece kapena kapikanice kane ka liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwalyo naga lili mlondecesya. Kaŵe kane ka katema.Maloŵe aga gakulosya katema kane ka liloŵe lya Cingelesi lyalikugopolelegwa naga lili msali. Gakusalosya mwakusawonecela msali naga ali mu katema akano, katema kakwendelecela ni katema kamunyuma. Yejinji.yikusalosya yacikusati kakolanjigwe cinduco naga yili yejinji, naga liloŵelyo lili lina. Upande wa maloŵe.Yikusalosya mtundu wa liloŵelyo (lina, msali, mlondecesya, mjonjecesi, mkwimilam’malo ni yine).
DIAGRAM 1Kandandanganye ka peji ja dikishonale
TABLE 1Mndandanda wa maloŵe ga m’malamusi ga ciŵeceto
Noun
Verb
Auxiliary Verb / Modal verb
Adjective / Determiner
Adverb
Preposition
Conjunction
Exclamation
Abbreviation
Ordinal Number
Prefix
Definite Article
Indefinite Article
Infinitive Marker
Lina
Msali
Msali jwakamucisya
Mlondecesya
Mjonjecesi
Mpecesi
Mlumbikanyo
Msupuko
Mjipiyamaloŵe
Nambala ja mlosyamalo mu mlundunde
Mbwaticila ja pandanda
Mkusala lina jwakumanyisya
Mkusala lina jwangamanyisya
Cimanyilo ca msali jwangalosya katema
Plural
Yejinji
Libokosi lyakuyicisyali likulosya yine mwa yimanyilo yayikamwile masengo mu dikishonaleji ni yayikugopolela.
TABLE 2Mndandanda wa yimanyilo yakusosekwa
Cimanyilo
=
/
;
:
Yacikugopolela
Mkata maloŵe. Cimanyiloci cikulosya kuti yilembo yine ya liloŵe lya m’Ciyawo yikusoŵa. M’misali, cikwimila yilembo yiŵili yakundanda ‘ku’. Cikukamula masengo soni ni mkwimilam’malo ni mlondecesya pakulosya kuti cimanyilo ca mkwimilam’malo pangali.
Cimanyiloci cikulosya kuti ciganisyo kapena msigasyangani jwaciyawojo akugopolela yayili mu Cingelesiyo.
Cimanyiloci cikukamula masengo pakulekanganya maloŵe ga Ciyawo gaŵili kapena kupunda gagakulandana ngopolelo ni liloŵe lya Cingelesi.
Mpumulila mnope. Cimanyiloci cikukamula masengo mu ngopolelo m’malo mwa mjimicila kapena mpumulila. Cikugopolela kuti misigasyangani jiŵili jikupeleka ngopolelo syakulekangana panandi mu cigopolelo cimpepe ca liloŵe lya Cingelesi.
Mlundila. Cimanyiloci cikulosya kuti ngopolelo ja liloŵe jiyice pambesi. Ciganisyo ca cilandanyo cikwika panyuma pa mlundilajo.
Maloŵe ga Cingelesi ganganigakola gajakwe mu Ciyawo Cagawone maloŵe gane ga Cingelesi kuti nganigakola gajakwe ga Ciyawo gakulandana nago ngopolelo. Yeleyi yili myoyo ligongo lyakuti liloŵe lya Cingelesilyo komboleka kuŵa mu upande wa maloŵe wakutindana ni yalikuti kakamulisigwe masengo liloŵe lya Ciyawo kapena pa ligongo lyakuti m’ciŵeceto ca Ciyawo mwangali liloŵe lyaligopolela ndendende yayili mu Cingelesiyo. Pa ligongo lyelelyo tugambile kugopolela cilandanyoco pakamulisya masengo maloŵe gane ga Ciyawo gagakutendekasya kuti gapikanice cenene nambo soni gagakupeleka mate ga liloŵelyo mwakulondola.
Yagakusati kapikanice cenene maloŵe m’ciŵeceto Kupeleka mate ga ciganisyo kapena msigasyangani cili cindu cakusosekwa mnope kwetuwe mu dikishonaleji, kulekangana ni kusaka kulandanya maloŵe. Ndaŵi sine cayiwoneje kuti nganitugopolela ciganisyo kapena msigasyangani mwakuya katendekwe ka mu Cingelesi (Voice). Mwacilandanyo, m’malo mwakulemba katendekwe ka mkutendecekwela (Passive Voice), kakali kakumanyika mu Cingelesi, uwejo tukamulisye masengo katendekwe ka mkutenda (Active Voice). Yeleyi tutesile ni cakulinga cakuti ciganisyoco kapena msigasyanganijo jupikanice cenene kwa mundu jwa Ciyawo.
Kaŵe kakuti mundu ali jwamlume kapena jwamkongwe Yiŵeceto ya Cingelesi ni Ciyawo yikusalekangana m’matala gejinji. Kulekangana kumo kuli kwakuti m’ciŵeceto ca Ciyawo kaŵe kakuti mundu jwakutenda citendo ali jwamlume kapena jwamkongwe ngatukusakalosya mwakulolecela mnope. M’ciŵeceto ca Ciyawo tukusagamba