Drugs and Crime

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Description

Discussing illegal drugs without taking into account its criminal context is a difficult proposition. Certain questions come back repeatedly: Does doing drugs really lead to delinquency? Do some drugs have criminal properties? Why would a drug addict turn to crime? What are the best methods of intervention in dealing with individuals who have serious drug habits?




The third edition of Drogue et criminalité : Une relation complexe (Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal), translated here for the first time in English, presents an overview of the complex relationship between drugs and crime, avoids cursory affirmations to the effect that psychoactive substance use necessarily leads to crime. It also sheds light on the political and legislative contexts tied to drugs and offers an exceptional synthesis of the research literature of the past 20 years. The authors also discuss the increased attention to illegal drug users and people with addictions, and describe the different supports that are available to them.
Concevoir la question des drogues illicites en dehors de
leur contexte criminel est difficile. Certaines questions
reviennent immanquablement : prendre de la drogue
pousse-t-il vraiment à la délinquance ? Existe-t-il des
drogues aux propriétés criminogènes ? Pourquoi un
toxicomane se tourne-t-il vers la criminalité ? Quelles sont
les meilleures façons d’intervenir auprès des personnes
qui ont de graves problèmes de consommation ? 



Cette troisième édition présente la relation complexe
entre drogue et criminalité, évitant les énoncés
sommaires qui voudraient que l’usage de substances
psychoactives mène nécessairement au crime. Elle met
ainsi en lumière les contextes politiques et légaux liés
aux drogues et fait une synthèse exceptionnelle des
résultats de la recherche des vingt dernières années. Les
auteurs rendent compte de l’importance accrue qu’on
accorde désormais aux usagers de drogues illicites ainsi
qu’aux personnes dépendantes et ils décrivent les
différentes formes d’aide qui leur sont proposées.

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Publié par
Date de parution 13 mars 2018
Nombre de visites sur la page 3
EAN13 9780776626345
Langue English

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The University of Ottawa Press (UOP) is proud to be the oldest of the francophone university presses in Canada and the only bilingual university publisher in North America. Since 1936, UOP has been “enriching intellectual and cultural discourse” by producing peer-reviewed and award-winning books in the humanities and social sciences, in French or in English.
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Brochu, Serge [Drogue et criminalité. English] Drugs and crime: a complex relationship / Serge Brochu, Natacha Brunelle and Chantal Plourde; translated by Julie da Silva. — Third edition, revised and expanded.
Translation of: Brochu, Serge. Drogue et criminalité. Includes bibliographical references. Issued in print and electronic formats. ISBN 978-0-7766-2632-1 (softcover) ISBN 978-0-7766-2633-8 (PDF) ISBN 978-0-7766-2635-2 (Kindle) ISBN 978-0-7766-2634-5 (EPUB)
1. Drug abuse and crime. 2. Criminals—Drug use. I. Brunelle, Natacha, 1971-, author II. Plourde, Chantal, 1970-, author III. Title. IV. Title: Drogue et criminalité. English
HV5801 B7613 2018
Legal Deposit: First Quarter 2018 Library and Archives Canada © University of Ottawa Press 2018
Printed and bound in Canada
Copy editing: Proofreading: Typesetting: Cover design:
Robbie McCaw Susan James Édiscript enr. Édiscript enr.
364.2’4
C2018-900808-3 C2018-900809-1
Originally published asDrogues et criminalité. Une relation complexe. Troisième édition revue et augmentée, Presses de l’Université de Montréal, 2016
The University of Ottawa Press gratefully acknowledges the support extended to its publishing list by the Government of Canada, the Canada Council for the Arts, the Ontario Arts Council, and the Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences through the Awards to Scholarly Publications Program and by the University of Ottawa.
List of Figures and Tables
Acknowledgments
Table of Contents
Introduction Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada Drug Use and Criminal Behaviour
CHAPTER 1 Links Between Drugs and Crime in Facts and Figures Youth Adults Justice-involved Individuals Drugs in Prison Substance-dependent Individuals
CHAPTER 2 Drugs: A Detailed Criminogenic Profile Selected Important Definitions Intoxication and Criminal Behaviour Cannabinoids Stimulants Cocaine Amphetamine-type Stimulants Benzodiazepines Heroin and Other Opioids Hallucinogens Drug Interactions Victimization While Under the Influence of a Psycho active Substance The Role of Intoxication Dependence and Criminal Behaviour How Users Support Their Habit Crime as an Income-generating Activity Acquisitive Crime Trafficking Other Lucrative Criminal Activities Links Between Dependence and Criminal Activity
CHAPTER 3 The Legal and Political Landscape The Road to Repression Globalization of Trade Prohibition The War on Drugs Action Against Drug Producers
Action Against Drug Importers and Distributors Action Against Users Europe The Netherlands Portugal The Americas The United States Uruguay Canada Different Concepts and Approaches Normalizing the Relationship With Users
CHAPTER 4 Proximal and Distal Models: A Static Conceptualization Proximal Elements Goldstein’s Tripartite Model The Psychopharmacological Model The Economic-Compulsive Model The Systemic Model Non–Mutually Exclusive Types of Crime The Inverse Proximal Model Distal Elements
CHAPTER 5 Trajectories: A Dynamic Conceptualization The Evolving Drug–Crime Relationship Deviant Trajectories Experimentation and Occasional Use Frequent Use Regular Use Addiction Factors That Influence the Progression and Maintena nce of Deviant Trajectories The Substance Itself Income Environment Traumatic Events Reduction, Cessation, and Interruption Peer Pressure Internal Pressure Organizational Pressure Deviant Environment Pressures Women’s Distinctive Trajectory
CHAPTER 6 Deviant Lifestyles: An Integrated Conceptualization The Integrative Model Risk Factors Deviant Lifestyles Degrees of Permeation Stages of Progression
CHAPTER 7 Treating Addicts in the Criminal Justice System Access to Treatment Punishment or Rehabilitation? “Nothing Works” The Punitive Post-Martinson Era “What Works?” Treating Drug Dependence in Offenders Drug Courts Post-sentencing Treatment Cognitive-Behavioural Programs Therapeutic Communities and Boot Camps Peer Support and Twelve-Step Groups Methadone Maintenance Programs Motivational Interviewing Co-occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Disord ers Ingredients for Treatment Success Screening and Assessment Personalized Plans Relapse Prevention Motivation Judicial Pressure The Therapeutic Relationship Adequate Treatment Duration Aftercare Extension of Social Control The Real Client Boundaries and Bridges
Conclusion The Drug–Crime Relationship Who? Why? What? How Can Society Intervene? Implementing Appropriate Policies Providing Suitable Care
References
Authors and Translator
List of Fi6ures and Tables
FIGURE 3.1.Dru6-related offences reported by police in Canada from 1993 to 2013 FIGURE 3.2.Offences reported by police in Canada from 1993 to 2013 and dru6-related offences for the same period FIGURE 3.3.Dru6-related offences as a proportion of total offences reported by police in Canada from 1993 to 2013 FIGURE 3.4.Number of police-reported offences related to poss ession, traffickin6, production, and distribution of dru6s in Canada in 2013, by substance FIGURE 3.5.Prevalence of cannabis consumption and prevalence of arrests for simple cannabis possession from 2004 to 2012 in Canada FIGURE 3.6.e of the number ofSimple cannabis possession offences as a percenta6 cannabis users in Canada from 2004 to 2012 Table 3.1.Number of cannabis-related offences and number of cannabis users (previous twelve months) reported in 2012 in Canada , by province FIGURE 4.1.A proximal conceptualization: Goldstein’s triparti te model FIGURE 4.2.The psychopharmacolo6ical model FIGURE 4.3.The economic-compulsive model FIGURE 4.4.The contemporary economic-compulsive model FIGURE 4.5.The systemic model FIGURE 4.6.ru6–crimeGoldstein: Three non–mutually exclusive types of d relationships FIGURE 4.7.The inverse proximal model FIGURE 4.8.Distal model: biopsychosocial factors FIGURE 5.1.Experimentation and occasional use FIGURE 5.2.Frequent use FIGURE 5.3.Re6ular use FIGURE 5.4.Addiction FIGURE 6.1.Core inte6rative model FIGURE 6.2.Onset sta6e FIGURE 6.3.Deviant involvement sta6e FIGURE 6.4.Mutual reinforcement sta6e FIGURE 6.5.Economic-compulsive sta6e
Acknowledgments
We wish to thank our research assistants, Isabelle B astrash, Marie-Ève Bédard-Nadeau, Geneviève Garceau, Vanessa Lapierre, Catherine Patenaude, Alison Pellerin, Alexandra Richard, and Michaël Sam Tion, for their literature search, bibliographic filing, and formatting. We are grateful to Dr. Didi er Jutras-Aswad for his meticulous reading ofchapter 2ck. Support for about the effects of drugs and his valuable feedba this project was provided by grants from the Fonds de recherche du Québec – Société et culture, the Social Sciences and Humanities Rese arch Council of Canada, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, which enabl ed us to conduct a number of studies upon which this book is based. Lastly, we t hank the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières Canada Research Chair in Drug Use Pa tterns and Related Problems for funding the better part of the work that went into writing this book.
Introduction
Trs and lead DeoDle to commithe idea that drugs can have negative effects on use crimes is not new, but is it valid? In this book, w e take a Dractical, scientific aDDroach toward better understanding the relationshiDs betwe en drugs and crime. Our research focuses on how those relationshiDs develoD, but bef ore delving into the heart of the matter, we will discuss the factors that enable us to understand the consumDtion trajectories leading to criminal behaviour, and vic e versa. We will conclude on a Dositive note with a discussion of how to break the drug–crime cycle and the effectiveness of services available to helD drug-de Dendent DeoDle involved in the justice system. Research into drugs and crime is shaDed Drimarily b y how these matters are understood and aDDroached, which may be influenced by Dersonal or corDorate interests (Szabo 1992). We must remember that scien tists function within an economic and socio-Dolitical context in which Dower relation s influence the subjects being studied and influences knowledge as a whole. Over half of t he scientific literature about drugs and crime is Droduced in the United States. Our bod y of knowledge draws heavily on American research, which exerts an undeniable influ ence on the scientific world. The United States is, however, atyDical in its aDDroach to managing DeoDle’s drug use. Although some states have legalized cannabis, the f ederal government still exercises strict control over users. The United States imDris ons drug users by the thousands, yet is reluctant to enact gun control laws. There can b e no doubt that the relationshiDs between drugs and crime are influenced by this soci al context. Research Droduced by our neighbours to the south is carried out against a backdroD of reDression. ParticiDants in studies on illicit drugs are very o ften individuals deDrived of their liberty (incarcerated, in a treatment Drogram as an alterna tive to incarceration, etc.). While the results of studies on relationshiDs between drugs a nd crime are valid for a reDressive environment where guns circulate relatively freely, are they valid in other contexts? Science, of course, is neverpure. Scientists oDerate in a Darticular socio-historic al context that colours the DerceDtion of the subjects and the study’s results. In this sense, science is quite simDlyhuman. For these reasons, the third edition of this book r elies more heavily than Drevious editions on Canadian studies to Daint a Dicture of our own reality.
Illegal Psychoactive Substances in Canada
Canada’s stance on illegal drugs and drug users is incongruous. Moralistic new laws and federal government actions over the Dast decade have clearly led to greater reDression and difficulty accessing substances as w ell as to Dotentially dangerous drug use Dractices. Policies seem to be based on the not ion of drugs as diabolical substances that cause social disorder by bewitching weak-minded individuals who seek out hedonistic Dleasures. Those who subscribe to this ideological Dosition believe that drug users become marginalized through their o wn deviance and antisocial behaviour and that it would be Dointless to normali ze society’s relationshiD with them.