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Tokali ou le dernier voyage

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Description

Le narrateur, être dense et polymorphe, part à l'aventure, sans but précis, sillonnant l'Amérique du Sud, de Rio, à Carthagène, parcours d'une rédemption, en train, en bus, à la rencontre de l'Autre. Il croise Pierre et accepte un voyage qui le mènera vers ses amis, vers lui-même, à la lisière de la mort, de l'amour... Pierre, Jeanne, Joao, autant de personnages attachants et façonnés par un passé parfois commun, parfois complémentaire, prêts à faire une partie du chemin ensemble au son des légendes indiennes et de la musique enchanteresse d'un continent qui garde encore aujourd'hui tout son mystère.

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 novembre 2009
Nombre de lectures 246
EAN13 9782296242289
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page €. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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:>4"166-7<- 94(17- ,>k>1)->;Y9(;-144-94( <>;.(+- 4>7(1;- 8Q<144877(1-7=

2& ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

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78< 89>;(=187< ,(7< 4( 94(17- -= 14 ( ,1<9(;> ,- 6( ?>-on"(1 ;-61< >7
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6>;(144- ,- .-; <>; =8>=- 4( 487/>->; ,- 4"08;1D87 :>- 4-< (;+0-;< .-;6(1-7=
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ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki22

f866- 14 ( +8>=>6- ,- 4- .(1;- 6(4/;>78< ,>+1<187< 4-< 94>< .-;6-< -= 4-<
94>< ;(1<877>-< 4- 0(<(;, (?(1= ,>28>>78< 94(7<o
r8>< 78><>=187< -7 -..-= ;-?>< ,- 6(71A;- =8>=9.(1= 17(==-7,>- 0>1= (7<
(9;A< +-==- <>9(;(=187 (48;< :>-2- 6-=;8>?(1< -7q(4(1<1- 98>; >7-
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(?8>()4-< 6(1< ,(7< 4"(++86941<<-6-7= ,-<:>-44-< ,1<(1=d14 <(
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,"d<1- (?(1= <-6)4-d=d14 (<<86);1 -7+8;- ,(?(7=(/- 4( +8>4->; ,- <( 9-(>
,87= <-< 8;1/17-< 6>;1,187(4-<>=(1-7= 4( +(><- 9;-61A;- -= :>-
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4">71.8;6+(68>.4>,- 4( +84871<(=187 (/871<(7=- <-6)4(1-7= 2><=1.1-; +-==-
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(>B:>-44-< 4-< >71=>< +0(;/>-< ,> ;-7<-1/7-6-7= 6141=(1;- <- 41?;(1-7= (48;<o
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,(7< 4->; +0(1; ,- =-;;1)4-< )4-<<>;-< 8> ,(7< 4->;76- 4( 6(;:>-
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+866- 78><Y,-?(1-7= ;-7=;-; 94>< =(;, (> 9(C<o
v>-4:>-<d>7< <->4-6-7=Y,87= 4>1 -= 681Y-7>=187< <8;=1<
9;-<:>17,-67-<Y<(7< 78<=(4/1-Y6(1< -7;1+01< ,">7- .8;+- -= ,">7- ;><1<=(7+- :>1
>=(1-7= 17,>)1=()4-6-7= 7>-< ,(7< 78=;- +(6(;(,-;1- -= :>1 <- ;>/>7>;(1-7=
48;<:>- 4- )-<817 <"-7 .(1<(1= <-7=1; 98>; 4">7 8> 98>; 4"(>=;-Y,(7< 4-<
,2-)-4< /4(+>< 8> );O4(7=< ,-<d>;A<o
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/-7< ,- +-< ;>/187< <8>?-7= 899;16>-< -= -7?(01-<Y:>1 (?(1-7= +86)(==>
98>; 4->; 41)-;=>=(7,1< :>- 2- 6- =;8>?(1<?=;- 98>; (17<1 ,1;- <87
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+86)(==> 49d)(< :>- 98>; ,-< +(><-<>=;(7/A;-< 8> 98>; <(=1<.(1;- 4( ?(71=>
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(==1=>,6>=>-44- <>; 4"8;1/17- ,-< 0866-<Y-7 6?6- =-69< :>- ,- ;-<9-+=

2= ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

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(99(;-7+-<o
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7866(1=9>7- +-;=(17->98:>- >7- <1694- 89>;(=187 ,- 9841+- 8>
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71<81<Y ;-<=(>;(=->; -= 17=-;6>,1(1;- 9;1?14>/1>,(7< >7 7>/8+- ,"(;6-6-7=
:>1 4"(?(1= .17(4-6-7= +87,>1=9 o>(4( 8Q2- 4"(?(1< ;-=;8>?>9(; 4( 94><
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8Q<=;8>?(1= <87 .;A;-Y 8> :>1 6- ,1<(1= 4"1/78;-;o
f- ,-;71-; 9817= 6- +0(/;17(1= ,"(144->;<on- 7- <(?(1< :>81 9-7<-;ot> )1-7
n-(77- 7- <8>0(1=(1= 9(< :>- 78>< 78>< ;-7+87=;187< 98>; ,-< ;(1<87<
:>2"1/78;(1<Y 8> )1-7 7- ?8>4(1=d-44- 9(< +877(C=;- 4-< ,(7/-;< ,(7< 4-<:>-4<
<6-==(1= <87 .;A;- -= <8>0(1=(1=d-44- <->4-6-7= :>- +- <81= 4>1 :>1 4(
=1-7717.8;6>- ,- <-< ,>94(+-6-7=<Y +- :>1 4(1<<(1=>?1,-66-7= ,-< )4(7+< ,(7<
<87 -69481 ,> =-69<Y +(;n>(7 7- ,877(1= 2(6(1< )-(>+8>9 ,- ,>=(14< <>;
<( ?1-oi7 =8>= +(<Y 2- 7- 98>?(1< 9(< +;81;- :>"-44- 9>1<<-?=;- 2(48><-
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.81<Y 48;< ,- 78< ,-;71A;-< ;-7+87=;-<om4 7">-7 -..-= :>-=(1= 9(< -B+4>
n-(77- (1= .171 9(; 6- +87<1,>;-; +866- 4- 6(>?(1< />71- ,- <87 .;A;-o
n">=(1< 98>; -44- >7>=;(7/-;Y -7 ,>91= ,-< 41-7< :>1 6">71<<(1-7=9 n>(7 -=
6(4/;>+- :>- 2"(?(1< 9> .(1;- ,- )1-7 98>; 4>1o
m4 (?(1= >7 90C<1:>- :>1 7- 4(1<<(1= 9-;<877- 17,1..>;-7= =(7= 9(; 4- +I=>
+4(<<1:>- ,- <-< =;(1=< (>B 9866-==-< 4>/A;-6-7= <(144(7=-< :>- 9(; 4(
4>61A;- ,- <87 ;-/(;, :>1 <-6)4(1= ?8>< .8>144-; 4"76-om4 6- ;(99-4(1= >7
)><=- ,- 6(;);- 781; ;-9;><-7=(7= 4"-69-;->;y1)A;- 2->7- -7=;-?> ,(7<
>7 6><>- ,-w86-o |71/6(=1:>- -= <87/->;Y 14 (?(1= >7 (7 ,- 94>< :>- 681
6(1< +-4( 7- <- ?8C(1= />A;-or8><>=187< 4">7 -= 4"(>=;- ,- 4( 6?6- =(144-
+:>1 9-;6-==(1= ,- 78>< ;-/(;,-; ,(7< 4-< C->B <(7< 2(6(1< 9(;(C=;- 16948;-;
8> +87,-<+-7,;-o
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2">9;8>?(1< 98>; 4( 41==>;(=>;- ,-< .;>61<<-6-7=< 17=>;1->;< ;-687=(7=9
u1641+8Y9 n>41-7k;--7Y9 x86-;<-=q(>/0(6<x(7< 9(;4-; ,> ;81
,

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki2H

f0(;4-?144- -= ,- !(7D1)(;Y ,- k1878 -= ,-< (>=->;< ,>.-7,>< ,- 4(
)1)418=0A:>- .(6141(4- 8Q 2- ?84(1< 4-< 41?;-< ,(7< 6( 9;-61A;- 2->7-<<-o
p>1 (> 6817< <(?(1= ,-<<17-; -= 9-17,;- =(7,1< :>"14 6">=(1= ;(,1+(4-6-7=
1698<<1)4- ,">+;1;- :>81 :>- +- <81= :>1 <- 9>1<<- 9;-7,;- 98>; ,- 4(
41==>;(=>;-o j;><=;(=187 =8=(4- ,">7 />71- <(7< />71- +87,(67>9.;>61; -=9
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,+-< (/-7+-< ,- 9;-<<- :>1 <87= 4-< <>9-;6(;+0>< ,- 4">+;1=>;- 178,8;- -=
<(7< <(?->;<>7- ;-?(7+0- -7 <866- :>-2-9;-7(1< 49<>; 4( ?1- -= <>; 4-<
,1<9(;1=>< ,- 4( ,1<=;1)>=187 ,-< +0(7+-< -= ,-< =(4-7=<o
w=;89 41;- 4-< (>=;-<Y87 .171= 9(; 9-;,;- =8>= -<981; ,"17<91;(=187 -=
,+;>(=187 -= +- 7">=(1= +-;=-< 9(< 4( ?>- ,-< ?1=;17-< ,- 41);(1;-<Y(>B 914-<
?-;=1/17-><-< ,- )-<=d<-44-;<Y,- /;8< =1;(/-< -= ,- 9;1B 41==>;(1;-< :>1 (>;(1=
9> 6- +87,>1;- <>; 4-< +0-617< ,- 4( />>;1<87o
n>(7 <(?(1= 6-< .;><=;(=187< 17=16-< -= <- 68:>(1= ,- 681 <(7< 9(;?-71;
+-9-7,(7=96"-B(<9>;-; +(;2">=(1< (;;1?> 94- +87?(17+;-:>-2">+;1?(1<
:>(7, 6?6- +0(:>-28>; ,- 6( ?1- -= :>- 2- ?1?(1< ,- 687 =>4><+;19=->;
=(7,1< :>- 4>1 ?1?(1= ,"-B9>,1-7=< -= 787 9(< ,-< 9;8,>1=< ,- <( 9(<<187
98>; 4- ,-<<17o
f-4( 4>1>=(1= ,"(144->;< +8694A=-6-7=>/(4 +(; <-< 6(C=;-< <- =;8>?(1-7= =;A<
4817 ,"1+1o m4< 0(7=(1-7= 4-< ,><-;=< -= 4-< 94(/-< ,> +I=>,>k84.-u-;<1:>-Y
(>B +I=>< ,-q87.;-1, -= ,-w16)(>,Y=8>< +-< (?-7=>;1-;< :>1 (?(1-7=
+87:>1< 4->;< 4-==;-< ,- 78)4-<<- ,(7< 4- =;(.1+ ,"(;6-< 8> ,- ,1(6(7=< -7
1/78;(7= +0(:>- 6(=17 <"14< <-;(1-7= ?1?(7=< 4- <81;Y+866- 14< 0(7=(1-7= <87
-<9;1= ,"0866- 41);-o
f"-<= 49:>- <-6)4(1-7= <- 617>;(41<-; <87 ;86(7=1<6- -B(+-;)>-= <-<
)-<817< ,- );(?8>;-oq817< <(/- :>- 681 :>1 +-9-7,(7= 9;-7(1<
41+-7+(?-+ 4-< ;A/4-< (99;1<-< +0-D 4-< 9;?=;-<Y14 7"-7?1<(/-(1= <( ?1- :>">481/7>,>
f(9+1; -=Y98>; =8>= ,1;-Y-7 .>1=- 9-;6(7-7=- (?-+ 4>1d6?6-Y+0-;+0(7=9
<"(++86941; ,(7< 4-< 0(<(;,< :>1 <"8..;(1-7=94>1o m4 4>1 <-6)4(1= -7=-7,>
:>- <->4< 4-< 0(<(;,< -7 -..-= 6-7(1-7= <( ?1- -= :>- <-< ,>+1<187< -44-<d
6?6-< 7">=(1-7= :>- 4-< .;>1=< 2>=->B ,- +->Bd+1o
x( ?1-Y+866- 4( 61-77-Y7"(?(1= 9(<>=>2><:>"1+1 +- :>- 78>< (?187< ;??>o
r8=;- 9;-61A;- ;-7+87=;- ,> +I=>,-k>-7=1<du4(/- +866- 78><
(99-4187< +- =;8> ,(7< 4- ,2-)-4 8Q<- =;8>?(1= +(7=877>- 78=;- <-+=187
,"17=-;?-7=187Y7"(?(1= .17(4-6-7= -7/-7,;>(>+>7 (>=;- 0>;8D<6- :>- +-4>1
9;898<>9(; >7 +87.41= (>:>-4 78>< 7- +869;-7187< ;1-7 <1 +- 7"-<=
:>

2S ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

78>< 78>< =;8>?187< ,> 6(>?(1< +I=>,- 4"l1<=81;- -= :>"14 .(44(1= =8>=
,6?6- (++86941; <87 ,-?81;o
n"(?(1< ,-?(7+>4"(99-4 <8>< 4-< ,;(9-(>B -= 6-< ,1Bd0>1= (7< <-7=(1-7= )87
4"(?-7=>;- -= 4-< +8>9< .8>;;><o q87 )870->;>=(1= 166-7<- ,"(?81; 9>
(17<1>+0(99-;94( <+84(;1=>Y 94( .(6144- -= (> 687,- .1/>,-< (,>4=-< (>
9;1B ,- +- :>1 98>?(1= (99(;(C=;- =8>= ,- 6?6- +866- >7 (+=- ,- +8>;(/-o
n"(16(1< 6-< 9(;-7=< 6(1<2-<>..8:>(1< ,(7< >7- ?1- :>1 6"(99(;(1<<(1=
-B1/>@o p"(..-+=187 .(6141(4- .171<<(1= 9(; 6- <-6)4-; 899;-<<(7=-o
p686-7=>=(1= ?-7> ,"(44-; ?81; (144->;<o g"(44-; ?81; <"14 7"C (?(1= 9(< >7
(>=;- +I=> 94( ?>;1=>o n- ?8>4(1< 9(;=1;<9(;=1;<9(;=1;<
f- :>1>=(1= ,(7< 4"8;,;- ,-< +08<-<o + y> :>1==-;(< =87 9A;- -= =( 6A;-;<
f">=(1=>+;1= :>-4:>- 9(;= ,(7< 4- /;(7, 41?;-ooo i=2">=(1< 9(;=1 98>; ,- )87o
C
n- ,-?(1< :>1==-; 4(q(4(1<1- 98>; 4-< )8;,< ,>q>387/
8Q4"(;6>(6>;1+(17->=(1= -7 =;(17 ,- <"-741<-; -=Y-7 +-==- .17 ,- <-6(17- :>1
+8;;-<987,(1=94( .17 ,- 4( 68><<87 78>< ,-?187<978>?-(> 78>< :>1==-;Y
n>(7 ;-<=(7= <>; 4( +I=- -<=Y=(7= :>- <( ?1- 7"C ,-?-7(1= 9(< 1698<<1)4- -=
681Y/(/7(7={17y(87/ <(7< -7=08><1(<6- (.17 ,- =;(7<6-==;- 6-<
>=-;7-44-< ,>9?+0-<of-==- .81<Y+">=(1= <>;1->Bot7 <- )(==(1= ,(7< 4(
94(17,-<n(;;-< 8Q4"87 ,1<(1= :>- 4- <(7/ ,-< 0866-<
+8>4(1=9.48=<otQ<28>(1= (><<1 4- <8;= ,- 4"d<1- ,>x>,i<= -= 9->=d?=;- +-4>1 ,> 687,-of">=(1=
687 :>8=1,1-7 ,-9>1< 9;A< ,- 0>1= (77>-< -= +-4( 7- 9(;?-7(1= 94><9
6">68>?81; ?;(16-7=\ 9.8;+- ,- 9(=(>/-; ,(7< 4-< )8>;)1-;< ,>k48)- -=
,- .(1;- ,- 4"17.8;6(=187 ;(91,-Y =8>28>;< 98><<>9(; 4( 687=;- -= 4(
+87+>;;-7+- 87 .171= 9(; 7- 94>< +;81;-9/;(7,d+08<-o
p-< 68;=<Y 4- <(7/Y 4-< =;19-< ,(7< 4( )8>-Y 4-< )4-<<>;-< 17.-+=>-<< n"(?(1<
,>29?><( (144->;< -=<( 7">=(1= 94>< 98>; 681 :>">7- 6(=1A;- 9;-61A;- ,87=
4-< ;>,(+=->;< 9(;1<1-7< <- ,>4-+=(1-7= (?(7= ,- 4( 41?;-; (>B ><(/-;< ,-<
318<:>-<928>;7(>B -= ,-< 17.8;6(=187< =>4>?1<>-<Y(<<81..>< ,> <(7/ ,-<
(>=;-<og;I4- ,- 6>=1-; :>- +-4>1 ,- +8;;-<987,(7= ,- 9;-<<-hw61d
+0-617Y-7=;- 4- ;(6(<<(/- ,-< 98>)-44-<Y4( +8;;>9=187 ,-< <8>;+-< 8> ,-<
17.8;6(=->;<Y4"0>;8D<6-9)87 6(;+0>-= 4( 4>==-968;= (?-+ 4-< (>=;-<
28>;7(41<=-<Y98>;?=;- 4- <->4 8> 4- 9;-61-; <>; =8>= -= <>; ;1-7oy8>= <(>. 4(
48C(>=>oz7- ?1- ,- +01-7 -;;(7=Y<(7< (61 <O; -= <(7< ;-98<oz7- ?1-9
,-?-71; 6(>?(1< 8> 17,1..>;-7=94( 61<A;- 0>6(17-Y+- :>1 7- ?(>=
/>A;61->Bo

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki2W

r8><>=187< ,-<28>;7(41<=-< 6-;+-7(1;-< -= <(7<76-ou8>; <- ,877-; ,-<
;??-< ,">+;1?(17Y 14 78>< ;-<=(1= 4-< 91/-< :>"87 78>< (+0-=(1= (> +8>9 9(;
+8>9Y ,-< 91/-< :>"87>+;1?(1= -7 =8;9144(7= 4-< /(D-==-< 48+(4-< <>; >7 <>2-=
8> <>; >7 (>=;-or87 9(< =(7= 98>; 4"(;/-7= :>- +-4( 98>?(1= ;(998;=-;
:>98>; -<9>;-; ?81; (99(;(C=;- <87 786 (> )(< ,">7 =-B=- ,(7< >7-
;-?>:>-4+87:>-Y 98>; -B1<=-; -7.17Y =-7=-; ,- <- .(1;- :>(7, 6?6- >7 786h
z7 (;=1+4- <>; 4-q8D(6)1:>-Y >7 (>=;- <>;d;4-:>17Y 4- <1->;
,-e-;/(68> <>; 4( 9841=1:>- ,"(9(;=0-1,Y <>; 4-<m7>1=< 8> <>; 4- ,8+=->;u->=18=Y 8>
-7+8;- <>; 4- 9;8+A< ,-< />7>;(>B< q(1< 87>=(1= 4817 ,> +869=- -= ,- 4(
41==>;(=>;-o f">=(1= =8>= 2><=- ,- 4( <8>9- 98>; 4-< +8+087<o u8>; ;-6941; 4-<
)4(7+< 4-< 28>;< ,- 9>7>;1-h
u8>; 6- ;-7,;- ,(7< 4-r8;, ,- 4"166-7<-e;><14 -= =-7=-; ,- ;-=;8>?-;
n>(79 y83(41Y<( ,-;71A;- (,;-<<- +877>-Y2- ,-?(1< 9;-7,;- 4- =;(1794(
/(;- ,-x(7u-,;8Y 94( .;87=1A;-x>, ,- 4">=(= ,>u(;( (9;A< (?81; :>1==>
e;(<B41( -= 4-< 166-7<-< .8;?=< ,>q(=8k;8<<8o n- <(?(1< :>- 2- 7">=(1< 9(<
9;A< ,- 9(;?-71;9,-<=17(=187 =(7= 4-< (;;?=<>=(1-7= 786);->B -= 98>;
+-;=(17< 169;>?1<1)4-< <>; +-==- >71:>- ?81- .-;;>- :>1 =;(?-;<(1= 9;A<
,,->B 6144- 31486A=;-< ,- 0(>=< 94(=-(>B +8>?-;=< ,- <(?(7-Y-7=;- 4-<
+84417-< (>B 9-7=-< ,8>+-< -= 4-< 6(<<1.< ,- )(<(4=-Y();>9=< -= /1/(7=-<:>-<
(> 6141-> ,-<:>-4< <">9(;9144-7= >7- 6>4=1=>,- ,- 9-=1=< )8>;/< -= ,-<
98<=-< ,- ,8>(7- 8> ,- 9841+-o
n- ?-7(1< ,"d4?(;(,8Y6( ,-;71A;->=(9-Y-7 ?81=>;- ,- 48+(=187o n"(?(1<
6(40->;-><-6-7= (99;1< =;89 =(;, :>"14 -B1<=(1= >7- 41(1<87 (>;1-77- 9(;
u19-;df866(7+0- -7=;- +-==- 9-=1=- ?144- -=x(7u-,;8 8Q2- ?-7(1<
,9(;?-71;of-4( 7"(?(1= ,"(144->;< (>+>7- 1698;=(7+- 9>1<:>- 2- 7">=(1< 9(<
9;-<<>4- 6817< ,> 687,- <1787 9(; 4- ,><1; ,- ;-?81;n>(7 :>1
76"(==-7,(1= 9(<o
f"-<= (17<1 :>- 2"(?(1< ,>+8>?-;= 4"-B1<=-7+- ,> 9-=1= (>;8,;86- ,-x(7
u-,;8 8Q2- ,-?(1< ;-<=1=>-; 4( ?81=>;-om4 C (?(1= 49(><<1 >7 9-=1= 0I=-4 :>1
28>B=(1= 4-< )7=16-7=< (,6171<=;(=1.< ,- 4"(?1(=187 +1?14- 8Q.17(4-6-7=
298<(1< 687 <(+of866- =8>=-< 4-< )8>;/(,-< ,- +-< ;>/187<x(7u-,;8
();1=(1= >7- 989>4(=187 94>=08;1:>- ,- 9(C<(7< 61<>;()4-< -= :>-4:>-<
;(;-< 6(;+0(7,< +01781< ,87= 2- 6- ,-6(7,(1< :>"-44- 98>?(1= )1-7?=;- 4(
,-<=17>- -= <1 98>; ->B (><<1 14 -B1<=(1= ,-< 0(<(;,<Y 9;8?1,-7=1-4< 8> 787<
n"(?(1< =;89 ?8C(/>98>; 6- 4(1<<-; +0(;6-; 9(; 4- .84348;- 48+(4o m+1 87
;-=;8>?(1= +-9-7,(7=94">=(= 9;-<:>- 17=(+=Y-7 ;-/(;,(7= 4-< /-7<Y4-< =;(1=<
);1,>< ,-< 9;-61-;<d6>;17,1-7< -= 4->;< (7=1:>-< 8;1/17-< 687/84-<o m4
6;-?-7(1=94( 6>681;- ,-< 98><1-< -= ,-< 4>/-7,-< ,> 9->94- =>91 :>- 2"(?(1<
,>+8>?-;=-< ,(7< >7 )8>:>17 :>- 6"(?(1= +>,>>7- 41);(1;- ,-p-)4879

2X ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

w18 -= 4">71?-;< ,(7< 4-:>-42- 9487/-(1< =8>=9+8>9 6- <-6)4(1=
+8;;-<987,;- -7 =8>< 9817=<9+-< +0(7=< ,- 4( =-;;- -= ,-< 9;-61-;<
0866-<Y<>; 4-<:>-4< 4( 61<A;- (>;(1= ;>9(7,> <( 4A9;-o
q(1< 2- 7">=(1< 9(< ?-7> 1+1 98>; .(1;- ,> =8>;1<6- -= <->4 .17(4-6-7= 687
,><1; ,- ;-?81;n>(7 6- 98><<(1= -7 (?(7= ,(7< +- ?8C(/- ,- 98><<1A;- -=
,+0(4->; 0>61,-on>(7 -= 4-<C4-<x(6)4(< 8Q4- ;-/(;, ,">7-
.-666"(==-7,(1=o

m+1 +866- (144->;< +- 7">=(1= :>">7 6>4(7/- ()<>;,- -= 7(?;(7=
,68,-;71=>+866-;+1(4- )(7(4- .(1=- ,- +8+(+84(Y ,- 2-(7< -= ,- )1,87<
,"0>14-y-B(+8 :>1 <">=(1= 17=;8,>1= ,(7< 4( ?1- 9(1<1)4- ,- +-< /-7<Y
/866(7= 9->99-> 4->; 0>;>,1=>-= 4->; 01<=81;- -7 4-< =;(7<.8;6(7= -7 >7
9->94- ,- 68;=<d?1?(7=<Y 6(4/;>4-< 9;86-<<-< 17+(7=(=81;-< ,-x>6>Y
9A;4>/-7,(1;- ,- 4( 7(=187 =>91o
p( 7(=>;- -44-d6?6-Y (>=;-.81< 6(/71.1:>- -= -B>)>;(7=-Y -7=;-
<(?(7.4->;1- -= 2>7/4- =;891+(4-Y <">=(1= 4(1<<>- ;87/-; 9(; +- 6(4 94(7>=(1;- .(1=
,+87+-<<187< (>B 6(;+0(7,< ,- )81<Y ,"()(7,87< +866-;+1(>B <>++-<<1.<
(>B 6>4=17(=187(4-< -= ,- =;(+=(=187< 9841=1:>-< 17<91;>-< 9(; 4- <->4 9;8.1=
9-;<877-4 -= 4"-7;1+01<<-6-7= ,-< +(<=-< ,1;1/-(7=-<op"0866- :>1 7">=(1=
9(< 9;161=1. ,>?(<=(1= =8>= <>; <87 9(<<(/- <(7<>/(;, 98>; <(
,-<+-7,(7+-h
i7 ;>(41=>Y 4-< -7<-6)4-< >;)(17< ,>29<(4-< -= ,>+;>91< -7.(7=(1-7= ,-<
)(741->-< 17=-;617()4-< ,- )1,87?144-< 8Q4( 61<A;- 4- ,1<9>=(1=94(
,>417:>(7+- 169>71-op-< 2->BY 98>; =8>= ,1;-Y <-6)4(1-7= 17>4>+=()4-6-7=
.(1=<op( +1?141<(=187Y 98>; (>=(7= :>"-44- 7"(1= 2(6(1< -B1<=>1+1Y 9(;(1<<(1=
)1-7 -7 ?81- ,- ,><17=>/;(=187 -= ,- 98>;;1<<-6-7=om4 7"-B1<=(1= 94><
(>+>7- 98><1- 71 (>+>7- 4>/-7,- =>917(7/(Y <(>. 9->=d?=;- ,(7<
4"17+87<+1-7= +844-+=1. -= ,(7< 4( 6>.1(7+- =>681/7>- (>B>=;(7/-;<ou8>;
?81; (>=;- +08<-Y 14 .(44(1= <"-7.87+-; ,(7< 4-< .8;?=<Y ;-687=-; 4-< +8>;<
,"-(>Y (..;87=-; 68><=1:>-< -= ?->?-< 781;-<Y <(7/<>-< -= 2(/>(;<Y <-;9-7=<
-= 2(+(;><< d48;< 8>1Y87 (?(1= >7- +0(7+- ,- ;-=;8>?-; 4-< 0866-<h
u8>; 4"0->;-Y4">71:>- -7,;81= ,1/7- ,"17=>;?= 6- <-6)4(1= )1-7?=;- +-=
0I=-4 +(; 2">=(1< .8>;)> 9(; =8>< +-< 31486A=;-< -7 ?81=>;- <>; ,-< ;8>=-<
,>.87+>-< 9(; 4-< ,-;71-;< 8;(/-<o
n"C (?(1< 9(<<>>7- 9;-61A;- 7>1= 98>; (==-7,;- 4- =;(17 :>1 ,-?(1=
66-7-; ?-;<n>(7o n- ;-41<(1< 4-< +87=-< ,-q(>9(<<(7=Y98>; 9(<<-; 4- =-69<o
f">=(1= 4- <->4 41?;- :>- 2"(?(1< -698;=>,(7< 687 )(/(/-o n">=(1< >7 /;(7,
(6(=->; ,- +-=>+;1?(17 78;6(7,Y,- <87Z>?;- -= ,- <( ?1-Y+866- 2">=(1<

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki2Y

9(<<1877> 9(; +-==- >98:>- -= 4-< />71-< ,- 4( 41==>;(=>;- :>"-44- (?(1=
+869=><on- 98>?(1< 9;-7,;- (17<1 4( 6-<>;- ,- 687 17+869>=-7+-9
;>,1/-; =8>= -7 (99;>+1(7= (?-+ ?84>9=>+-==- 4-+=>;-Y =8>28>;<
;-+866-7+>-Y ,-q(,-681<-44- j1.18> ,-p( 9-=1=- w8:>-o
y8>= +-4( .(1<(1= 1+1Y ,(7< +-e;><14 9;8.87,Y +866- >7 +8>;= +1;+>1= ,-<
>98:>-<\14 C (?(1= ,">7 +I=>Y 4( />-;;- ,-2ZY&Yx-,(7Y 4-< />144(>6-< ,(7<
u(;1<Y 4-< ;(=< :>"87 <- ,1<9>=(1= 98>; 6(7/-;Y 4-< ,><1;< ,- ;-?(7+0-Y
g>;8>4A,- -= 4( ?(/>- 7(=>;(41<=-Y 4( .17 ,">7 <1A+4- -= <( /;(7,- 9->;Y -= 14 C
(?(1= ,- 4"(>=;- +I=>Y ,-< ?144(/-< -7,8;61< ,(7< 4( 61<A;-Y <(7< ,><1;< (>=;-<
:>- +-4>1 ,- <>;?1?;-Y <(7< />-;;-Y <(7< 98><1-Y =86)>< ,(7< 4"8>)41 ,- 4(
,>+;>91=>,- 9(;=8>= 8Q4"0866- +1?141<>(?(1= 98<>4- 91-,Y :>(7,<( 7">=(1=
9(< ,(7< 4( 68;= 8> ,(7< 4-<>91,>61-<o
f-;=-<Y >7 78=()4- ,> +817 (?(1=d14 9> 4>1 (><<1 ?184-; -=>=;(7/4-;
>7/(617- ,- ,8>D- (7< 9;A< ,">7- ;1?1A;- -=Y <87 .8;.(1= (++86941Y (?(1=d14 9>
4(7+-; 4-< ;-+0-;+0-< (.17 ,- ;-=;8>?-; 4- +;1617-4Y 98>; ,877-; 4-
+0(7/-= 7- 9(<?=;- 9;1<ou->=d?=;-Y 1+1 (><<1Y ,-< ;-68;,< <(7<
)1-7?-144(7+(?(1-7=d14< +87,>1= +- 61<>;()4-9<- 9-7,;- 98>; -B91-; <87 +;16- 8> .>1;
<( ,>+0>(7+-ov>1 9->= <(?81;b q(1< +-==-9-=1=- w8:>-Y6(4/;>=8>= <87
6(40->;Y =8>=- +-==- <8>144>;-Y +-==- 01<=81;- :>1 98>?(1=Y
+-;=-<Y?=;=;(,>1=- 1+1 -7 );><141-7Y 7- 98>?(1= -7 (>+>7 +(< C?=;-
+869;1<9(;.(1=-6-7= +(; 4-< 9->941-;< :>1 94->;-7= ,(7< 4( 7>1= 4- 487/ ,-< 0(441-;<
<( 7"-B1<=- 9(< <8>< 4-< =;891:>-<o

m4 .(>= >7 )(/(/- 98>; ?8C(/-; ,(7< 4( 41==>;(=>;- -= 1+1Y 14 7"C ( 9(<
,)(/(/- <1 +- 7"-<= +-4>1 ,- 4( 9(>?;-=>8> +-4>1 ,> =-69< :>1
6(7:>-op=-69< :>- 4"87 ,81= (?81; ,-;;1A;- <81 98>; ;-/(;,-; 4- 9;><-7=Y
+)-<=d9d,1;>7 -<9(+- -= <( <>)<1<=(7+-o i= 1+1Y C ( (>=(7= ,"-<9(+- -7=;-q(>9(<<(7= -=
4- +-;.d?84(7= ,> 9-=1= 17,1-7 :>1 28>- <>; 4( 94(+- ,> ?144(/-Y
:>"-7=;q8D(;= -= >7 <(68>;(D h
m4 7"-7 ;-<=(1= 9(< 6817< :>- ;-41;- +-< +86=-< <>; 4-< 0(>=< 94(=-(>B ,>
u(;( -7/-7,;(1= +0-D 681Y 98>; >7- .81<Y >7 <-7=16-7= ,"(99(;=-7(7+-Y
+866- <"14 <- .>= (/1 ,">7- 6C<=>;1-><- ;(+17- <>)1=-6-7= 98><<>- ,(7<
4"0>6><>:>178B1(4 .(1<(7= ,- 681 4"0>;1=1-; 17?8487=(1;- ,">7- +>4=>;- -=
,">7->98:>-o

p">71:>- 91<=- ,"-7?84>=(1= ,- =-;;- )(==>- -= 7- 98>?(1= ;-+-?81; :>-
,9-=1=< (99(;-14<og->B ?84< 9(; <-6(17->=(1-7= (<<>;>< 98>; 9-;6-==;-9
>7- <8+1>=>,"-B9481=(=187 ,- =;(7<98;=-; <-< 17/>71->;< -= <-<

2Z ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

+87=;-6(C=;-< <>; 4-< 41->B ,- 4->; +;16- ,- ,>.8;-<=(=187Y>7 9-> 94>< ?-;<
4-r8;,Y-7=;-u(;( -=d6(D871-o
w9(;=1; ,-x(7u-,;8Y:>- +- <81= 9(; 4-< (1;<Y4( ;8>=- 8> 4- +0-617 ,- .-;
+">=(1= 4"17+877> -= 7(=>;-44-6-7= 4"1698<<1)141=>()<84>- ,- 9;>?81;
>7,(=- 98>; (;;1?-;o
f-4( ,"(144->;< 6">=(1= 17,1..>;-7= +(; 6?6- <1n>(7 (?(1= :>1==> y83(41 8Q
2"(?(1< ,>+1,>,- 4- ;-2817,;- 14 6">=(1= 98<<1)4- ,- 4- 98>;<>1?;- -7 <>1?(7=
4-< 17,1+(=187< :>-n-(77- 98>;;(1= 9->=d?=;- (?81; ;-<>-< ,- 4>1Y-=
:>"-446- =;(7<6-==;(1= (48;<o i= <1 .17(4-6-7=Y2- ;(=(1<n>(7Y14 6- ;-<=(1= 4-<C4-<
x(6)4(< -= 4->; ;-/(;,<2">=(1< ,(7< 4( )877- ,1;-+=187o
w4( ;>.4-B187Y2- 6-9-;<>(,(1< :>-n-(77->=(1= 0->;-><- ,- 4"(61=1>:>1
78>< 41(1= -= :>"-44- 7"(?(1= (>+>7- ;(1<87 ,- 6"-69?+0-; ,- ?81; <87 .;A;-o
m4 ,-?(1=C(?81; (>=;- +08<-Y6(1< :>81b
p- 61->B <-;(1= ,- 4- 4>1 ,-6(7,-; 48;< ,- 78=;- 9;8+0(17- ;-7+87=;-ou8>;
4- 686-7=Y2-,-?(1< 9;-7,;- +- =;(17 :>1 7"(;;1?(1= 9(< -= =-7=-;
,;-=;8>?-; 687 (61 (.17 ,- ;-<9-+=-; (> 6817< 4- 9;17+19- ,- 78<
9;86-<<-<Y9>1<:>"14 7"(?(1= 9(<>=>98<<1)4- ,- ;-<9-+=-; 4- +(4-7,;1-;
,>+-77(4 :>- 78>< (?187< .1B>48;<:>- 78>< 78><>=187< :>1==>< -7
,-<+-7,(7= ,> 7(?1;- :>1 78>< ;(6-7(1= -7 6>=;8984-on- +;81< 6- <8>?-71;
:>- +- =;(7<98;= ,- =;8>9-< <"(99-4(1= 4-x1,1j-;>+0Y-= :>"14 78>< (?(1=
4(1<<>< <>; >7 :>(1 ,- 4(n841-==-9 q(;<-144-o
n>(7 7- ,-?(1= 9(< (?81; 8>)41>787 94>< 78=;- 9;86-<<-Y6(1< +866- 98>;
681 ,-< 16987,>;()4-< (?(1-7= -69?+0>:>"-44- <- ;>(41<-o
n- ?-7(1< ,- 9-;,;- 687 9A;- :>1 (?(1= <>;?>+> :>-4:>-< (77>-<96(
6A;-=2- 7"(?(1< 94>< ,- .(6144- ,1/7- ,- 6- ;-=-71; 8Q:>- +- <81=oq87 +87/>
,- 9;-<<- 7"(?(1= 9(< =(;,> 9<>1?;- 4"8..1+- .>7A);- ,- +-= 0866- :>1
6"(?(1= (,89=>-= (?-+ 4-:>-4Y,>;(7= 9;-<:>- =8>=- >7- ?1-Y2- 7"(?(1< 9(<
>+0(7/>=;81< 68=< :>1 ?(4><<-7= 4( 9-17-Y)1-7 :>- 98>; 4"-<<-7=1-4Y78><
78><<8C87< +869;1<o
n-(77- 6"(?(1= ,1= :>- <87 .;A;- (?(1= (+0-=>,(7< 4-< -7?1;87< ,-y83(41
>7- .-;6- 8> :>-4:>- +08<- +866-<(Y(C(7= (99(;=-7>9>7 (?-7=>;1-;
(><=;(41-7 (==-17= ,">7- 6(4(,1- /;(?- :>1 4"(?(1= +87=;(17=9;-7=;-; (>
9(C<oq( ,>+1<187 .>= ?1=- 9;1<-\2-?-7(1< <>)1=-6-7= ,-
9;-7,;+87<+1-7+- :>-2- 6"-77>C(1< ,1()4-6-7= ,(7< 6(?1- ,-28>;7(41<=- <(7<
=(4-7=Y6(4(,- ,- 7- 98>?81; .(1;-Z>?;- ,- +;>(=187od>
<>;94><Y428>;7(41<6- 7">=(1= 94>< +- :>"14 (?(1=>=>(> =-69< ,-n8<-90 o-<<-4 -=
,n-(7 q(;17 8> 6?6-Y(9;A< =8>=Y(> =-69< ,-p>+1-7e8,(;,\87 ?-7,(1=

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki2[

,- 4( <8>9-Y 87 =;>:>(1= 4-< 78>?-44-< 98>; 4-< ;-7,;- 94>< ?;(1-< 8> 98>;
+8694(1;-9=-4 8> =-4 98>?81; 9841=1:>-< q(<+(;(,- -= +869(/71-<
i7 ;>(41=>Y+">=(1= 94>=I= (9;A< 681 :>-2"-7 (?(1< -7 +0-;+0(7=9(++><-; 4(
+8>;<- ,> =-69< -=9+87,(67-; +- :>1 6"(99(;(1<<(1= +866- 4">;8<187
,">7 />71- ,87=2- 6- =;8>?(1< )1-7 17+(9()4-\4( 9;-<<- +- 7">=(1= 9(< 4(
41==>;(=>;- -= 4( <84>=187 :>-2- +;8C(1< (?81; =;8>?>- <- ;>?>4(1= .17(4-6-7=
91;- :>- 4- 6(4 ,87=2">=(1< (==-17= -= :>1 (?(1= 786+<=>;141=>;o
g- /;8< 7>(/-< 781;< -= ?184-=< <- )8><+>4(1-7= ,(7< >7 +1-4 )(<Y98><<><
9(; ,-< ?-7=< ,"8;(/- ?-7(7= ,> <>,Y<1/7- 9;>+>;<->; ,">7-
=-69?=?184-7=- ,(7< +-< 4(=1=>,-<o m+1 4"0866- 7- 98>?(1= :>- 4(1<<-; 4( 94(+-94(
7(=>;- -=9<-< /1/(7=-<:>-< +87=8;<187<Y169>1<<(7= <9-+=(=->;Y<(7< (>=;-<
=-;6-<9<( 9;89;- (4=-;7(=1?- :>- 4( 9(=1-7+- -= 4"0>6141=>o
g-< )8>;;(<:>-< +0(;/>-< 6(17=-7(7= ,- ?(9->; ,"-(>Y<(7<
94>1(99(;-7=- -7+8;-Y.8>-==(1-7= 4-< /;(7,< (;);-< :>1 )8;,(1-7= 4(
91<=,"-7?84Y-7 41<1A;- ,- .8;?= -= 4-< 6(<>;-< 9(C<(77-< ,- +-==-
)(741->98>144-><- <-6)4(1-7= =;-6)4-;Y9;?=-<9<"-..87,;-; ,(7< 4-< +8>9< ,- ?-7=
=(7,1< :>- 4- 9(?81< ,-< +8;,-<9417/- +4(:>(1=94">71<<87 =8>= (>=8>;o p(
98><<1A;- <8>4-?>- (> ,>)>= ,- 4"8;(/- <- =;(7<.8;6(1= 6(17=-7(7= -7
>7)8>- ;8>/- -= 4>1<(7=- -7?(01<<(7= =8>=o

p-< >;>)><Y6(C=;-< ,-< 41->BY()(7,877(1-7= 4->; +0(;8/7- -=
</;8>9(1-7= -7 .(1<(7= 4- ,8< ;87, ,(7< >7 .;>61<<-6-7= ,"(14-< 6(4(,;81=
+866- 98>; (..;87=-; -7<-6)4- 4-< =;86)-< ,"-(> :>1 6(17=-7(7=
-B948<(1-7= +866- ,-< )86)-< (?-+ >7- 17+87+-?()4- .;>7><1-o
w>.>/1>< ,(7< 4"0I=-4Y:>-4:>-< ?8C(/->;< <">=(1-7= ->B (><<1 ;-/;8>9><
,-?(7= 4- )(; -= +87=-694(1-7=Y<=8D:>-<Y4-< ,>.-;4(7=-< :>1 <">+;(<(1-7= <>;
4-< 4(;/-< )(1-< ?1=;>-< ,> 0(44o p( 91<=- ,"-7?84 (?(1= ,1<9(;> <8>< 4(
)8>-= +869;86-==(1=>?1,-66-7= =8>= -<981; ,- ,>9(;= 9(; 4-< (1;<o x->4<
:>-4:>-< ;(;-< +(6187< .(1<(7= 4( 41/7- 98>;<>1?(1-7= 4->; ;8>=-
6(4(1<>,(7< 4( =8>;6-7=-Y6?4(7= 4( .>6>- ,- 4->; /(<d814 );O4>(>B /-;)-< ,"-(>
)8>-><- :>"14< 9;82-=(1-7= ,-9(;= -= ,"(>=;- ,- 4( ;8>=-o m4>=(1= ,->B
0->;-< ,- 4"(9;A<d61,1o m4 .(1<(1= 7>1=o
f866- 4-< (>=;-< +41-7=< ,- 4"0I=-4Y2"(?(1< ;-2817= 4- )(; -=<87/-(1<9=8>=-<
+-< (77>-< 9(<<>-<97- ;1-7 .(1;- ,- =;A< >=14-o x(7< .(6144-Y<(7< .8;=>7-Y
<(7< <>++A<Y<(7< (?-71; 787 94><Y<1 +- 7"-<= +-4>1 ,- +-< ;-=;8>?(144-<
9;8/;(66>-< (?-+n>(7Y2- ;-<<-7=(1< ,8>48>;-><-6-7= (>d,-,(7< ,- 681d
6?6- +-==- 169;-<<187 ,- ?-;=1/- -= ,- 4(<<1=>,-o p- <8>?-71; 6?6- ,- 78<
(77>-< ,- />-;;- <"-<=869(1= -= +- ?8C(/- ?-;< 4- 9(C< ,-<m7,1-7< 6>1<+(

=& ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

,(7< 4- 78;, ,- 4( f8486)1-Y 6"(99(;(1<<(1= <8>,(17 +866- >7- ()<>;,1=>
-7 6?6- =-69< :>"14 6- <-6)4(1=?=;- >7- >4=16- ;(1<87 ,- ?1?;-o
z7 =C9- <">=(1= (<<1< ,-?(7= >7- =(<<- ,- +(.>98<>- <>; >7 />>;1,879
94(=-(> ,- 6(;);- )4(7+o w <( 9-(> )4(7+0-Y9<87 (44>;- +(46- -=
,>=(+0>6(4/;>4( =-69?=- -7 +8>;<Y 2- 6- ,1< :>"14 7- 98>?(1= <"(/1; :>- ,">7
i>;89>-7 )4(<>(48;< -= <>;=8>= :>"14 (?(1= 98<>,-?(7= 4>1 >7 )8>:>17
:>2"(?(1< 681d6?6- 4> 48;< ,- 687 9;-61-; <>28>; <>; 4- +87=17-7= );><141-7 -=
:>1 6"(?(1= )-(>+8>9 (99;1<Y <1787 <>; +-< 9(C< ,-< =;891:>-<Y -7 =8>= +(<
<>; 4"-=07848/1- -= <>; 4-< ;(998;=< -7=;- 4"d7+1-7q87,- -= 4-r8>?-(>o
f- =1=;- ,-+y;1<=-< =;891:>-<;:>-p>?1dx=;(><< (?(1= +;> ,-?81; 17.41/-;9
<87 Z>?;-Y (> ,-6->;(7= ;-6(;:>()4-Y 6">=(1= (48;< (99(;>
+8669(<<()4-6-7= 9-<<161<=- +(; 14 <-6)4(1= )1-7 ,1;- :>-Y ,- 4"-<=94"8>-<= ,>
/48)-Y 4-< 2->B>=(1-7= .(1=< -= 4"(?-71; ,- +-< 4(=1=>,-<Y ,>.171=1?-6-7=
+869;861<Y +- ,87= 2- 7">=(1< 9(< +87?(17+>Y 4- ;-/(;, ,-
4"-=07848/>(C(7= +-==- 9(;=1+>4(;1=>+4171:>- ,- 7- 9(< =8>28>;< 9;-7,;- -7 +869=- 4-<
<-7=16-7=<Y 4( /-7=144-<<- -= 4( .;(=-;71=>:>1 <87= (><<1 4-< .-;6-7=< ,">7
>?-7=>-4 ;-78>?-(>Y 98>; 4-< 9;82-=-; ,(7< <-< <9>+>4(=187<o
{?=> ,">7- +0-61<- )4(7+0-Y ,">7 9(7=(487 ,- +8=87>+;> -= ,- )1D(;;-<
-<9(,;144-< -7 9-(> ,- 98;+Y 4"0866- 9(;(1<<(1= (?81; 4( +17:>(7=(17- 8> >7
9-> 94><op-< +0-?->B )487, +-7,;>Y 4-< C->B )4->< -= >7- 68><=(+0-
,;>+8>9>- ;(< <8>< >7 7-D 4>/A;-6-7= (:>1417 6- 4- .(1<(1-7= ;(7/-; 9(;61 4-<
0866-< ,>r8;,od4( 6(71A;->4>/(7=- ,- 98;=-; 4( =(<<-9<-< 4A?;-<Y
(++869(/7>- ,- 4( <8>+8>9-Y 87 ,-?17(1= 4">,>+(=187 -= 4- <(?81;d?1?;-o
f866- 2">=(1< ,-)8>= ,-9>1< >7 )87 686-7=94- ;-/(;,-;Y (++8>,> 94(
9(41<<(7,;- ,> )(;Y 78< C->B .171;-7= 9(; <- ;-7+87=;-; -= 78>< 78><
<(4>76-< ,">7 4>/-; 08+0-6-7= ,- =?=- +- :>1 6- 98><<(96"(99;8+0-;
,4>1 98>; 4- <(4>-; ,- ?1?- ?81Bon- 7- ,8>=(1< 9(< ,"(?81;9.(1;-9>7
+869(=;18=-o
d?(7= 6?6- ,"(?81;>+0(7/>4- 6817,;- 68=Y 14 6- .1= >7 4(;/- <8>;1;- -=Y
8>?;(7= 4( 9(>6- ,- <( 6(17 :>"14 ,1;1/-( ?-;< >7- +0(1<-9+I=>,- 4(
<1-77-Y 14 6- .1= <1/7- ,- 6"(<<-81;o
n"(?8>- :>- +-= (++>-14 +8;,1(4 ,(7< +-==- (=68<90A;->4-+=;1:>-
,=-69?=- 6- .C= 4- 94>< /;(7, )1-7 +(; 2"(?(1< =-;;1)4-6-7= )-<817 ,- 9(;4-;
(?-+ :>-4:>">7 (9;A< 4"1<84-6-7= :>- 2- 6">=(1< 1698<>,-9>1< 687 ,>9(;=
,-e;(<B41(oy-4 >7 9A4-;17 <841=(1;- :>1 (>;(1= 9-;,> >7 9-> ,- <( .819
+0(+>7 ,- <-< 9(< -= :>1 <>)1=-6-7= 4( ;-=;8>?-Y 9>1<<(7=- -= <>)416-94(
;-7+87=;- .8;=>1=- ,">7 (>=;-?=;- 0>6(17Y 2- 6- <-7=1< <>)1=-6-7= -698;=>
9(; >7 68>?-6-7= ,- <C69(=01- =;A< .8;=Y 9;-<:>- -B(/>;>?> 4-<
+1;+87<=(7+-<oq(1< 1+1 4( 9>,->; 7">=(1= 94>< ,- 61<-or8>< <(?187< ,>29

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki=2

4">7-= 4"(>=;-Y<(7< <- 4"?=;- ,1=Y:>- 78>< (?187< -7 +866>7 +-==- 9(;=
,"0>6(71=>?;(1- :>1 ,>+01;- 4-< ,>/>1<-6-7=< -= 4-< .(>Bd<-6)4(7=< ,A<
48;< :>- 4"87 <- ;-7+87=;- <->4<Y4817 ,-< +87?-7=187<>4>/(7=-< 8> ,-<
0()1=>,-< ,> :>8=1,1-7o
g(7< +- =;8> 9-;,>Y78><>=187< )1-7 4-< <->4< -7 -..-=9 >9;8>?-; ,> 94(1<1;
9 >+0(7/-; :>-4:>-< 68=< :>1Y)1-7=I=Y(44(1-7= ,-?-71; >7 .48=
1717=-;;869> ,- 9(;= -= ,"(>=;-Y,(7< >7- +87?-;<(=187 ,87= 4- 0(<(;,
<=;8>?(1=?=;- >7- .81< ,- 94>< 4- 6(C=;-Y-= ,87= 71 4>1 71 681 7- +877(1<<187<
4- =-;6-o
p( ;(,18 ,> )(; ,1..><(1= ,- 4( 6><1:>- <-;=(7(1<- 94-17- ,- 6>4(7+841- -=
2,81< ,1;- :>- +-< 17<=(7=< <87= ;-<=>< /;(?>< ,(7< 6( 6>681;-Y+866- <1
4=-69<Y 9+- 686-7=d49Y(?(1= +-<<>,"-B1<=-;o
m4 -<= ?;(1 :>- ,-9>1< 487/=-69<Y2- 7- +;8C(1< 94>< (> =-69<h
p- 9(=;87 ,- 4"0I=-4Y>7 );><141-7 ;-=;(1=>,- 4(q(;17- ,87= 4( .144- (?(1=>=>
?1+=16- ,">7- )(?>;- 9841+1A;-9 x(7=(f(=(;17(Y,(7< 4-x>, ,> 9(C<Y
67+0877(1= >7>=-;7-4 +1/(;- (> +817 ,- 4( )8>+0- +- :>1 4>1 ,877(1= >7 (1;
+87<=(66-7= ,>)1=(=1.o m4 (?(1= +877> )1-7 ,-< 6(40->;<o i7 94>< ,> ,>+A<
,- <( .144-Y,87= 4- 98;=;(1= 9-7,(1= ,(7< >7 +(,;- (>d,-<<>< ,> )(;Y14 (?(1=
(><<1 9-;,> <( .-66- :>-4:>-< 681< 94>< =(;,Y68;=- ,- +0(/;17o p9
-7+8;- 4- 0(<(;, ,-< +08<-< (?(1= ;>/4>4- <8;= ,- +-==- .(6144- =;(7:>144- -=
+- ?->. ?-7=;198=-7= +87=17>(1=d14 ,- ?1?;- (> ;C=06- ,- +- 9-=1= (>;898;= -7
<"-7?8C(7= <=8D:>-6-7= <87 41=;- ,- ;0>6 )4(7+ +0(:>- 28>; -= -7>=-1/7(7=
<C<=>6(=1:>-6-7= 4- 98<=- ,- ;(,18 ,A< :>"(;;1?(1= 4- 686-7= ,-<
17.8;6(=187<o m4 7"(?(1= 94>< ,(7< 4"76- :>">7- 166-7<- =;1<=-<<- -=
>7+84A;- 17(<<8>?1- +87=;- +-e;><14 :>1 4>1 (?(1= =8>= 9;1< -= :>1Y<-487 4>1Y
<"-7.87<(1= +0(:>- 28>; ,(?(7=(/- ,(7< 4( )8>- ,- 4( +8;;>9=187Y,- 4(
9;>?(;1+(=187 -= ,> +;16- 8;/(71<>o
m4<>=(1-7= 786);->B +->B :>1 9-7<(1-7= +866- 4>1Y,(7< +- 9(C<o

p- 9-;<877-4 ,- 4"0I=-4>=(1= -B+4><1?-6-7= +8698<>,- 781;< -= ,- 6>=1<
f()8+48< :>1 <- 687=;(1-7= <-;?1()4-< 6(4/;>4- <8;= 9-> -7?1()4- :>1>=(1=
4- 4->;Y+8;?>()4-<96-;+1 -= <8>61<94"1694(+()4- 481 ,- 4( 9;>+(;1=>o f"-<=
(17<1 :>- 2"(?(1< .(1= 4( +877(1<<(7+- ,-r(6)8> 6( .-66- ,- +0(6);- :>1
98;=(1= 4- 786 (7=1:>- ,-< =;1)>< ,"d7(8>(+8> -= 7- ,-?(1= 9(< (?81; 94><
,- ?17/= (7<oe-44- +866- 4( 7>1=Y4>/A;-6-7= 6>=1<<>-Y-44- 7- +-<<(1=
,6- <8>;1;- -= ,- 6- 687=;-; <-< <>9-;)-< ,-7=<o i44- 87,>4(1= ,- 4(
+;8>99+0(:>- 9(< :>"-44- .(1<(1= ,(7< 6( +0(6);- 8> ,(7< 4-< +8>481;< ,- 4"0I=-4
-= +- 4(7/(/- 6>-=Y94-17 ,- <-7<>(41=>7- <1/71.1(1= ;1-7 ,"(>=;- :>- <87

== ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

1/78;(7+- ,-< +8,-< -7 ?1/>->; <>; ,"(>=;-< +87=17-7=< 8Q<87
+8698;=-6-7= (>;(1=>=>17=-;9;>=>=8>= (>=;-6-7=o i44- 7- ,><1;(1= :>-
<687=;-; /-7=144-Y(?-+ >7- /(>+0-;1- .17(4-6-7= 94-17- ,-
+0(;6-oi44?8>4(1= (><<1 6- 687=;-; <87 +8;9<Y<( <->4- ;1+0-<<- ,- .-66-Y:>1Y(>d
,-49,-< +87,1=187< ,- ?1- ,- +0(+>7Y+87<=1=>- ,(7< +-= 166-7<- 9(C<Y>7
(=8>= 787 7>/41/-()4-Y6?6- -= <>;=8>= :>(7, 87 ( .(16o
p"0866- 6- ,1= <"(99-4-;u1-;;-o m4 (?(1=>=>(><<1 4- =>6817 ,-
4"(==1=>,(/>1+0(7=- ,-r(6)8> -= =8>= +866- 681d6?6-Y7"-7 =1;(1=
(>+>7+87<>:>-7+-o p( )-(>=>,">7- .-66->=(1= (?(7= =8>=Y98>; 4>1
+86698>; 681Y>7- (..(1;- ,"-<=0>=1<6-o j8;= ,- <-< 4-+=>;-< <(?(7=-<Y14 <(?(1=
:>"(>e;><14Y+866- ,(7< 4- ;-<=- ,- 4"d6>;1:>- 4(=17-Y4-< .-66-<Y94><
786);-><-< :>- 4-< 0866-<Y<- =;8>?(1-7= -7 :>-4:>- <8;=- +87=;(17=-<Y 9
<- 687=;-; -7=;-9;-7(7=-< 98>; (==1;-; 4"(==-7=187 ,-< 0866-< -= -7<>1=-Y<1
98<<1)4-Y98>; <- .(1;- 17?1=-; (> )(4 -= <- .(1;->98><-;o z7- .81< 4(
+08<;>><<1-Y<->4- 4( 6(=-;71=>+869=(1= -= 4"0866- 98>?(1= )1-7
,1<9(;(C=;98>;?> :>"14 4(1<<- ,-;;1A;- 4>1 >7- 6(;6(144- ()87,(7=-o
{( 7">=(1= :>">7- =;(,1=187 6144>7(1;- =8>28>;< ?1?(7=- ,(7< 4-< .8;?=<\4(
7>+-<<1=>,- 4( <>;?1- ,- 4"-<9A+- +866(7,(1= =8>=o p-< 0866-<94(
+0(<<-= 4-< .-66-< (> +(69-6-7=o
m4 7">=(1= ,"(144->;< 7>4 )-<817 ,"8)<-;?(=187< <+1-7=1.1:>-< 98>; (99;>+1-;
r(6)8>of866- <-< (7+?=;-<Y-44- ;-6>(1= ,-< .-<<-< 98>; 94(1;- -=
-7.(7=-;Y6(1< (><<1 98>; <- 687=;-; =8>= )877-6-7= /-7=144- -= .;(=-;7-44-o
i44- 7"(>;(1= 9> +87+-?81; 4( ?1- ,">7- 6(71A;- ,1..>;-7=-o m4 C (?(1= 1+1
>7<8;=- ,">:>(=187 :>1 ;-6-==(1= 98>; 78>< (>=;-<Y)1-7 ,-< +08<-< -7 94(+-Y
<-487 4(:>-44- 94>< 87 <- =;8>?(1= -7 9;><-7+- ,- /-7< <1694-< -= ,- +8>4->;Y
94>< 87 9>7>=;(1= ,(7< 4"0>6(71=>?;(1-o
f866- 681Y u1-;;- (==-7,(1= 4- =;(17 98>; <- ;-7,;- ,(7< 4-
78;,Y,4"(>=;- +I=>,-< .;87=1A;-<o r8>< 7- 78><>=187< 98<>(>+>7- :>-<=187 :>1
(>;(1= 9> 9(;(C=;- 17,1<+;A=- ,- <8;=- :>"14 1/78;(1= +- :>- 2"(44(1< .(1;- 49d)(<
+866- 2"1/78;(1< (><<1 4"8)2-= ,- <87 ?8C(/- ,(7< +-< ;>/187< 94>=I=
.;>:>-7=>-< ,"0()1=>,- 9(; ,-< (?-7=>;1-;< 8> ,-< 9;>,(=->;<o m4 7"(?(1=
;1-7 ,- 4">7 8> ,- 4"(>=;-o
g-08;<Y4( =-69?=- <- +(46(1= 9->99-> 8> ;-9;-7(1= <87 <8>..4-o r>4
7"(>;(1= 9> ,1;- (48;< <1 +">=(1= -7 -..-=Y4"(++(461- -<9>;>- 8> 4- ,>)>= ,">7
+C+487-o p( 9;>,-7+- <"1698<(1=o t7 9(<<(1= 4- =-69< -7 +87<866(7= (>
)(; ,- 4"0I=-4 8>Y98>; 4-< (6(=->;< 9;><-7=<Y-7 +866-7=(7= >7- 9(;=1-
,.88= ;-=;(7<61<-94( =>4>?1<187o u1-;;- -= 681 7"(?187< 94>< +-<<>,- 9(;4-;
)1-7 :>- 78=;- +87?-;<(=187 .O= 2(4877>- ,- 487/< <14-7+-< 8Q78><
;-9;-7187< 78=;- <8>..4- -7 6?6- =-69< :>- 4- .14 ,- 78< <8>?-71;<o
z7

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki=H

>=;(7/- 17=161=>Y,- +-44- :>- 4"87 <"(>=8;1<- (?-+ 4-< 17+877>< 9(;+-
:>4"87 <(1= 7- 4-< ;-?81; 2(6(1<Y78>< ,>41(1= 4( 4(7/>- -= 4( 6>681;-o

n- 4>1 9(;4(1< ,-n-(77- -= ,>f(9+1;Y ,-< +-;1<-< ,-f>;-=Y ,-< ,1(6(7=<
,e83(<<( :>1 7"(?(1-7= 2(6(1< ;-2817= 4-< =1;81;< ,- 4(w>9>)41:>- (> 9;8.1=
,4( 98>4- ,">7 +0-. ,"|=(= ,- 9-=1=- 78)4-<<-Y ,-< 2(;,17< ,- 4"t)<-;?(=81;-Y
,-< =;>:>(/-< ,">7- (6)1=187 6(4(,1?-Y ,-< 6-7<87/-<Y ,-p(?(4 -= ,- 4(
!87- 41);-Y ,-<x=>3(< -7 91:>><>; 4-< ;8>=-< ,- +(69(/7- ,- 687
-7.(7+- -= ,-< 087=-< <>++-<<1?-< :>- 6"(?(1-7= 17.41/>+- :>- 2"-7=-7,(1<
,1;- ,- 4( />-;;-Y <>; 4-< ,>98;=(=187<Y <>; 4- +;16- ,- =8>< +87=;- 4-< 2>1.<Y
<>;u1-}mmY <>;e-;+0=-</(,-7Y <>; 4- +C(7>;- ,- 4( ,-;71A;- <-+87,- 98>;
4- +(98;(4 (>=;1+01-7 -=i?(e;(>7Y <>;r>;-6)-;/< y8>=-< +-< +08<-< :>1
6"(?(1-7= <1 9;8.87,>6-7= 6(;:>>48;<:>- 2">=(1< 94>< 2->7- -= :>1Y
(>28>;,"0>1 -7+8;-Y6- ;-<=(1-7= -7 =;(?-;< ,- 4( /8;/- (> 9817= :>"14
6"(;;1?(1= ,"(?81; 087=-Y>7- 087=- 166-7<-Y98>; 78< 41?;-<
,"l1<=81;-B9>;/><Y98>; 78<p>/187< ,"0877->; /(4?(>,>-<Y98>; 78< 9(7=0>87<
<:>(==>< -= 98>; 4( .;(>,- -= 4- 6-7<87/- 9-;6(7-7=< ,">7-i>;89-94(
,>;1?-Y687 9(C< (?(1=(48;< :>->=>(><<1 +-4>1 ,-<p>61A;-< -= ,> 7->.
y0-;61,8;o
n"(?(1< 9(;4><(7< 6"(;;?=-; 98>; :>"14 <(+0- )1-79:>1 14 (?(1=9.(1;-oy8>=
-7 ?;(+oy8>= +- :>1 6- ?-7(1=Y ,(7< >7 ,><8;,;- :>- <->4< 987+=>(1-7= 4-<
,-;71-;< +;>91=-6-7=< ,- 4"(?-;<- <>; 4-< ?1=;-< ,- 78=;- 0I=-4o w +-= 17<=(7=Y
2- ,-?(1< 4>1 <-6)4-; >7 )1-7>=;(7/- 9-;<877(/-Y -698;=>,(7<
>7,1(=;1)- :>1 4(1<<(1= 9-> ,- 94(+-94"17,>4/-7+-on"(?(1< -> =;89 ,-
<14-7+,(7< 6( =?=-Y 9-7,(7= +-< ,-;71A;-< <-6(17-<Y 98>; +87=;I4-; 6(17=-7(7=
4,>)1= ,- 6-< ,>+4(;(=187<< m4 C (?(1= (><<1 ,(7< =8>= +-4( >7 =(7=17-=
,9;8?8+(=187 :>"-7/-7,;(1= <87 169-;=>;)()4- +(46-o

r8>< (?87< ,C7>-7<-6)4- <(7< +-<<-; ,- 78>< ;(+87=-; 6144- +08<-< -=
48;<:>- 2- 4"->< :>1==>Y >7- .81< ,(7< 6( +0(6);-Y 4"1,>- 6- ?17=
:>4"01<=81;- ,- <( ?1- (>;(1= 9> .(1;- >7 <+>7(;18 0878;()4- <"14 (?(1= )1-7
?8>4> 6- 4( ;(+87=-; (>=;-6-7= :>- 9(; );1)-< ,1<9(;(=-<
8Q<6>4(7/-(1-7= 6-< 9;89;-< (?(=(;<om4 6"-7 .(44(1= ,87+>+8>=-; ,(?(7=(/- -=
<>;=8>= +-<<-; ,- 4"17=-;;869;- (?-+ 6( 9;89;- 01<=81;- ,87= 4"17=>;?=
69(;(1<<(1= ,1<+>=()4-on"(?(1< 6?6- -> 9->; >7 17<=(7= ,- 4- +08:>-; 9(;
6-< 9;1<-< ,- 98<1=187< ;(,1+(4-< -= 4-< 2>/-6-7=<94"-698;=-d91A+- ,87=
2"(?(1< 4- <-+;-= -= :>1 9;8?8:>(1-7= 4- 94>< <8>?-7= +0-D 4-< (>=;-<Y 4(
;>9;8)(=187 8> >7- +87=;-d8..-7<1?- -7 ;A/4-op>1Y (> +87=;(1;-Y 7-
<,>9(;=1<<(1= 9(< ,- +- 4>/-; <8>;1;- ,- )1-7?-144(7+- -= 6- 4(1<<(1= =-;617-;

=S ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

6-< +0(;/-<on"(?(1< <>)1=-6-7= -7?1- :>- 4( =-69?=- 7- +-<<- 9(< -= :>-
4=;(17 (==-7,> <81= ;-=(;,>-7+8;- 9(; 4- 6(>?(1< =-69<ou8>; 78>< 4(1<<-;
4"-<9(+- 7>+-<<(1;-9.(1;- +877(1<<(7+-o

f"-<= ,(7< +-==- +87.><187 ,"-<9;1= :>- 2- 9(;?17< .17(4-6-7=96"-7,8;61;
-7>+8>=(7= 4-< +(=(;(+=-< .;(99-; 4-< =I4-< ,- 4( =81=>;-\)(7,-d<87
9(;.(1=-6-7= (,(9=>- (>B ;??-< 1698<<1)4-< :>- 4- 0(<(;, (44(1= 2-=-; ,(7<
6( =?=-o
p( 4>/-7,- =>91 <>; 4( 7(1<<(7+- ,- 4"d6(D87-Y 6- ;-?17=94"-<9;1= (>
686-7= 8Q4- <866-14 6- 9;-7(1=o
+ p( 4>7->=(1= .1(7+>- (> <84-14 -=y>99<"8998<(1=9+-==- >7187 +(; 14 C
(44(1= ,- 4( <>;?1- ,> 687,- ,1<(1= 4( 4>/-7,-y>91o p-< 4(;6-< ,- 4(
4>7.>;-7= (48;< <1 ()87,(7=-< :>"-44-< ;-+8>?;1;-7= =8>=- 4( =-;;- 6(1< 4-<
8+>(7< ;-.><A;-7= ,- 4-< ;-+-?81; ,- <8;=- :>"-44-< ,877A;-7= 7(1<<(7+-9>7
166-7<- .4->?-Y4-w18d6(D87(<Y4( ;1?1A;- ,-< 4(;6-< ,- 4(
4>7-o p"17+87<+1-7+- -7?(01= 687 +-;?-(> :>(7, 4"166-7<- 6(<+(;-= ?-7>
,- 4"8+>(7 <- 61=9,>.-;4-; ?-;< 4-< 6(7/;8?-< :>1 )8;,(1-7= 4- .4->?-o ;
p( =-69?=- (?(1= +-<<>,(7< 4( 7>1= -= >7 /;(7, <84-14 )4(7+ 9>7>=;(1= 9(; 4(
+;81<>- ,(7< >7 =17=(6(;;- ,- +0(7=< ,"81<-(>B (>:>-4 14 .(44(1= >7 686-7=
98>; <"0()1=>-; =(7= 4-< =;144-< 9>7>=;(1-7= 9;8.87,>6-7= ,(7< 4-< 8;-144-< -=
-69?+0(1-7= ,- 9-7<-;o g-08;<Y(9;A< 4-< =;86)-< ,- 4( 7>1=Y+">=(1=
6-;?-144- ,- 4>61A;- -= ,"17+(7,-<+-7+-o
f- 7">=(1= 9(< 4( <1=>(=187 1,>(4- 98>; 9;-7,;- :>-4:>-< 78=-< <>;
4"01<=81;,-u1-;;-o p-< 41->B <- ;>?>4(1-7= )1-7 =;89 );>C(7=< 98>; :>- 2- 9>1<<-
6+87+-7=;-; <>; 4-<>4>6-7=< :>- 2"(?(1< ,>296>68;1<><o m4 7"C (?(1= 9(< -7
-..-= :>- 4-< 81<-(>B\ r(6)8> +0(7=(1=Y4- 9-;<877-4 ,- +>1<17- .(1<(1= >7
;(..>= 17-B941+()4- -= 4( =>4>?1<187 (28>=(1= (> ?(+(;6-o d><<1 6- .(44(1=d14
()(7,877-; 4-< 41->B 98>; (44-; +0-;+0-; ;-.>/- 787 4817 ,- 49Y ,-;;1A;- 4(
91<=- ,- =-;;- )(==>-Y ,(7< >7 9-=1= )81< ,- .4(6)8C(7=< 787 <(7< (?81;
4(1<<>,(7< 4- +(<1-; ,-u1-;;-Y94( ;>+-9=187 ,- 4"0I=-4 >7 +8>;=
6-<<(/98>; :>"87 <- ;-=;8>?-9<87 ;>?-14 +(; 2- ?8>4(1< (44-; (?-+ 4>1 (>
?144(/(.17 ,- ?1<1=-; 4">/41<- :>- 4-<u8;=>/(1<Y +87:>>;(7=< ,>e;><14Y (?(1-7=
)7=1- -72X2&Y ,87= 4"0I=-41-; 6"(?(1= <1/7(4>4"-B1<=-7+-o
p- +0(7= ,-< 81<-(>B 6- 9(;?-7(1= =8>28>;< +(; +">=(1= 98>; ->B
4"0->;)>71- ,> 6(=17of">=(1= +866- <"14< +877(1<<(1-7= 4-< )870->;< ,">7 28>;
78>?-(> -= 4( 281- ,> )-(> =-69< ;-?-7>op( )8>- (?(1= <>+0>(?-+
4"17=-7<1=>,> <84-14 ,>290(>= ,(7< 4- +1-4 -= 4( 7(=>;- 4(?>-Y -<<8;>- -=

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki=W

);144(7=- ;-<94-7,1<<(1= ,- 6144- .->Bop-< 9(46-< ,-< )(7(71-;< 4>1<(1-7=
+866- ,-< 61;81;< -= 4-< +841);1< .;>=144(1-7= <>; 4-< 6(<<1.< ,"01)1<+><o
p( ,>9;-<<187>=(1= 9(;=1- +866- -44->=(1= ?-7>- -= 4( ?1- ,- 4(
)8>;/(,(?(1= ;-9;1< <87 +8>;<on- 6- ,1<(1< :>- <1 4- )-(> =-69< ,>;(1=Y 4- =;(17
(==-7,> .171;(1= )1-7 9(; (;;1?-; +- :>1 7">=(1= 9(< +(=(<=;8901:>-
9>1<:>u1-;;- -= 681 ,-?187< ?8C(/-; -7<-6)4-od17<1 98>;;(1<d2- +87=17>-;9
9;-7,;- ,-< 78=-< <>; +- :>"14 6- ;(+87=(1= ,- 4>1Y )1-7 :>"14 ,-?1-7,;(1=
(48;< ,1..1+14- ,- 4- 4>1 ,1<<16>4-;on"(?(1< 9;1< -7 -..-= 4- 9(;=1 ,- 7- ;1-7 4>1
,1;- (.17 :>"14 9>1<<- +87=17>-;9<- +87.1-; <(7< +;(17=-Y ,- 4( 6(71A;- 4(
94>< 7(=>;-44- :>1 <81=Y 9(; <8>+1 ,"(>=0-7=1+1=>Y <(7< :>"14
+0-;+07=9.(1;>7- <>4-+=187 :>-4+87:>- ,(7< 4-<>?>7-6-7=< ,- <( ?1-om4 -<= ?;(1
:>78>< 7"(?187< (>+>7>?>7-6-7= -7 +866>799(;=(/-; <(>.
78=;;-7+87=;- 1+1 ,- <8;=- :>"14 7- 98>?(1= 94>< <"(/1;Y +866- 4( ?-144- (> )(;Y
,">7- +87?-;<(=187 6(1< ,">7 687848/>- <841=(1;- 8Q2"(44(1< 4>1 9;?=-; 6-<
8;-144-< -=Y <1 98<<1)4-Y 6( 6>681;-on- ?1?(1< 49>7->=;(7/- (?-7=>;- -= 4-<
C->B ,-u1-;;- 98<>< <>; 681 6- ,1<(1-7= :>"14 4( 9(;=(/-(1=
-7=1A;-6-7=on7- <(1< 98>;:>81Y 6(1< 14 ?8>4(1= <- ;(+87=-;9681Y (> =-;6- ,">7- ,>+1<187
<>)1=- 8> (> +87=;(1;-Y ;>.4>+01- ,-9>1< 487/=-69<o
z7 +01-7 781;Y -..4(7:>>-= 61<>;()4- <">=(1= (99;8+0>-= 6- ;-/(;,(1=
.1B-6-7=Y 9>1<Y <(7< ,8>=- ;(<<>;>Y <- +8>+0(99;8B161=>,> 41->
:>2"(?(1< +081<1 98>; ;>,1/-; 6-< 9;-61A;-< 78=-< -= <- 61=9<- /;(==-; (?-+
?1/>->;o

n"(?(1< ,>+1,>,"?=;- 4- 94>< ;1/8>;->B 98<<1)4- ,(7< 6(
9;-61A;;>,(+=187o{1-144- 0()1=>,- ,- +8;;-<987,(7= (<<-;?1 (> ,1-> ,- 4"8)2-+=1?1=>
28>;7(41<=1:>-Y +-4( 6- 9-;6-==(1= ,"(6(<<-; ,>=(14< -= 9-=1=< .(1=< :>1
98>?(1-7= 6"?=;- >=14-< 94>< =(;, )1-7 :>- 2"1/78;(1< =8=(4-6-7= <"14 C (>;(1=
2(6(1< >7 94>< =(;, -=Y ,(7< 4"(..1;6(=1?-Y +- :>- 2- 98>;;(1< )1-7 .(1;-
,=8>= +-4(on"(?(1< +-9-7,(7= >7- +-;=1=>,-\<( ?1->=(1= <(7< 7>4 ,8>=- 94><
9(<<1877(7=- :>- 4( 61-77-of-4( ?(4(1= 4( 9-17- ,"-<<(C-;Y -= 9>1<n>(7Y 4>1Y
6- ,1;(1= )1-7=I= +- :>"14 .(44(1= 9-7<-; ,- =8>= +-4(o
+ {8149687 01<=81;-;6"(?(1= ,1=u1-;;- -7 9;-7(7= >7 =87 /;(?- <(7<
;(998;= (?-+ 4( 90C<187861- +(46- -= <-;-17- :>"14 (..1+0(1=Y +866- <"14
.-1/7(1= ,- ,877-;9=8>= +-4( >7- <84-771=>(;=1.1+1-44-Y 9;-<:>- +861:>-Y
4>1 9-;6-==(7= ,- ,1<<16>4-; 9->=d?=;- 4( ;-4(=1?- 169>,->; ,- <87 9;82-=o
n- <>1< 7>,(7< 4- :>17D1A6- (;;87,1<<-6-7= ,">7u(;1<8++>9>9(; 4-<
d44-6(7,<o y;A< -B(+=-6-7= 4- 28>; 8Q4-< 9(7D-;< -7?(01<<(1-7= 4"z7187
x8?1>=1:>- 98>; (44-; <"-69(;-; ,> 9>=;84- ,>f(>+(<-o p-jP0;-; <>1?(7=

=X ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

,(7< 4( =8>7,;( 4-< =;(+-< ,- 4"i69-;->; ,87= 4-< 17=-7=187< 0>/>6871:>-<
(?(1-7=>=>1,-7=1:>-< )1-7 :>"-44-< 7- .><<-7= 9(< .87,>-< <>; 4-< 6?6-<
)-<817< <=;(=>/1:>-<on"(44(1< =;A< ?1=- (,8;-; 4- +8;<- -= 0(D; 4"d>=;1+01-7Y :>1
7"(?(1=>=>:>- 4- 9;8,>1= ,- 6(;1(/-< +87<(7/>17< <>++-<<1.< -7.(7=>,(7< 4(
0(17- ,-< (>=;-<of">=(1= -7 8+=8);-S2o
n- 7"(1 +87<-;?>7(=>;-44-6-7= (>+>7 <8>?-71; ,- +-==- 7(1<<(7+- :>1 .>= 98>;
6-< 9(;-7=< 4- =;81<1A6- 0->;->B>?>7-6-7= ,- 4->; ?1- ,- +8>94- 6(4/;>
4"8++>9(=187Y 4-< 9;1?(=187< -= 4"-B=-7<187 ,- 4( />-;;-on- <>1< ;-?-7>
)-(>+8>9 94>< =(;, ,(7< +- :>(;=1-; ,> 6>=;8 (>;1-7 :>1 6(4/;><-<
17>?1=()4-< =;(7<.8;6(=187< ( +87<-;?>>7 2- 7- <(1< :>81 ,- ?144(/-81< -=
,+87?1?1(4 ,(7< >7u(;1< :>- 2- 7"(1 2(6(1< +-<<>,"(16-;op( 6(=-;71=>,- 4(
;>-e486-= 6-==(1= (17<1 +0(:>- 28>; -7 41)-;=>,-< )>)>< :>1Y (><<1=I= <8;=1<Y
<- ;-=;8>?(1-7= 9;1<8771-;< ,>mmmA6-w-1+0h
n- .><>4-?>9;A< ,- 4"|=814- 8Q,-6->;(1-7= 6-< 9(;-7=<on- +;81< :>- +">=(1=
;>- ,-< .;A;-<u-;;1-;oz7 )-(> :>(;=1-; 8Q48/-(1-7= ,- 786);->B 8..1+1-;<
(44-6(7,< +- :>1 -B941:>(1= 4- 786);- 1698;=(7= ,- <-7=17-44-< )(==(7= 4(
<-6-44- ,-?(7= 4( 98;=- ,- )87 786);- ,"166->)4-<of">=(1-7= ,-<)8+0-<
+866- 87 ,1<(1= (48;< (?-+ ,(7< 4( )8>+0- 4- 6>9;1< ,-< ?(17+><
=-17=>,">717,>71()4- ,8<- ,- +87<1,>;(=187 98>; +-==- (;6>- -77-61- :>1 78>< (?(1= <1
;(91,-6-7= )(==><op- <-7=16-7= />7>;(4 7">=(1= +-9-7,(7= 9(< +-4>1 :>1
9;>?(4(1=94( 6(1<87 +(; 687 9A;- (?(1=>98><>(?(7= 4( />-;;- >7-
2->71=(41-77-Y 6( 6A;-Y :>"14 (?(1= +877>-9 w86- (48;< :>"14 C +8694>=(1= <(
.8;6(=187 ,"0I=-41-; -= 4- .(1= :>- 4"m=(41- <81= ,-?-7>- 4"(441>- ,-
4"d44-6(/7;-7,(1= =8>=- 172>;-94"-7+87=;- ,-< -7?(01<<->;< 1698<<1)4-99;8.>;-;9
0(>=- ?81B 9(; ;-<9-+= 98>; 78=;- 6A;- :>1 <8>..;(1=94( .81< ,- +-=
-69?+0-6-7= :>"-44- 78>< 1698<(1= 17,1;-+=-6-7= -= ,- +- :>"-44- +87<1,>;(1=
+866- >7- 6><(441(7+- 687<=;>-><- 98>; <87 9(C< ,"8;1/17-o
q87 9A;- 7"-7>=(1= 9(< 98>; (>=(7= >7 +844()8;(=->; -=Y +866- 4( 94>9(;=
,-< /-7< ,- +-==->98:>-Y 14 98>;<>1?(1= <-< (+=1?1=>< 9;8.-<<1877-44-< (9;A<
(?81;>=>=;A< ;(91,-6-7= ,>68)141<>Y +- :>1 16941:>(1= 98>; 4>1 ,"(++-9=-;
,(7< 4- ;-<=(>;(7= :>"14 ?-7(1= ,"8>?;1; ;>-n-(7q-;68DY (>w87,u817= ,-<
f0(69<di4C<>-< 4( <84,(=-<:>- /(4877>- ,- 4"(;6>- -77-61- :>1 7- <- 4(<<(1=
9(< ,"(99;>+1-; 4( /(<=;87861- ,-< 41->B -= <- /(?(1= ,-u86(;,Y ,-f0-?(4
)4(7+ -= ,-x(17=n>41-7ox->4- ,>687<=;(=187 <>)=14- ,- ;><1<=(7+-Y 687
9A;.(1<(1= ;>987,;- (>Bd44-6(7,<Y +0(:>- .81< :>"14 4- 98>?(1=Y :>- <87
;-<=(>;(7=>=(1= +8694-=om4 7- 98>?(1= />A;- .(1;- 61->B +(; 14 (?(1= ,-<
+0(;/-< ,- .(6144- -= 7"(?(1= />A;- 4"76- ,">7 6(:>1<(;,og> 6817<
49-7<(1=d14< m4 -<= ?;(1 :>- ,>29-72[S287 +869=(1= <>; 4-<d6>;1+(17< 98>;
.(1;- 4- <(4- )8>48= -= )8>=-; 4- )8+0- 08;< ,-j;(7+-o m4 C (?(1= )-44-
4>;-==-7 -..-= :>- 78=;- 9(C< 7"(?(1= 94>< ,- 9>+-44-96-==;- -7 41+-h m4 -<= ?;(1

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki=Y

(><<1 :>- 4- 9-=1= 786);- ,- +->B :>1 <">=(1-7= 61<9;><1<=-;94"8++>9(7=
<">=(1= 61<9(>/6-7=-; <17/>41A;-6-7= 4- 28>; 8Q.>;-7= 17<=(>;>< 4-< =1+3-=<
,- ;(=1877-6-7= -= 4-< ;-<=;1+=187< (416-7=(1;-<Y ,(7< +- 9(C< 8Q4"(<<1-==- 4"(
=8>28>;< -698;=><>; 4- ,-?81; -= <>; 4"0877->;< f"-<= ,> 6817< +- :>- 78><
-7<-1/7(1= 78=;- 9;8.-<<->; ,- <8+1848/1-94(j(+>4=>,- ,;81= ,"d1Bd-7d
u;8?-7+- 8QY )1-7 94>< =(;,Y 2"(44(1< <>1?;- ,-<>=>,-< 9(<<1877(7=-< <>;
4,;81= ,-< /-7<h
t7 6"( ;(998;=>:>- 2- .>< <(7< 4- ?8>481;9+-==->98:>- 0>;8D:>- >7-
<8;=,- ;><1<=(7= ,- 4( 9;-61A;- 0->;- -7 91<<(7= ,(7< 4( ;>- 9(; 4( .-7?=;- ,-
78=;(99(;=-6-7= +- :>1 ->= 98>; -..-= ,- <8>144-; 4( ?(;-><- ?-;=d,-d/;1< ,>
.-4,A-)-4 ,- 9-;6(7-7+-ot7 7- 94(1<(7=(1= 9(< -7 +- =-69<d49(?-+ 4(
.1A;(;6>- (44-6(7,- -= 14>=(1= ;1/8>;-><-6-7= 17=-;,1= ,- 4>1 91<<-; ,-<<><Y
6?6- 9(; 6>/(;,-oq87 9A;- .>= 166>,1(=-6-7= -66-7> 94( 9;1<87 ,>
f0-;+0-dq1,1 ,87= 14 7- ;-<<8;=1= :>- =;81< 28>;< 94>< =(;, /;7+- (>B 6>4=194-<
,>6(;+0-< ,- 6( 6A;- ,87= 4-< 8;1/17-< =;(7<(4917-< -= 4( )-(>=>(?(1-7= <(7<
(>+>7 ,8>=- -698;=>4( )1-7?-144(7+- ,- 4(k-<=(98o
p-<d6>;1+(17< <- .(1<(7= (==-7,;-Y 687 9A;- 8>?;1= >7 (>=;- ;-<=(>;(7= <>;
4-< +I=-< 78;6(7,-< <(7< <(?81;Y )1-7 -7=-7,> :>- +">=(1= 49:>- 4-< +08<-<
<>;1-><-< (44(1-7= >7 28>; <- 9(<<-;Y -= :>- 4-< -7.(7=< ,"d6>;1:>- C
?1-7,;(1-7= <- 2-=-; <>; 4-< 61=;(144-><-< 7(D1-< 98>; ,>41?;-;
>7-j;(7+,>.(144(7=- -= ?(17+>-of"-<=9+-==->98:>- :>- 4">7 ,- 6-< .;A;-< 68>;>=9
{144-;<?144- -= +- .>= 98>; 6-< 9(;-7=< >7- 17,1+1)4- <8>..;(7+- :>"14<
9(;?17;-7= +-9-7,(7=9<>998;=-; (?-+ 4- <-+8>;< ,- 4( ;-41/187 ,87= 4->;
?1>=(1= 169;>/7>- +866- (44(1= 4"?=;- 4( 78=;- ,(7< +-<>+84-< +0;>=1-77-<
:>4"87 +0(;/-;(1= ,- 78><>,>:>-; (> 41-> -= 94(+- ,- 78< .(6144-< :>1 7"-7
(?(1-7= 9(< 4- =-69<oi= 9>1<Y 98>; =8>= ,1;-Y +">=(1= +866-<( :>- 4"87 .(1<(1=
,-9>1< ,-< />7>;(=187< ,(7< +- :>"87 (99-4(1= (48;< 4-< )877-< .(6144-<
q87 .;A;- (C7> d4(17 ?-7(1= ,- <>++86)-;9>7- <-9=1+>61- :>-4:>-< 681<
<->4-6-7= (?(7= 4( +866-;+1(41<(=187 ,- 4( 9>71+14417-<|?1,-66-7=
;-=(;,>- 9(; 4( />-;;-o{1+=16- 17,1;-+=- ,- +-44-d+1Y 687 .;A;- (C7>(?(1=>=>
?1+=16- (><<1 ,- +-< 0(<(;,< ,87= 4( ?1- -<= 9;8,1/>- 98>; ;-6941; 4-<
+16-=1A;-<h
f866- <1 +-4(>=(1= .(1= -B9;A< 98>;>9;8>?-; 4-<76-<hoooo
p"08;1D8794"t>-<= ,-6->;(7= ,><-<9>;>6-7= ?1,-Y 4( .(6144- =;(?-;<( 4- 9(C<
98>; <- .1B-;9 p(r(;=-44- 9;A< ,-x(17=-q(B16- 8Q6-< 9(;-7=< ?-7(1-7=
,"(+:>>;1; 4-< )7=16-7=< ;8<-< ,">7 0I=-4 9;8?-7<(4 )48==1 -7=;- 917A,- -=
94(/- (> )8;, ,">7- ;8>=- ,- )8;, ,- 6-; :>"14 <>..1<(1= ,- =;(?-;<-; 98>; (44-;
<- )(1/7-;of">=(1= <>)1=-6-7= 98>; 6-< .;A;-< -= 681 4- 9(;(,1< <>; =-;;- -=
78>< 7"(44187< 9(< 6(7:>-; ,"-7 9;8.1=-;or8><>=187< ,- 9-=1=< ?8C8><

=Z ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

(>B:>-4< 87 (>;(1= ,877>4-e87g1-> <(7< +87.-<<187op"(?-71; <>)1=-6-7=
78>< (99(;=-7(1= +(; (9;A< 4- +(=(+4C<6- (>:>-4 78>< ?-7187< ,"(<<1<=-; ,(7<
4- 687,- ,-< (,>4=-<Y 78>< 7"(?187< 94>< (>+>7- -<9A+- ,- ;-<9-+= 8>
,+87<1,>;(=187 98>; +-< /-7<d49o w ?8C8>Y ?8C8> -= ,-61< g"(144->;< 2-
6,-6(7,- -7+8;- +866-7= 14 .>= 98<<1)4-9+-< /-7< :>1 <- ,1<(1-7= ,-< (,>4=-<Y
,- 78>< 9;898<-; <(7< ;8>/1; >7->,>+(=187Y,- 78>< -7<-1/7-; 4( 68;(4-Y4(
+0(;1=>+0;>=1-77-Y4"0>6(71<6- -= =8>= +- .48;14A/- ,- )-44-< 9-7<>-< :>1Y
<-487 ->BY.(1<(1= 4( /;(7,->; ,- 78=;- 9(C<o x(7< ,8>=->=(1=d+- 98>; +-4(
:>"14< ,>4>/>(1-7= (>B 2><>1=-<Y(>B 6(;1<=-<Y(>B .;A;-< ,-<>+84-< +0;>=1-77-<Y
4- <817 ,- 78>< =;(7<6-==;- 4-< )87< 9;17+19-<o p( />-;;- ,-2ZYtY4-< >04(7<
,(7<u(;1<Y+-44- ,"(9;A<Y9(< ,(?(7=(/- /48;1-><- (?-+ <( =;(7+0>- ,-<
)(D877-==-<Y<-<+.><144>< 98>; 4"-B-694-;-= <87 166-7<- +(;7(/-Y(?(1-7=
-7 -..-= ;-=1;>(>B 9A;-< ,- .(6144-Y+866- (?(7=Y<8>< 4"(7+1-7 ;>/16-Y4-<
9;>;8/(=1?-< ,- +-==- =;(7<61<<187<\14<>=(1-7= 8++>9>< (144->;<o
z7- +08<->=(1= <O;-\78><>=187< ,-< ?8C8>< ,- )877- .(6144-h

w?;(1 ,1;-Y687 9A;- (?(1= 9> (+:>>;1; +-= 0I=-4 98>; >7 )87 9;1B +(; <"14
7">=(1= 9(< -7 ;>17-<Y14 7"-7 ?(4(1= />A;- 61->Bom4 +87<-;?(1= <>; <-< .(<(,-<
4-< =;(+-< ,> 61=;(144(/- 17=-7<1. ,- 4( 6(;17- (6>;1+(17- :>1 (?(1= 914877>4-<
+I=-< 98>; 9-;6-==;- 4- ,>)(;:>-6-7= ,-u;8?-7+-or8><>=187< ;(?1< +(; ,-<
=;><8;< 78>< (==-7,(1-7= <>; 4( 94(/- -= 14 7">=(1= 9(< ,- 28>; <(7< :>- 78><
7;(998;=187<94( 6(1<87 :>1>=(1= (><<1 78=;- 0I=-4Y,-< +(<:>-< (44-6(7,<Y,-<
>=>1< ,- /;-7(,-<Y,-<>4>6-7=< ,">:>19-6-7= 6141=(1;- -= =8>= >7 (;<-7(4
,"8)2-=< ,87= 78>< 1/78;187< 4"><(/- +- :>1 (?(1= 98>; -..-= ,- =-;;8;1<-; 78<
9(;-7=<94"1,>- :>"14 98>?(1= (><<1 ;-<=-; ,-< 617-< -7<()4>-< 8> ,-< /;-7(,-<
96(7+0-o
n- 78>< ?81< -7+8;-Y94"86);- ,-< =(6(;1< -= ,-< 4(>;1-;< )4(7+<Y(<<1< =8>< 4-<
:>(=;- <>; ,-< +(<:>-< )8+0-<Y94"(<<1-==- 17+-;=(17-Y98>; .(1;- 78=;- 9898 ,>
6(=17oe-44- ;-?(7+0- <>; 4"-77-61 ,"01-;h m6(/- ,"|917(4 <=1/6(=1<(7=
4"(7=1:>- 0(17- ,-< )(;)(;-< +866- 87 -7 ?81= <>; 4-< 144><=;(=187< ,-< +86=-<
,"i;+36(77 -=f0(=;1(7h q(1< 14 -<= ?;(1 :>"9+-==->98:>- 14 <"(/1<<(1=
,+(<:>-<99817=-Y,- 4(7+-< -= ,- +0(;/-< ,- +(?(4-;1-<i= (><<1Y,- 4->;
;-9;-7,;- 4"d4<(+- -= 4(p8;;(17-h
n"1/78;- +- :>"-7 9-7<(1-7= 6-< .;A;-< 6(1< 681 2"(,8;(1< ,>294-<d6>;1+(17<o
y8>= ,"()8;, 14<>=(1-7= 49Y(?-+ 4->;< +0(;< -= 4->;< +0-A17/d/>6< :>"14< 78><
2-=(1-7= ,- 4->;< =8>;-44-< (?-+ =(7= ,- /-7=144-<<- -= ,- .;(=-;71=>:>- +"-7
>=(1= 6-;?-144->B 98>; 78>< :>1 (?187< ?>+> 2><:>-d49,- )8>1441-< ,- =(918+(
-= ,"0>14- ,- .81- ,- 68;>-og- 94>< <"14< 7">=(1-7= 9(< -7+8;- 4-< ?(17:>->;<
14< 4->; ;-<<-6)4(1-7= )-(>+8>9 -= +">=(1= 98>; 681 4-< 0>;8< :>- 78><

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki=[

(==-7,187<Y :>1 <- )(==(1-7= 9(;=8>=Y -7 x1+14-Y -7 r8;?A/-Y (> n(987 -=Y
)1-7=I=Y -7 d44-6(/7-o n"(44(1< ,"(144->;< +87<-;?-; 98>; +-< 0>;8< (6>;1+(17<
>7- (,61;(=187 <(7< )8;7-< :>1 7"(?(1= ,">/(4 :>- 4- 6>9;1< <8>?-;(17 :>-
298;=(1<9=8>< +->B :>1 (?(1-7= -7/-7,;>78< 6(40->;<ou-7,(7= 487/=-69<
2"(1 +87=17>>,- 41;- (?-+ (?1,1=>4-< 144><=;>< :>1 9>44>4(1-7= (48;< ,(7< 4-<
318<:>-< -= :>1 ?(7=(1-7= 4- +8>;(/- ,- +-< <84,(=< 4>==(7= ,(7< 4-
687,-7=1-; 98>; 17<=(>;-; 4( 9(B (6-;1+(7(Y ,-k>(,(4+(7(4 (>Bd;,-77-< -=
,q17,(7(89 q87=-f(<<178on- 4-< ?81< -7+8;-Y 6(4 ;(<><Y >7-
.8<<-==9-;6(7-7=- (> 6-7=87Y 4- +(<:>- ,- =;(?-;<94( 2>/>4(1;- ,>.(1=-Y 4-<
9866-==-< <(144(7=-<Y 4-< 4A?;-< =8;,>-< 9(; 4- 6(<=1+(/- ,-<>=-;7-4< +0-A17/d
/>6<Y <8;=(7= ,-< ();1<Y )(D877-==- (> +(787Y 98>; <- ;>-; <>; +-<+,1()4-<
2(>7-<;,(7< 4-u(+1.1:>- 8> <>; 4-< 9-=1=< /(;< ,- 4( A-;6(+0= ,87= 87 ?8C(1=
(?-+ ,>41+- 4-< ?1<(/-< ,>.8;6>< 9(; 4( 9->;Y,-;;1A;- 4->;< )(;)-4>< <>; 4-<
94(/-< ,"d;;86(7+0-<< n- 41<(1< -= ;-41<(1< <(7< +-<<- +-< )(7,-< ,-<<17>-< -=
7(1<<(1-7= (48;<Y(> 94>< 9;8.87, ,- 681Y,-< ,><1;< ,"0>;8D<6-Y,- ?184-7+-<
98>; 4( 2><=1+-Y-= ,- <(+;1.1+-o
r8><>=187< =;89 2->7-< (48;< 98>; <>1?;- ,- .(<87 48/1:>- 4">?84>=187 ,-<
>?>7-6-7=< 6(1< 4-< (,>4=-<Y:>- 2"(99-4(1< (?-+ 6>9;1<Y +4-< /-7<;Y
+866-7=(1-7= +- :>1 <- 9(<<(1= -= 78>< 4-< -7=-7,187< ,1;- ,-< +08<-<
-..;(C(7=-< <>; 4-< )8+0-<Y<>; 4-< 2>1.<Y<>; 4-< +(69<Y<>; 4-<w><<-<Y<>;
46(;+0>781; -= =8>=-< +-< +08<-< :>1 .(1<(1-7= 78=;- :>8=1,1-7on"-7=-7,(1<
,1;:>- 4-< />7>;(>B (?(1-7= =;(01 4- 9(C<Y:>- 4-< 0866-< 9841=1:>-< (?(1-7=
;-71>4->;< ;-<987<()141=>< -= 4->; 0877->;Y:>- 4- +0-. ,- 4"|=(= ;-.><(1=
,9(;4-; ,-9>1< ,-< 681< (> 9;><1,-7= ,>f87<-14 9(;+- :>"14<>=(1-7= .7+0><Y
=(7,1< :>- 4-< (;6>-< .>C(1-7= -7 ,>)(7,(,- 7(?;(7=- 2-=(7= <>; 4-< ;8>=-<
,4"-B8,- =(7= ,- 6(40->;->B :>1 <- +;8C(1-7= /8>?-;7>< -= :>1 <>)1=-6-7=
9;-7(1-7= +87<+1-7+- ,- 4"17,1/-7+- ,- 4->; 9(=;1-o
z7- .81< ,- 94><h
f;>-44->98:>- 8Q78=;- -7.(7+- (?(1= <>;/1o{1+=16-< 9(;61 4-< ?1+=16-<Y
78>< 7"(?187< 98>; 78=;- 9(;= (>+>7- +87<+1-7+- ,> 6(4 :>1 (?(1=>=>.(1=
6(1< 78>< <(?187< :>"14 (?(1=>=>166-7<- +(; ,(7< 4- 687,- ,-< /;(7,<Y,(7<
4- 687,- ,- +-< /-7< :>- 2- +866-7<(1<9,>=-<=-;Y4"0->;- ,-< ;A/4-6-7=<
,+869=-<>=(1= ?-7>- -=Y)1-7 <O;Y=8>= 4- 687,- (++><(1= =8>= 4- 687,- +- :>1
>=(1=>?1,-66-7= ;1+0- ,"-7<-1/7-6-7= 98>; 4-< 1778+-7=< :>- 78><>=187<o
r8>< ;-<<-7=187< :>(7, 6?6- +87.><>6-7= :>- 4"76- ,- +- 9->94- 6(46-7>
>=(1= >7 +0(69 ,- ;>17- -= :>"(> 94>< 9;8.87, ,- 4( +87<+1-7+-
+844-+=1?=8>=- -<9>;(7+- (?(1= ,1<9(;> ,- ?81; >7 28>; ;-7(C=;- >7- 7(=187
.8;=-Y>71-= 9(1<1)4-o

H& ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

w 4( ?>;1=>Y 78><>=187< 7>< <(7< ,>29+;81;-978=;- (?-71; -= 78>< ,877187<
<(7< 4- <(?81; +(;=- )4(7+0- (> 0(<(;, 9>1<:>- 4"17=-441/-7+-Y4( ?(71=>-=
4"1,18=1- ,- 78< (C7>< <-6)4(1-7= (?81; -7.(7=>4- ,><(<=;- :>- 78>< (?187<
?>+>Y,><(<=;- :>1 <>;?1?(1=Y<"(6941.1(1= ,(7< ,-< 4>==-< 9841=1:>-< ,>;1<81;-<Y
:>"14< (99-4(1-7= 4( 9(1Bo

u1-;;- (99(;>= <>; 4- <->14 ,- 4"0I=-4 -=Y +41/7(7= ,-< C->B <8>< 4">+4(=(7=
<84-14Y 6- .1= +869;-7,;- :>"14 6"(?(1= ?>o m4 =-7(1= =8>28>;<94( 6(17
4)144-= :>- 2- 4>1 (?(1< 4(1<<> 94( ;>+-9=187 -= 14 6- <8>;1(1=Y?1<1)4-6-7=
0->;->B ,- 6- ;-?81;o
+ m4 .(>= :>- 2- =- ;(+87=- ,-< =(< ,- +08<-< :>1 6- <87= ;-?-7>-< -7
6>681;-Y6- ,1=d14 ,- 4817 <(7< +-<<-; ,- <8>;1;-Y14 C (>;(1= ,-
:>81>+;1;>7 41?;-Y=> <(1< -= 9->=d?=;- :>">7 28>; => 98>;;(1< 6-==;- 781; <>; )4(7+
+:>- 2- <>1< -7 =;(17 ,- =- ;(+87=-;o n- <>1< <O; :>"-7 (C(7= =;(?-;<>4-<
6?6-<>98:>-<Y 99-> ,- +08<- 9;A<Y78>< (?87< +;81<>4-< 6?6-< <(4(>,<Y
+->Bd496?6-< :>1 78>< 87= (99;1<978>< 6>.1-; ,"->BY 9-B9481=-; 4(
+-;=1=>,- :>"14< (?(1-7= =8>< :>- 78><>=187< ,-< 16)>+14-< 9(;+- :>- 78><
>=187< 2->7-<o f->B :>1 78>< 87= (99;1<948>?8C-; ,(7< +-==- .(7/- :>1
7">9(;/7(1= ;1-7 71 9-;<877- -= :>1 78>< 87= (99;1<9,-?-71; ,-< 0866-<
,- 78=;- =-69<Y+)-<=d9d,1;- ,-< 0866-< ,">7 =-69< .171o ;
d)(<8>;,1 9(; +-==- =1;(,- ,;(6(=1:>- :>1 +87=;(<=(1= (?-+ 4"(1; <(=1<.(1=
,u1-;;-Y2- 4>1 ;-7,1< <87 <8>;1;- -7 6"(99;8+0(7= ,- 4>1o g>+1,>6-7= +-=
0866- <-6)4(1= (?81; ,> /8O= 98>; 4-< +87=;(<=-<h
n"(?(1< :>(7=9681 =-;617>4( ;>,(+=187 ,- 6-< 9;-61A;-< 78=-< -=
64-?(1< 98>; 4- <(4>-;Y4( =?=- )8>;,877(7=- ,- +- 9(<<>:>1>=(1=94>1 -= :>1Y
<>)1=-6-7=Y9(; 4- 94>< /;(7, ,-< 0(<(;,< <>;/1<<(1= 1+1 +866- >7-
?178>?-44- 9(;.>6>- ,- 2(<617o z7- ?1- :>1Y-7 -..-=Y(>;(1= 9>?=;- 4(
61-77-o
u1-;;- <">=(1= (<<1< 9;A< ,- 681 <>; >7- <8>+0- -= (?(1= ;-9;1< 4- +8>;< ,- <87
;>+1=o
q-< 9(;-7=< <-6)4(1-7= <"-7 <8;=1;o u->99-> 4( +41-7=A4- <- .(1<(1= 94><
786);-><- -= ,-u7:>-<Y28>; ,- 4"8>?-;=>;-Y94(y8><<(17= 8Q4"0I=-4 .-;6(1=
<-< 98;=-<Y4-<e-4/-< -= <>;=8>= 4-<d7/4(1<Y17?-7=->;< ,- 4(fI=- ,"dD>;Y
(..4>(1-7=Y-7 6(4 ,- )1-7d?=;- -= ,- 94(1<1;< (9;A< =8>=-< +-< (77>-<
,9;1?(=187 -= ,- <8>..;(7+-<o
x8>?-7=Y(> 6141-> ,- 4">=>Y4( 917A,- ,-;;1A;- 4"0I=-4 9;-7(1= .-> -= 4( 94(/-Y
>4=16- ;-.>/- :>(7, +- 7">=(1= 9(< 4( 6-; -44-d6?6-Y,-?-7(1= (48;< >7-
<8;=,- <(44- ,- <9-+=(+4-Y(> 91-, ,-< 0(>=-< .4(66-<Y781;-<Y8;(7/>-< -= 2(>7-<

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdkiH2

:>1 4>+0(1-7= 4- +1-4 166-7<>6-7= )4-> :>">7->9(1<<- .>6>- /;1<- -7,->144(1=
=8>=9+8>9og-< +0(1<-< 487/>-< <"-6);(<(1-7= <8>< 4"-..-= ,- 4( +0(4->; ,>
.-> :>1Y +866- +0(:>- (77>-Y .171<<(1= 9(; <"(;;?=-;Y +866- ,869=>Y (> )8;,
,- 4( ?81- .-;;>- 487/-(7= 4-< +84417-< 781;+1-<on">=(1< <>)2>/>>-= 6(4/;>4-<
;-687=;(7+-< 2- ;-<=(1< ,-< 0->;-<9;-/(;,-; 4-< .4(66-<op- .->Y
+-=?=;?1?(7= :>1 7(C= -= :>1 6->;=>=(1= 98>; 681 4- <1/7- ,- 78=;- =-69<Y
49(7(+0- ,-< />-;;-<Y 4"-6);(<-6-7= ,- 4( .841- ,-< 0866-< (?(7= :>- 4(
781;+->; ,- 4"Z>?;- (++86941- <- ;>9(7,- <>; 4">71?-;<on"(16(1< -= 2- ,>=-<=(1<
=8>=94( .81<Y 4( )-(>=>,">7 <9-+=(+4- +;>91=(7= ,(7< 4( 917A,- -= 4"08;;->;
,<( ,-<=;>+=187 :>(7, 4-< .4(66-< 7"(?(1-7= 94>< ;1-7 98>; <- 78>;;1;o
p-< +41-7=-< (7/4(1<-< (,8;(1-7=<(op->; +87<866(=187 ,-k17 ,>+>94(1=
4<81; (> )(; -7 +869(/71- ,-< 98691-;< ?-7>< 49)81;- >7 ?-;;- -= ;-+-?81; 4-<
+869416-7=< ,- +-< 4(,1-< <>;+0(>..>-<Y =(7,1< :>- <"-7,8;6(1-7= <>; 4-<
.(>=->14< ,- +>1; ;8>/- 4-< 48;,< -= 4-< (;=1<=-< -7 ?(+(7+-<Y 4- 61<=;(4 +0(<<(7=
4"7+;- 8,->; ,> );(<1-;o
p"0I=-4 ,-+ p(w-17-n-(77-; >=(1= -7 -..-= ;(91,-6-7= ,-?-7>Y/;7+- (>
=(4-7= ,- 78< 9(;-7=<Y>7 41-> ,- ;-7,-Dd?8><>4>/(7= -= 4"87 C ;-7+87=;(1=
(><<1 )1-7p(>;-7+-t41?1-; -={1?1-7 <( +869(/7- ,> 686-7= :>- 4-
9-17=;8..1+1-4 ,- 4(f8>; ,"d7/4-=-;;-Y4( .(6144- ,- 4"d/0(o0(7 8> +-44- ,-<
4()8;(=81;-<w8><<-4on- 6- <8>?1-7< -7+8;- (?-+ 9;>+1<187 ,> 9A;-w8><<-4
:>1 =1;(1= ,-< 9(<=-7(/>-<94"(;)(4A=- ,(7< 4-< -(>B )4->-< ,-<x(;,17-(>Bom4
,-?(1= <- =>-; :>-4:>-< (77>-< 94>< =(;, -7 0>41+89=A;-Y 9(; 0(<(;,o
n">=(1< ;>.;(+=(1;- 9(; 7(=>;-Y +866- =8>=?=;- 0>6(17 78;6(4-6-7=
+87<=1=>>Y94( ;>+4><187 (77>-44- :>- 4"87 78>< 1698<(1= ,(7< +-<
>=()41<<-6-7=< ;-41/1->B 8Q=(7= ,- />7>;(=187< (?(1-7=>=>6(719>4>-< (>
91-, ,-< +;>+1.1B 98><<1>;->B ,-< <(44-< ,- +4(<<- 8> ,-< ,8;=81;<ot7 78><
(?(1= 61< -7 9-7<187 =8>< 4-< :>(=;-Y +)-<=d9d,1;- -7 9;1<87o
f-4( 7- 98>?(1= ,87+ 9(< <- 9(<<-; <(7< 9;8)4A6- 98>; 681Y 98>; 6(
.(6144-= <>;=8>= 98>; 687 9A;- :>1 (..;87=(1= 4-< ,1?-;< ,><(/;>6-7=< ,87= 2">=(1< 4(
+(><- (?-+ 4( ,>=-;617(=187 -= 4- +8>;(/- ,>u(=-;j(6141(< +0(;/>,-
6;-6-==;- ,(7< 4- ,;81= +0-6179+8>9< ,- +-17=>;87on"(?(1<Y ,1<(1=d14Y4-
,1()4(> +8;9< -= 2- 7">+0(99(1< :>- ,- =;A< 9->94"17=-;?-7=187 ,> 9;?=;-
-B8;+1<=:>1 -B1<=(1= -7+8;-9+-==->98:>-Y98>;?=;- +87,>1= +0-D 4- 9<C+01(=;- ,>
+817Y:>- 2- 7- ;-?1< 2(6(1< 94><on- 7- <(1< 98>;:>81o
q-< .;A;-< :>1 <>)1<<(1-7= 4- 6?6- <8;=Y 7- <- ;>?84=(1-7= 9(<o d?(1-7=d14< 94><
,- 9(=1-7+- :>- 681Y94>< ,- 47+0-=>Y94>< ,"17,1..>;-7+- 8> 94>< ,-
;-41/187Y27- <(>;(1< 4- ,1;- +(; 78>< 7- 78>< .(1<187< 9(< ,- +87.1,-7+-<9+- <>2-=
6?6- <1 2- ;-<<-7=(1< >7 ?(/>- 6>+87=-7=-6-7= +0-D ->B 48;<:>-
29;8?8:>(1< >7- .81< ,- 94>< 4-< .8>,;-< 9(=-;7-44-<Y+- :>1 7- 6(7:>(1= 9(<

H= ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

,"(..-+=-; 4"(=68<90A;- ,-< ;>>7187< ,- .(6144- 8Q4"87 6- ;-/(;,(1=
+866>7 9-<=1.>;>o
q(1< 2">=(1< 0->;->B ,(7< 6( ;>?84=- +(; 2">=(1< 681Y17,-<=;>+=1)4- -=
7(;:>81<<x>;=8>= 7(;:>81<h

y-44-< >=(1-7= 4-< 9;-61A;-< +87.1,-7+-< :>- 2"(?(1< ;-<>-< ,- +-=
0866:>- 2- 7- +877(1<<(1< :>- ,-9>1< :>-4:>-< 0->;-< -= 2- ;-7,(1<
/;7+-9+-==0->;-><- .(=(41=>:>1 6- 4"(?(1= .(1= ;-7+87=;-; +(; 787 <->4-6-7= 2"(?(1<
+866- 4>1 =;8>?>>7- 8++>9(=187 ,(7< +-==->=(9- ,- ,><8->?;-6-7=Y6(1<
(><<1 9(;+- :>- 2- ;-<<-7=(1< +87.><>6-7= -= ,- .(<87 .>);14- 4- )-<817 ,"-7
<(?81; 94>< -= 9->=d?=;-Y,- ;>(41<-; 4( +8698<1=187 ,">7 ;>+1= (>=0-7=1:>-o
i7 >7 68= +866- -7 6144-Y687 ?1->B ,><1; ,">+;1;- ;-9;-7(1=
49>7+87<1<=(7+- 17(==-7,>-o n"C ;-=;8>?(1< -7 -..-= +866- >7 /8O= ,- 687
9;89;- 9(<<>-= 2- ?8>4(1< <(?81; <1 4- 0(<(;, 7"(?(1= 9(< .(1= <- +;81<-; 78<
?1-< <(7< :>- 78>< 4- <(+0187<Y 9=-4 8> =-4 686-7=Y,(7< =-44- 8> =-44-
;>,- =-4 8> =-4 9(C<od?-+n>(7 +-4( 7"(?(1= -> (>+>7- +0(7+- ,- <- 9;8,>1;-9
78>?-(> +(; 78< ;-=;8>?(144-< -7q(4(1<1- (?(1-7= 6(;:>>4- 9817=
+>4617(7= ,-<>?>7-6-7=< 17-<9>;>< :>- 78>< 7"(?187< 9(< 9;82-=>-= 14
6<-6)4(1= +-;=(17 :>- 4( +08<- 7- 98>?(1= <- ;-78>?-4-; <(7<
78=;+87<-7=-6-7= 6>=>-4Y+)-<=d9d,1;- <(7< :>- 4- 0(<(;,Y+-==- .81<Y(1= <87 68=
9,1;-o
u1-;;- :>1 <- =;8>?(1= (>e;><14 98>; 4( 9;-61A;- .81< <-6)4(1= 17=>;-<<>9(;
4"01<=81;- ,> 9->94- =>91on- 4>1 ,1<(1< :>"87 1/78;(1= 4->; 8;1/17- -B(+=-o
{-7(1-7=d14< ,"d<1-Y,-u84C7><1-Y,-x>6-; 8> ,- 4"d=4(7=1,-b u-;<877-
74- <(?(1= -= +- 6C<=A;- (28>=(1= -7+8;-94( 4>/-7,- ,- +-< /-7< ,-< .8;?=< :>1
>=(1-7= )-(>B +866- ,-< ,1->B -= <- <(=1<.(1<(1-7= ,">7 -<9;1= <1694- -=
/-7=14 ,87= 87 (44(1= ;-=;8>?-; 4-< =;(+-< ,(7< 4-< 6>=1<<(/-< >4=>;1->;<ou8>;
6( 9(;=Y2"(?(1< 4"17=16- 17=>1=187 :>"14<>=(1-7= 9(;=1< ,- 4"d.;1:>- ,- 4"i<=
98>; (;;1?-; 2><:>"1+1 -7 .(1<(7= 4- =8>; ,- 4( =-;;-h
n- 4>1 ;(+87=(1<Y(48;< :>- 78>< 78>< 9;86-7187< ,(7< 4-< ;>-44-<>=;81=-<
,x(7u-,;8 98>; 78>< ;-7,;-94">/41<- 98;=>/(1<-Y4( 4>/-7,- ,-r0--7/(=>
-= ,-u1;(;>+> +- />-;;1-; );(?- 6(1< ?(71=->B :>1Y9;8.1=(7= ,-
4"()<-7+,- <87 9A;- (44>;-7,;- ?1<1=-9>7- =;1)> ?81<17-Y-B=-;617( <(7< ;(1<87 4-<
0()1=(7=< ,- <87 ?144(/- +- :>1 9;8?8:>( 4( +84A;- ,> ,1->y>9( 4-:>-4
8;,877( (48;<9 m>;>;(;>(<<Q,- .(1;- =86)-; ,-< =8;;-7=< ,- 94>1- <>;
4/>-;;1-; 6->;=;1-; 98>; 4- 78C-; ,(7< 4- .4->?-y8+(7=17< 8Q14>=(1= 9(;=1
9?+0-;of"-<= (17<1 :>- ,(7< 4-< 9;8.87,->;< ,> .4->?-u1;(;>+> .>=
=;(7<.8;6>Y,1= 4( 4>/-7,-Y-7 >7 /;(7, 981<<87 781; :>1 <-;?1= 94>< =(;,
,78>;;1=>;- (> 9->94-y>91 -= :>1Y-7+8;- (>28>;,"0>1Y.(1= 9(;=1- ,-<

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdkiHH

6-144->;< 94(=< ,- 4( +>1<17- ;>/187(4-Y94(= :>- 2- 4>1 9;898<(1< ,"-<<(C-;9
4( 9;-61A;- 8++(<187o
r8>< 9>7>=;76-< ,(7< +-==->/41<- )7=1- :>(=;- <1A+4-< (>9(;(?(7= :>1
<;>?>4( ,">7- <17/>41A;- )-(>=>o g- ,16-7<187< 68C-77-< 4- +0Z>; -=
4=;(7<-9= <- =;8>?(1-7= )4(7+01<94( <1694- +0(>B =(7,1< :>- 4( 7-.Y
;-+8>?-;=- ,">7 ?-;71< )4-> +1-4 .-<=877>,"8; -= ,"(;/-7= -B98<(1= ,-<
.;-<:>-< 9(<<()4-6-7= ()C6>-< ;-9;><-7=(7= 4(u(<<187 ,>f0;1<=o
g<>9-;)-< <=(=>-< ;(99-4(7= +-44-< ,-f87/870(< ,8f(698 8;7(1-7=
498;+0- -= >7- .;(C+0->; 17(++8>=>6>- ;>/7(1= -7 +-< 41->B :>1 <>;9;-7(1-7=
9(; 4->; <>;>71=><>+>4(1;-o
v>-4:>-< .-66-< 9;1(1-7= (?-+ 17=-7<1=>-= 4->; ;-+>-144-6-7= (><<1>=(1=
170()1=>-4o r8>< ;-/(;,187< ,1<+;A=-6-7= +-< .-66-< ,87= 4( .-;?->;
7">=(1= +-;=(17-6-7= 9(< .-17=- -= 78>< 9-7<187< -7<-6)4- (>B>/41<-<
,78< 9(C<Y,><(..-+=>-<Y.-;6>-<Y<(7< 9;?=;-< -= <(7< .81 ,"(>+>7- <8;=- :>1
<-;?(1-7= ,><8;6(1< ,- ,8;=81;< -= ,- <(71=(1;-< (>B <(7<d9(91-;<Y,(7<
>768,-;71=>:>1 (?(1= =>> g1->o
u1-;;- 61= <>)1=-6-7= 4( 6(17 <>; 687>9(>4- 6- .8;<(7=94>1 .(1;- .(+- -=Y
4-< C->B ,(7< 4-< C->BY6- 98<( 4( :>-<=187 :>- 2"(==-7,(1< +866- <1 +-<
41->B>=(1-7= ,-?-7>< 9;891+-<9,- 78>?-44-< +87.-<<187<\
+ r8>< ,-?87< 9;-7,;- +- =;(17 )1-7=I= -7<-6)4- -= 2"1/78;- 8Q=> ?(<<
i<=d+- >7 <1 /;(7, <-+;-= :>- => 7"-7 9(;4-< 9(<b y> <(1< 8Q=> 7- <(1< 9(<
-7+8;- :>- 2- <(1< /(;,-; >7 <-+;-= <"14 C ( 41->Y6?6- <1 ,-9>1<
78=;;-7+87=;-94"0I=-4 14 7"C ( :>- 681 :>1 9(;4- -= :>1 =- ,>?814- =8>< 4-<
61-7<og- =8>=- .(<87Y2"(,8;- 4-< 6C<=A;-<<
+n- ?(1< -<<(C-; ,- ,-?17-; -= (9;A< 78>< =7+0-;87< ,"(44-; ,>/><=-; ,>
u1;(;>+>94( <(>+-94"(7(7(< ,(7< +- ;-<=(>;(7= :>- 78>< (?87< (9-;<> 49d
)(< (> )8;, ,> .4->?-o ;
r8>< <8;=C6-< ,- 4">/41<- 98>; ;-+-?81; <>; 4- +8;9< >7- 6(<<- ,- +0(4->;
9(49()4- +866- >7- =877- ,- <()4-Y(9;A< 4( .;(C+0->; ,- 4( 7-. -= 78><
;-<=76-< 1668)14-< >7 17<=(7= (?(7= ,- 78>< ();1=-;94"86);- 98;=>- ,>
)7=16-7= <>; 4-< 9(?>< ,1<2817=< ,- 4( ;>-o
n- 4>1 ;>?>4(1< (48;< 4( 9;><-7+- ,-n>(7 ,(7< 4-r8;, -= 78=;-
0C98=0>=1:>;-7,-Dd?8><Y+- :>1 9(;>= 4"(6><-; )-(>+8>9on- =-7=(1< ,- 4>1
.(1;+869;-7,;- :>-n>(7 -= 681>=187< ,-< 0866-< ,- 9(;84-Y-7 =8>= +(<
-7=;- 78>< -= :>- 98>; -7.(7=17-< :>- +-4( 9>1<<- 4>1 9(;(C=;-Y+-<
9;86-<<-< .(1=-< <>; 4-< :>(1< ,- 4(n841-==-9 q(;<-144-Y;-??=(1-7= 98>; 681
>7- +-;=(17- 1698;=(7+-o

HS ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdki

n- 4>1 ;(+87=(1< );1A?-6-7= 4-< ;(1<87< ,- 78=;- +(6(;(,-;1- 7>- ,(7< 4-<
+86)(=< ,- 4"t>-,d44(14 (17<1 :>- 78=;- <>;9;-7(7=- ;-7+87=;-
,q(4(1<1-o u1-;;-Y<>)1=-6-7= <-6)4( <"(716-; -= 6- ,1=\
+ f- :>1 -<= =8>=9.(1= -B=;(8;,17(1;- ,(7< +- /-7;- ,- ;-7+87=;-Y2- ?->B
,1;- ,-78=;-;-7+87=;-Y+"-<= :>"-44- 9-;6-= ,- ,>+8>?;1; ,-<
+0-617-6-7=< +;81<><Y,-< /-7< :>- 78>< (?87< +877><9,-< 686-7=<
,1..>;-7=< ,(7< ,-< 41->B :>1 7">=(1-7= 9(< 4-< 6?6-< 8> :>1Y(> +87=;(1;-Y
>=(1-7= 4-< 6?6-<Y<(7< :>- 78>< 7- 78>< <8C87< 78><d6?6-< ;-7+87=;><<
f-4( 6"-<= <8>?-7= (;;1?>(> 0(<(;, ,- 6-< ?8C(/-< -= 6- ,877-
-7+8;(>28>;,"0>1 4"169;-<<187 :>- 78>< 7- <866-< :>- :>-4:>-<d>7< <>;
+-==94(7A=- -= :>- 78>< <866-< =8>28>;< 4-< 6?6-<978>< +;81<-; -=978><
;-+;81<-; ,(7< >7- <8;=- ,- )(4 6C<=>;1->Bog(7< >7- <8;=-
,"-<9(+>71:>-o
+m4 <- 9->= .17(4-6-7= :>- +- <81= +-4( 4( ?>;1=><r8=;- ?>;1=><4-< (>=;-<
(C(7= 4( 4->;Y)1-7 <O;Y:>1 <- <>9-;98<- (17<1 ,(7< 4- =-69< -= 4"-<9(+-Y
);8>144(7= 4-< +(;=-< ,-< <8<1-< :>- 78>< <866-<o
r8>< (4476-<99(< +869=>< ?-;< 4-< )-;/-< ,> .4->?- :>- 78>< (?187<
,>+8>?-;= (> +8>;< ,- 78=;- 9;86-7(,-Y.4->?- :>1>=(1= <(7< (>+>7
,8>=98<<1)4-Y>7 ,-< );(< 4-< 94>< (> <>, ,- 4"d6(D87-Y+0(;;1(7= <>; ,-< -(>B
=>6>4=>-><-< >7- :>(7=1=>,- )81<Y,- );(7+0(/-< -= ,"8;,>;-< :>1
.171<<(1-7= 9(; <"(687+-4-; ,(7< 4-< +8>,-< :>- ,-<<17(1-7= 4- +8>;(7=o
v>-4:>-< 6>47=;-< -7?8C(1-7=<( -= 494->;>9-;?1-; ,(7< 4-< +(46-< ,>
.4->?- -= ;(6-7(1-7= 174(<<()4-6-7= 4->; +0(9-4-= ,- 9486)< 4-<=(7=
4)4(7+ .14-= -= <( 617+- ;>+84=-o
u1-;;- <- 61=99(;4-; =8>= -7 +0-617(7= 4-7=-6-7=Y4-< );(< ,(7< 4- ,8<Y4-<
C->B 9-;,>< ,(7< 4-< -(>B /;1<-< .;(7/>-< ,">+>6-o
f"-<= (17<1 :>"87 78>< (?(1= 17=-;7>< (>f844A/-x(17=n8<-90 ,"8Q78><
<8;=187< -7 .17 ,- <-6(17- 98>; ;-/(/7-; 78=;- 9(;(,1< ,- 4(r(;=-44-or8><
:>1==187< 4- +844A/- -= 9;-7187< 4( 61+0-417- :>1 <>1?(1= 4( +I=- 2><:>"94(
/(;,-x(17=-q(B16- 8Q?-7(1= 78>< 9;-7,;- 78=;- 6A;-od9;A< 4- )(17
,;1/>->; -= 4- <0(69817/94(q(;1-w8<- +87=;- 4-< 98>BY :>1 78><>=(1=
1698<>+866-9,-< 9;1<8771-;< :>1 ?1-77-7= ,"?=;- 41)>;><Y 78>< (?187<
:>(;=1-; 41);- +(; 4"0I=-4Y ;-6941 ,- +41-7=<>=;(7/-;<Y ;-:>>;(1= 4( 9;><-7+-
,78< 9(;-7=<om4< <">=(1-7= ;>9(;=1 4-< =7+0-<\78=;- 6A;-Y +0(;6(7=- -= ,8>+-Y
(> +87=(+= (?-+ 4( +41-7=A4- -= 78=;- 9A;-Y -B9-;= -= =(4-7=>->B ,(7< =8>=-< 4-<
);(7+0-< ,- 4( /(<=;87861-Y ?-144(1=9=8>= 4- ;-<=-of"-<= ?;(1 :>- 4"87 ?-7(1=
,- .8;= 4817 98>;?=;- ;-<>9 + p(w-17-n-(77-;-= +- <>++A<>=(1= 98>; 6-<
.;A;-< -= 681 4- <1/7->?1,-7=Y,- 78=;- 41)-;=>;-=;8>?>-o

ytodpm tz pi giwrmiw {tdkiHW

+ p(x84-,(, ;>=(1= 4- 786 ,- 4( )8C=- ,-7>1= ,>=;>1=- -= ,><(..-+=>- ,87=
78>< (?187< .(1= 78=;- :>(;=1-; />7>;(4o f87<=;>1=-96?6- 4- <()4- ,- 4(
94(/-Y(> ,>)>= ,- 4( 9817=- ,-<x(;,17-(>B :>1 (?(7<(1= (?-+ <-< :>-4:>-<
917< ,"d4-9 <>; 4( 6-;Y+-==- )7=1<<- 9-;+>- ,- =;8>< ,"8)>< (?(1= ,-< (44>;-<
,6144- -= >7- 7>1=< -= .(1<(1= ,- 78>< 4-< <-1/7->;< ,-< 41->Bov>- ,- 686-7=<
,>41+1->B 7"(?87<d78>< 9(< 9(<<><>; 4-< 68<(D:>-< ,>.87+>-< ,-< 91<=-<
,,(7<- -= ,-< <(487< ,"8Q78< C->B 98>?(1-7= (9-;+-?81;Y9=;(?-;< 4-< (;+(,-<
+(<<>-< ,-< =-;;(<<-<Y 4-< ?(/>-< ,- 4( 6-; :>1 9;-7(1= ,-< ;-.4-=< 4>7(1;-<
:>(7, <"(99;8+0(1= 4( 7>1=or8>< C 9(<<187< ,-< 0->;-< 4817 ,-<+/-7<;:>1
78>< +869;-7(1-7= <1 6(4 -= 98>; 4-<:>-4< 78><>=187<Y97"-7 9(< ,8>=-;Y>7
.(;,-(>ou->99->Y<">=(1= 17<=(>;>>7 68,- ,- ?1- ,- .17 ,- <-6(17- :>1 78><
9-;6-==(1= ,- <>998;=-; 4-<+;8)-< 781;-<;,> +844A/-Y+-< 9;?=;-< -B=(=1:>-<
:>- 4"87 9(C(1= 98>; 78>< (99;-7,;-941;- -= :>- 78>< 78>< -69;-<<187<
,"8>)41-; -7 .(1<(7= 4"17?-7=(1;- ,- 78< =;><8;< ,- />-;;-9+p(x84-,(,;
/>-==(7= 4( .17 ,> 28>; 98>; -72(6)-; 78< )1+C+4-==-< -= ;-/(/7-; 4"0I=-4o
p1?;><978><d6?6-<Y 78>< 4(1<<187< 41);- +8>;<9=8>=-< 4-< 17?-7=187<
+;1617-44-< :>1 78>< =;(?-;<(1-7= 4"-<9;1=of"-<= (17<1 :>- 78>< (?187< ,>+1,>
,- ?(7,(41<-; 4-< ?144(< ,- 4( ;>/187 :>- 4->;< 9;89;1>=(1;-< (?(1-7= .-;6>-<9
4( .17 ,- 4">=>or8=;- /;(7, 94(1<1;>=(1= ,"C 9>7>=;-; 9(; 4-< =81=< -7 -74-?(7=
,-< =>14-< -= ,"C .;(+=>;-; 4-< +(1<<-< 8Q<- =;8>?(1= -7.-;6>- 4( ?(1<<-44- ,(7<
4-< /;-71-;< 98>; -7?8C-; ?-;;-< -= (<<1-==-< <- );1<-; <>; 4- <84 ,> ;-Dd,-d
+0(><<>- +- :>1 9;8?8:>(1=>?1,-66-7= >7 ?(+(;6- :>1 .171<<(1= 9(; (4-;=-;
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-B(+=-6-7=Y -7 <- ;-6>68;(7= 4-< )(=(144-< ,- .;86(/- )4(7+ (>B:>-44-< 78><
78>< 41?;187< ,(7< 4- /;(7, <(487 ,">7- 6(1<87 :>- 78< 9(;-7=< (+0-=A;-7=
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4"86);- ,-< 9;>71-;<o
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n- ;-7=;(1< 9->99-> ,(7< <( ?1- 8> ,(7< 4( ?1- :>"14 <"17?-7=(1=9687
17=-7=187op>1 +866- 681 <- 4(1<<(1= (44-;94">=;(7/- 0(;6871- :>1>=(1=
7>-7=;- 78><or8>< (?187< 4- <-7=16-7= ,- ?1?;- >7 686-7= 9(;=1+>41-;Y <8;=1
,> =-69<Y 8Q4"-<9(+- :>1 (?(1=>=>4- <1-7>=(1= =8>=op"-<9(+- ,- <( ?1-o
n- <+;>=(1< 4- ?1<(/- ,- +-= 17+877> (<<1< -7 .(+- ,- 681 ,87= 2- 7- <(?(1<
;1-7 -= :>1 98>;=(7= <- 41?;(1= (17<1 ,-9>1< 4( ?-144-9>7 0866- :>1 7- 4>1
>=(1= ;1-7 -= :>1 4>1 ?84(1= <( <>)<=(7+- <(7< :>"14 <"-7 ,8>=- 4- 6817< ,>
687,-Y =;(7:>144- -= <-;-17 6(4/;>4-< (?(=(;< 98<<1)4-< ,- +- ?8C(/-og-<
<1/7-< ,- <8>..;(7+- 9;8.87,- (99(;(1<<(1-7= 9(;.81< ,(7< <-< 9;>7-44-< :>1
9;-7(1-7= <>)1=-6-7= 4( +8>4->; ,- 4"(+1-;ow1-7 7- 4(1<<(1= <>998<-;
+-9-7,(7= :>"14 .O= 6(4(,- 8> (>B 9;1<-< (?-+ ,-< 9;>8++>9(=187<
9-;<877-44-< /;(?-<o
+ n- 7- <(1< 9(< +- :>- => 9-7<-< ,-< 01<=81;-< :>- 2- =- ;(+87=- <>; 4-<
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q-==;- (17<1 ,- 4"8;,;- ,(7< 6-< <8>?-71;< 7- 6">=(1= 9(< ?-7>94"1,>-o n"(1
+866- 4"169;-<<187 ,- ?1?;- ,->B .81<o
+ n"1/78;- :>(7, ( +-<<>+0-D 681 -= +0-D 6-< .;A;-< +-==-
(==1=>,+86)(=1?-94">/(;, ,-< /-7< (,>4=-< :>- 78>< <866-< .17(4-6-7= ,-?-7><
978=;- =8>;o n- 7- <>1< 9(< +-;=(17 :>- +-4( 6- <81= =8=(4-6-7= 9(<<><
9->=d?=;- ;-<=87<d78>< =8>< ,-< -7.(7=< ,-;;1A;- 78< (99(;-7+-<<9->=d
?=;- :>- +->B :>1 4- <87= ;-<=>< <- ;-7+87=;-7= -= <"-<=16-7=9+(><-
,+-4(<:>1 9->= <(?81;b