Le chemin du Perthus

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Pendant la guerre civile espagnole, Consuelo, jeune fille élevée dans une famille franquiste, rencontre Alberto, un "rouge", dans cette Barcelone encore républicaine qui tente de résister sous les bombardements. A la chute de la capitale catalane, ils partiront ensemble vars l'exil et franchiront la frontière au Perthus...

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Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 février 2011
Nombre de lectures 36
EAN13 9782336273600
Langue Français

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+I=>,- 4">?1-; -= 4"(?(1= 9-4>-ox( 6A;->=(1=94">=(/-Y9;A<
,> 9A;- 6(4(,-op"(7/81<<- -= 4( <8>..;(7+- 90C<1:>- 16d
9;>/7(1-7= 4( 6(1<87 ,-9>1< ,-< <-6(17-<ox-< <Z>;<>=(1-7=
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-= (?(1= +866-7+> 9-7 .;8==-; 4( =;(7+0- ,-
9(17oi44?8C(1=99-17- +- :>"-44- .(1<(1=\4( +>1<17->=(1=
9487/>,(7< 4( 9>786);- +866- =8>< 4-< (9;A<d61,1< ,">=>Y9-;d
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-66(/(<17>- 4- 6(=17oz7- ,>41+1-><- 8,->; ,- 6(;+0>-=
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i44- (44(1= 68;,;- ,(7< 4- 9(17 16)1)>:>(7, :>-4d
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-7=-7,> >7- <8;=- ,- +;1 9;8487/>oi44- (?(1= 47+0>4(
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,(7< >7 +0(8< ,- ,;(9< .;81<<><Y4-< C->B 8>?-;=< =8>;7><
?-;< 4- 94(.87,o x( <Z>; (C7>- <- ;8>4(1= 9(; =-;;-9+I=>,>
41=Y<-+8>>- 9(; :>-4:>- +08<- :>1 ;-<<-6)4(1=9>7 ;1;- 0C<d
=>;1:>-ox( 6A;-Y<(7< >7 68=Y(?(1= (48;< ;-941><(
487/>2>9- 781;-Y<">=(1= 4-?>- -= (?(1= .-;6>4-< C->B ,> 68;=o
f87<>-48 <">=(1= 9;>+191=>- ?-;< 4- )(< ,-< -<+(41-;<Y<87 9(<
(..84>=(6)8>;17(7= 4- )81<og(7< 4( +>1<17-Y-44- <">=(1= (<d
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+0-;of">=(1= -72[=[Y-44- (?(1= ,8>D- (7<oi44- ?-7(1=
,9-;,;- <87 9A;-Y<87 (441>6(/71.1:>-o

p- 28>; :>1 <>1?1= .>= >7 487/ ,>.14><86);-oy8>= 4-
?144(/-7=;( ,(7< 4( 6(1<87 -= ?17= <- ;-+>-1441; ,-?(7= 4(
,>98>144,-g87i;7-<=8 :>1 (?(1=>=>>7 2>/- ,- 9(1B ;-<9-+=>-= >7
9;89;1>=(1;- =-;;1-7 (99;>+1>,- <-< <(4(;1><op-< 0866-<
I=(1-7= 4->; )>;-= -= 4- =-7(1-7=94( 6(17Y-6)(;;(<<>< 9(;
4">68=187op-< .-66-< 94->;(1-7= -= ?-7(1-7= -6);(<<-;
f87<>-48 :>(7, -44-< 4"(9-;+-?(1-7=Y,-)8>=9+I=>,- 4(
+0-617>-Y,>29=8>=- ??=>- ,- 781;Y<1 )4(7+0- -= <1 );>7-9
4( .81<Y<1 9-=1=- -7+8;- (?-+ <-< /;(7,< C->B <86);-<>)(d
01<o
p-< /-7< ,-<+-7,(1-7= ,- 4">=(/-Y<14-7+1->BY9>=;1d
.1><Y6(1< :>(7, 14< <- ;-=;8>?(1-7= -7<-6)4- ,(7< 4(
91A+,> )(<Y>7- (/1=(=187 17=-7<- 4-< <(1<1<<(1= 9-7,(7= :>"14<
-<<>C(1-7= 4->;< 4(;6-<op-< +866-7=(1;-< .><(1-7= (48;<Y
9;A< ,"-44-Y+866- <1 -44- 7"(?(1= 9(<>=>49 \

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1 q8>;1; ,>29Y(?-+ >7- .144- -7+8;- <1 2->7-Y:>-4
6(40->;h
1 t>1Y+"-<= :>-f(;6-7 ( -> +-==- -7.(7= <1 =(;,Y
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087=- ,"?=;- -7+-17=-9+-=7/-Y4( 6(40->;-><-\?17/= (7<
(9;A< <-< ,->B 9;-61A;-< .144-<h i44- 7"8<(1= 94>< <8;=1; ,(7<
4- ?144(/-o
1 f(;6-7 ( =8>28>;<>=>,>;- (?-+ +-==- 9-=1=-<
1 p- 9(>?;-i;7-<=8Y<-< <8>..;(7+-< <87= .171-<o
p+(7+-; ,- 4( ?-<<1-Y+"-<= =-44-6-7= ,8>48>;->B<
f87<>-48 <"-7.87<(1= (48;< >7 9-> 94>< ,(7<
4"8)<+>;1=>,- 4( +0-617>-Y9(;=(/>- -7=;- 4- ,><1; ,"-7 <(d
?81; 94>< -= ,- 7- 94>< -7=-7,;-Y,"(99;-7,;- -= ,- 9(;=1;
(144->;<Y,- <"-..(+-;Y,- /866-; +- :>1 ?-7(1= ,"(,?-71; -=
:>1 (44(1= +0(7/-; <( ?1-o

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?144(/- ,-<+-7,1;-7= 4- +-;+>-14 (?-+ 9;>+(>=187 ,(7<
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(48;< ,1<98<>,-;;1A;-Y-7 +8;=A/-og->B 0866-< (?(1-7=
=1;><>; 4( +0(;;-==- :>1 <">=(1=>);(74>- -7 ,1;-+=187 ,> +1d
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4( 6(1<87 -=f87<>-48 7"(?(1= 6?6- 9(< ,-6(7,>8Q >=(1=
<( 9;89;- 94(+-\-44- ,-6->;(1= 49Y,-;;1A;- 4( .-7?=;-Y<(7<
:>- 9-;<877- 7- <87/-9-44-Y9(< 6?6- <-< <Z>;<>9>1<>-<
,- +0(/;17 -= ,- 4(;6-<Y<8>=-7>-< 9(; 4-< ?81<17-<o

2S

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z7- .81< 4- +8;=A/- 9(;=1Y4( 6A;- <">=(1= (<<1<-Y<(7<
>7 68=o f87<>-48 ;>(41<( (48;< :>"-44- 7- 4"(?(1= 9(<
?>94->;-;o p- <14-7+- ,>;( >7 487/ 686-7=o f87<>-48 +-<<(
,- ;-/(;,-; 4( ;>- ,><8;6(1< ,><-;=- -= 8<( >7 68>?-6-7=\
-44- <- =8>;7( ?-;< <( 6A;-o f-44-d+1 4( ;-/(;,(1= -= <-< C->B
>=(1-7= +8>9(7=< +866- ,-< 4(6-<oi44- 4>1 9(;4( -7.17\
1 q(17=-7(7= :>- 78>< <866-< <->4-< =8>=-< 4-<
,->BY=> ?(< ?81;<

z7- <-6(17- (9;A<Y28>; 98>; 28>;Y f(;6-7 -=f87<>-48
6(7/-(1-7= ,(7< 4( +>1<17-Y,(7< +- <14-7+- :>1 7"(?(1= 9(<
+-<<>,-9>1< 4( 68;= ,> 9A;- :>(7,Y<8>,(17Y4( 6A;-
<9-7+0( -7 (?(7=Y9487/-( );>=(4-6-7= <87 ?1<(/- ,(7<
4"(<<1-==- ,- <8>9- +0(>,- -= 7- )8>/-( 94><o
p- 6>,-+17Y(99-4> 94( 07=- 9(; 4-< ?81<17<Y+87+4>=
9>7- (==(:>- ,- +-;?-(> ,>- (> +0(/;17o

f-==- 68;= ,- <87 /;(7,d9A;- 9>1< ,- <( /;(7,d6A;-90>1=
28>;< ,">+(;= .(1<(1= 9(;=1- ,- 4"0>;1=(/-
,-q(;=(ou-=1=-Y-447- <"-7 4(<<(1= 9(< 6?6- <1 -44- <(?(1= 7- 9(< -7 ()><-;\<(7<
,8>=- 9(; 9->; ,- ;(?1?-; >7- =;89 48>;,- 9-17-Y-44- (==-7d
,(1= :>- <( 6A;-Y-7 =;1+8=(7= 8> -7 +8><(7=Y4(
;(+87=,"-44-d6?6-oi44- 7- 98<(1= 9(< ,- :>-<=187<oi44->+8>=(1=
-= >7 9(C<(/- <- +87<=;>1<(1= ,(7< <( =?=-op( 4(7/>- -<9(d

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:>(=;- 9;-61A;-< (77>-< ,- <( ?1-Y=1<<(1= -7 -44- >7-i<9(d
/7- 4817=(17- -= 2(6(1< ?>-Y;-6941- ,"86);-< -= ,- =-;;->;<Y
,- 4>61A;-< -= ,"8,->;<Y,- )877-<
+08<-<96(7/-;Y,9;8?-;)-< -= ,"-B9;-<<187< =8>=- .(1=-<Y,- 6(71A;-< ,- 9(;d
4-; -= ,">68=187<og(7< 4( 617><+>4- +0(6);- ,-
)877)8;,-4(1<- (?-+ +>1<17- 8Q4( .(6144- ?1?(1=Y(<<1<- <>; >7
9-=1= )(7+ ,- )81< .();1:>>9(; <87 9A;-Y-44->+8>=(1=Y2><d
:>"94"169;>/7(=187 =8=(4-Y4-< ;>+1=< ,"-7.(7+- ,- <(
6A;-B14>-o

p- 9-=1= )(7+>=(1= >7 ,>+4-7+0->; ,- 6>681;-o
v>(7,q(;=( 4- 9;-7(1= -= <"(<<-C(1= ,-?(7= <( 6A;-Y+-44-d+1
,>;8>4(1= 4-< <8>?-71;<op-< ,8>D- 9;-61A;-< (77>-< 9(<<>-<
(> ?144(/->=(1-7= +-44-< :>"-44- (16(1= 4- 94><oi44- <- .(1<(1=
;>9>=-; 4"01<=81;- ,> +0(= 9-;,> :>- <( 6A;->=(1=
(44>78>;;1; -7 +(+0-==- 9;A< ,- 4( 94(+-Y+-44- ,-< 681<<87<Y<>;
4-< =-;;-< 1;;1/>>-< 9(; 4-f(7(4m69>;1(4Y(>B:>-44-<
f87<>-48 (<<1<=(1= <8>< >7- 86);-44-Y(<<1<- <>; >7-
+(;;184(?-+ <-< <Z>;<Y8> +-44- ,- 4( ?81<17-94(:>-44- 4( /;(7,d
6A;- 9(<<(1= 4-< 94(=< ,- <8>9- ,87=f87<>-48 7- ?8>4(1=
9(< +0-D -44- -= :>"-44- ,>?8;(1=9+I=>oi44- (99;>+1(1= (><<1
)-(>+8>9 4"01<=81;- ,- +-==- /;(7,d=(7=- :>1 7- ?8>4(1= 9(<
4">4-+=;1+1=>+0-D -44-\ + v>- 4( 4>61A;- (;;1?- 9(; >7
.14Y+7"-<= 9(< 98<<1)4-Y+"-<= >7- 01<=81;- ,- <8;+1A;-<;,1<(1=d
-44-oi= :>(7, 4( .17 ,- 4"(77>- (99;8+0(1=Y:>- ,-< (61<
;(6-7(1-7= 4- 9;>+1->B =>;;G7 ,-q(,;1,Y<( 6A;- <- <8>d
?-7(1= ,- :>-4:>-<+?144(7+1+8<;Y+-< 28C->B +0(7=<
,r8@4d\ +7,-Y(7,-Y(7,- 4(q(;168;-7(^(7,-Y(7,-Y
(7,- :>- -< 4(r8+0-)>-7(;o

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g-< (77>-< (9;A<Y2->7- (,>4=-Y q(;=( (?(1= -7.17 +87.;87=>
<87i<9(/7- 16(/17(1;-94( ;>(41=>-7 (44(7=9
x(;(/8<<?81; +-==- =(7=- :>1Y>7 28>; ,- ,->14Y(?(1= +87.87,> 4-
;1;-= 4- ,><-<981;o d> ,>)>= ,-< (77>-<2[Y&Y4(+=B(q(7>-d
4(;0()1=(1= >7 (99(;=-6-7= <86);- ,">7 166->)4- +8<<>
,> +-7=;-o i44->=(1= ,>29 7/>- 6(1< <- =-7(1= ,;81=- -= ,1;1d
/-(1= <( 6(1<87 (?-+ <8>;1;- -= .-;6-=>oi44- (?(1= (++>-1441
+-==- 71A+- ?-7>- ,-j;(7+- (?-+ 4"(==-7=187 :>"-44- (?(1=
=8>28>;< 6(71.-<=>- ,(7< <-< 4-==;-<9<( 2->7- <Z>;f87<>-d
48Y98>;=(7= 9(;=1-94">=;(7/-; (?-+ >7+;8>/-;-72[H[Y 9
4( .17 ,- 4(k>-;;- +1?14-o
1 q(;=(Y<81< 4( )1-7?-7>-o n- <>1< <1 0->;-><- ,-
=?81; -7.17h q(1< 8Q?(<d=> (17<19=;(?-;< 4- 687,- (?-+ >7
<1 9-=1= )(/(/-b {1-7< 98<-;<(\=> ?(< ,8;61; 1+1o
p( +0(6);- +8698;=(1= ,->B 41=< 2>6-(>B )1-7 <>d
9(;>< 9(; >7 +;>+1.1B ,- /;(7,- =(144-oq(;=( C 98<( <-< ?(41d
<-< -= 4( =(7=- 4"-7=;(C7( ?-;< 4( ?>;(7,( 8Q+0(7=(1= >7 +(d
7(;1 -7 +(/-o
1d<<1-,<d=81oy> (< <81.b i= +866-7= ?( =( 6A;-b
u-7,(7= <87 <>28>;9 x(;(/8<<-Yq(;=( ,>+8>?;1= 4-<
/4(+-<94( +8>9-Y4( <8+1>=>.;(7:>1<=-Y4-< +1;->;< ,- +0(><d
<>;-< -= 4( ?1-;/- ,>u14(;Y4-< ?-7,->;< ,- 48=-;1- (?->/4-<Y
4");- -= 4-<>+;-?1<<-< ,(7< 4-< )(;< ,> +-7=;- ?144-Y4(
6-<<,- <1B 0->;-< ,> 6(=17 98>; 4-< .-66-< =;A< 91-><-<
+866<( +8><17-Y6(1< ,- 4(k>-;;- +1?14- -= ,- <87 9A;-Y14 7- .>=
2(6(1< :>-<=187o

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d>B 0->;-< 4-< 94>< +0(>,-<Y,-;;1A;- 4-< ?84-=< +48<Y
-44- 17=-;;8/-(1= <87 +8><17 -= <( +8><17- <>; 4->; ?1-Y4->;
=;(?(14Y=(7,1< :>- 4( )877- 4(?(1= 4- <849/-78>Boq(7>-4(
4-<>+8>=(1=oz7 28>;Y-44- ,1=9 q(;=(\
1n"(1 )-(>+8>9 ,- +0(7+-Y=> <(1<\6-< ,->B -7d
.(7=< 7- <- <87= 9(< 6(;1>< -= <87= ;-<=>< ?1?;- (?-+ 681o
p-< .17< ,"(9;A<d61,1Y<( =(7=->+8>=(1= ,"()8;, >7
.->144-=87 ;86(7=1:>-94( ;(,18 9>1< =;(?-;<(1= 4( 6(1<87
98>; ;>+1=-; ,-< 9;1A;-< -7 ,>;8>4(7= <87 +0(9-4-= ,(7< 4(
?>;(7,(od?(7= 4- ;-9(<Y87 ;-<=(1= ,-)8>= >7 17<=(7= 98>;
>7 )>7>,1+1=>oq(;=(Y-7 .144- ,- ;>9>)41+(17<
(=0>-<Y7+877(1<<(1= 9(< 4( +0(7<87 -= <- =(1<(1=o
z7 <81;Y(> ,-<<-;=Y-44- .8;6>4( <87 17=-7=187 ,-
<;-7,;- (> ?144(/- :>1 7">=(1= :>"9:>-4:>-< 31486A=;-<
,x(;(/8<<-Y98>; ?81; 4( 6(1<87 ,- <-< /;(7,<d9(;-7=<op(
;>(+=187 ,- 4( =(7=-q(7>-4( .>= 166>,1(=-\
1q(1< 787h v>- ?(<d=> .(1;- ,(7< +- =;8>b m4 7"C (
()<84>6-7= ;1-7 ,"17=>;-<<(7=Y49d)(<o
q(;=( ;-787<( -7 9-7<(7= :>- <( =(7=- 7- <8>0(1=(1=
9(< :>"-44- 9>1<<- ;-7+87=;-; 4-< +8><17< :>1 C ?1?(1-7= -7d
+8;- 8> -7:>?=-; <>; 4( ?(4->; ;>-44- ,-< =-;;-< .(6141(4-<
?-7,>-< -= ,87= <( 6A;- 7"(?(1= ;-<> :>">7- <866- <C6)8d
41:>- +(;+4( 94>< /;(7,- 9(;=1- (?(1=>=>;-61<- -7 ,879
4"|/41<- ,> ?144(/- 98>; 4( ;>.-+=187 ,- 4"(>=-4;o
i44- 7- 9>= ,>+8>?;1; =8>= +-4( :>- ,-< (77>-< (9;A<Y
(48;< :>- <( =(7=->=(1= 68;=-o

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d9;A< 4( 68;= ,-< 9(;-7=<Yq(7>-4( .>= 4( 9;-61A;-99;-7d
,;- -7 +0(;/-f87<>-48ogA< 4"-7=-;;-6-7= ,- <( 6A;-Y
f87<>-48 ;>>71= :>-4:>-< (..(1;-< ,(7< >7- 9-=1=- ?(41<-Y<-<
<Z>;< .-;6A;-7= 4( 6(1<87 98>; =8>28>;< -= >7- +(;;184-9
+0-?(4 4-< 6-7( 2><:>"9 x(;(/8<<-op- 6(;1 ,-q(7>-4(>=(1=
(48;< +0-. ,- 4( 9-=1=- /(;- ,- 4"d;;()(4Y:>(;=1-; <-61d;>;(4
-= -B+-7=;>,-x(;(/8<<-Y<>; 4( ;1?- /(>+0- ,- 4");-Y-=
=8>=- 4( .(6144- 0()1=(1= 49ox87 <=(=>= ,"8;90-417- -7 ,->14
1698<(1=9 f87<>-48 4- 98;= ,- ??=-6-7=< 781;< 9-7,(7=
:>(=;- (77>-< <>1?1-< ,">7- (77>- ,- ,-61d,->14 8Q4- )4(7+
98>;;(1= (48;< 8++>9-; >7- 94(+- ;(1<877()4-oi7 8>=;-Y4(
.(6144- -7=1A;- <"17=-;,1<(1= 4( 6><1:>- 8> =8>= (>=;- 481<1;o
p( <-6(17->=(1= +87<(+;>-94">=>,- ,(7<
>7->+84;-41/1-><- -=Y+-;=(17< ,16(7+0-<Y94( ?1<1=- ,">7-
+8><174817=(17- :>1 (?(1= +081<1Y,1<(1=d87Y4( ?1- +48C=;>- ,-<f(;d
6>41=-<op( +87?-;<(=187 <- =-7(1= (> 9(;481;Y,(7< >7 6>;d
6>;- 9;8487/>Y(> =;(?-;< ,">7- 9-=1=- 8>?-;=>;-
8)=>;>9(; >7 +;81<14487 ,- )81< <-;;>:>1 -69?+0(1= ,- ,1<+-;7-;
4-< =;(1=< ,- 4( ;-+4><-o
1u(>?;- 9-=1=-h g(7< <87 6(40->;Y-44- ( =(7=
,+0(7+- ,- ?8>< (?81;o
f-==- ?81B :>1 <8;=(1= ,> 6>; <-6)4(1= <1 2->7-Y<1
/(1- 9(;.81<<f87<>-48 7- 9(;4(1= 9(<oi44- =-7=(1= -7 ?(17
,"(9-;+-?81; 4- ?1<(/- ,- +-==- +8><17-Y,"16(/17-; 4( ?1- :>1
98>?(1= <- ,>;8>4-; ,- 4"(>=;- +I=>,- 4( 91-;;-o +i44-
79->= 94>< ?81; 4");-Y71 4- 987=Y71 4-< ;>-<;9-7<(1=d-44-o
i= 98>;=(7=Y14 C (?(1=d49Y,- 4"(>=;- +I=>Y>7 68,- ,- ?1- :>1

pi fliqmr gz uiwylzx

2[

4>1 <-6)4(1= 9;8=-+=->; -= ;(<<>;(7=Y>7- 9;1<- -7
+0(;/17.171- :>1 4( .(<+17(1=o
p( .(6144- (998;=(1= =8>28>;< :>-4:>- +08<-94(
+8><17-Y>7 9-=1= ,87 -7 (;/-7= 98>; 4( +866>7(>=>Y:>-4d
:>-< /7=-(>B 8> ,-< .;>1=< ;-61< (> 686-7= ,- <- :>1==-;o
f87<>-48 (16(1= <"-7 +0(;/-;\<>; 4( 9817=- ,-<
91-,<Y-4498<(1= 4- 9;><-7= <>; 4- =8>;71:>-= <1=>> 9+I=>,> =;-1441<
,)81< -= 4- .(1<(1= 91?8=-; ,8>+-6-7= 98>; ?81; 4(
91-;;4"(?(4-;oi44- -7=-7,(1= (48;< <( +8><17- 4- 9;-7,;- -= ;-6-;d
+1-;ox>; 4- +0-617 ,> ;-=8>;Yq(7>-4( -7+-7<(1= (?-+ ?>d
0>6-7+- 4( ?8+(=187 ,- 4( ;-41/1-><- -= <87 ,879 g1->o
p"87+4- +0-. ,- /(;- ;-<=(1= <14-7+1->B -= ,1<+;-=od9;A< +-<
?1<1=-< (> +8>?-7=Yf87<>-48 <"-7,8;6(1= ,1..1+14-6-7= -7
=-7=(7= ,"16(/17-; +- :>- 98>?(1=?=;- 4( ?1- ,(7< 4-
+48C=;6-;?-144->Bo

g1->>=(1= 86719;><-7= -= 14 <(?(1= =8>=Y14 ?8C(1= =8>=ox87
41?;- ,- 6-<<- 4- ,1<(1=op- +>;>4- ;(99-4(1= (?(7= 4( +87.-<d
<187\87 7- 9->= <- <8><=;(1;-94>1 71 6-7=1;o
1 q87 -7.(7=Y(<d=> -> ,-< 9-7<>-< 169>;-<b
i44- 0><1=(1=\-44- 7- <(?(1= 9(< )1-7 +- :>">=(1=
>79-7<>- 169>;-oj(44(1=d14 (?8>-; :>"-44- (?(1= ;(4-7=1 4- 9(<
<8>< >7 )(4+87 ,>u(<-8 ,- 4(m7,-9-7,-7+1( -7 -7=-7,(7=
>7 (1; ,- =(7/8Y6><1:>- 17=-;,1=- 9(;+- :>- ,1()841:>-d
6-7= <-7<>-44-b
i7 <- ;-7,(7=94( 6-<<- ,> ,16(7+0- 6(=17 (>u1d
4(;Yf87<>-48 <- ,-6(7,(1= 4(:>-44- ,- <-< +-7=(17-< ,- ;8d

=&

pi fliqmr gz uiwylzx

)-< );8,>-< ,- 91-;;-;1-< -= ,"8;Y4( ?1-;/- 98;=-;(1= +- 28>;d
49ogA< 4"-7=;>-Y-44- (9-;+-?(1= 4( :>->- .8;6>- 9(; 4-< .1,Ad
4-< :>1 (==-7,(1-7= 4->; =8>; 98>; (44-; -6);(<<-; 4- 6>,(14d
487 <1=>>,-;;1A;- 4- 9141-; ,- 2(,- <>; 4-:>-4 +-==- ?1-;/-Y<1
9-=1=- -= 98>;=(7= 9(=;877- ,- 4"l1<9(71=>Y>=(1= 9-;+0>-o
f87<>-48 (16(1= 4( )(<141:>- ?(<=- -= 4>617-><- 8Q4"8; );14d
4(1= 6(1< -44- .;>61<<(1=94( ?>- ,-< 9;?=;-< -= 4-< 9-7<(1=
17?-<=1< ,">7 166-7<- 98>?81; <>; 4-<76-<o

f- 98>?81; .>= :>-4:>- 9->>);(74>>7 (7 94>< =(;,Y-7
(?;142[H2oz7- (441(7+- ;>9>)41+(17- ?-7(1= ,- /(/7-; 4-<
>4-+=187< 6>71+19(4-< -= >7 /8>?-;7-6-7= 9;8?1<81;- .>=
7866> 94( =?=- ,">7 9(C< <-+8>>9(; 4-< =-7<187<op-w81
+081<1= 4"-B14op-< =;81< +>;>< (61< ,- 4( .(6144- +866-7+Ad
;-7=9?-71; 94>< <8>?-7= -7+8;-94( 6(1<87Y(?-+ >7 (1;
,6817< -7 6817< (<<>;>of87<>-48 -7=-7,(1= 4-< +87?-;<(d
=187<o
1 p(w>9>)41:>- (>=>9;8+4(6>-Y4-< ;8>/-< <87= (>
98>?81;o

v>-4:>-< 681< 94>< =(;,Y-7 ,>+-6);-Y<( <Z>; .>4617(1=\
1 {8>< (?-D ?>b p( 4(D+1=>Y4( <>9(;(=187 ,-
4"|/41<-= ,- 4"|=(=b p( 61B1=>,(7< 4-<>+84-<b

pi fliqmr gz uiwylzx

=2

p-< 9;898<>=(1-7= =-7,><Y4-< 617-< 17:>1A=-<o p8;<
,-< ?1<1=-< :>1 <>1?1;-7=Y4-<>+0(7/-<>?8:>A;-7= ,-<>/41<-<
17+-7,1>-<Y,-< 9;?=;-< =>><9 q(,;1,Y,(7< 4-p-?(7=<
p+86)4- ,- 4"17:>1>=>,- .>= (==-17= 48;<:>- 4-u(;4-6-7= ?8=(
4"17=-;,1+=187 ,"-7<-1/7-6-7= (>B +87/;>/(=187< ;-41/1-><-<o
1 q(1< +866-7= 78< -7.(7=< ?87=d14< ;-+-?81;
>717<=;>+=187 ,1/7- ,- +- 786b g(7< ,-<>+84-< ,- 4"|=(= :>1
7"-B1<=-7= 9(< -7+8;-b d?-+ ,-< 6(C=;-< <8+1(41<=-<b
g(7< 4-< .(1=<Y4-<>+84-< ;-41/1-><-< +87=17>A;-7=
,.87+=1877-; -=f87<>-48 4-< .;>:>-7=( 2><:>"94( .17 ,- <(
<+84(;1=><-+87,(1;-ou(;.81<Y4-< +;>+1.1B ,1<9(;(1<<(1-7= ,-<
6>;< ,-< +4(<<-< -= ;>(99(;(1<<(1-7= -7 ,"(>=;-< 8++(<187<Y
<-487 4( =-7,(7+- ,> /8>?-;7-6-7= 8> <8>< 4( 9;-<<187 ,-<
9(;-7=<of-< (77>-<d49<">+8>4A;-7= -7 9;1A;-< ,> <81;Y<-;?1d
+-< ;-41/1->B94( 6>681;- ,-< 9(;-7=< -= ,>6>7(/-6-7=<9
=;(?-;< 4"i<9(/7-Y,-p(f8;>F(9 {(4-7+- -7 9(<<(7= 9(;
f>-7+(Y(> /;>,-< 6>=(=187< ,- <87 )-(>d.;A;-od;;1?> 9
4"(98=0>8<- ,">7- +(;;1A;- ,- +0-. ,- /(;- -B-694(1;-
:>4"(?A7-6-7= ,- 4(w>9>)41:>- 7"(?(1= 9(< 9-;=>;)>-Y14 9;1=
.17(4-6-7= 98<<-<<187 ,">7 98<=-9 q(,;1, -72[HW-=
=8>=4( .(6144- <"17<=(44( ,(7< 4- 48/-6-7= ,- .87+=187op(
?1+87=17>(Y;C=06>- 9(; 4-< +87?-;<(=187< 17:>1A=-< -= 4- );>1=
,-< =;(17<o

f-==- (77>-d49Y4- +87<-14 ,- .(6144- <- ;>>71= -= <- 9;>8++>d
9( ,- ,877-; >7- :>(41.1+(=187 9;8.-<<1877-44-9 f87<>-48\
+-;=-<Y-44->=(1= .-66- -= ,-<=17>- (> 6(;1(/- 6(1<Y-7 =(7=

==

pi fliqmr gz uiwylzx

:>"8;90-417-Y14 <-6)4( 9;>.>;()4- :>"-44- 9>1<<- <- ,>d
);8>144-; ,(7< 4( ?1-Y<>;=8>= ,(7< 4">98:>- =;8>)4- :>- =;(d
?-;<(1= 4- 9(C<ox87 <-+87, )-(>d.;A;-Y{1+=8;Y,1;-+=->;
,)(7:>-9 e(;+-487-Y.1= ?(481; :>- ,-<>=>,-< +866-;+1(4-<
+87<=1=>-;(1-7= >7 )(/(/- <O; -= ;-<9-+=()4- 98>; >7-
2->7.144-\87 4"17<+;1?1=94"|+84- <>9>;1->;- ,- +866-;+-
,q(,;1,o

f0(91=;- mm

q(,;1,

(,;1, .>= >7- (>)(17- 98>; f87<>-48o x-< -7<-1/7(7=<
q
(?(1-7= >7 ,1<+8>;< ;(,1+(4-6-7= ,1..>;-7= ,- +-4>1
:>"-44- (?(1= -7=-7,> 2><:>-d49+0-D 4-< ;-41/1-><-<op(
?144=8>= -7=1A;- )(==(1= ,">7->7-;/1- +866>71+(=1?-o
p"(/1=(=187 ;>/7(1=94">71?-;<1=>-= 4-< +87.41=< 9841=1:>-<
<-+8>(1-7= 4-<>=>,1(7=<op( <1=>(=187 ,-?17= 94><
=-7,>-7+8;- (9;A< .>?;1-;2[HX:>(7, 4-j;-7=- 989>4(; /(/7(
4-<>4-+=187<ox( <Z>; <- 61=9?1?;- (48;< ,(7< >7- 17:>1>d
=>,- (++;>- :>1 8++>9(1= =8>=-< <-< 9-7<>-<o
1 y> 7- =;(C7-< 9(< -7 ?144-Y=> ;-7=;-< =8>= ,-
<>1=(9;A< =-< +8>;<<
i44- 8)>1<<(1= -= <- +87=-7=(1= ,- ;-/(;,-; 4-< ?1=;17-<
,-< 6(/(<17< -= 4-< +(.>< ,-9>1< 4- =;(6A(C )417,>:>1
(?(7<(1= (> 9(< (> 6141-> ,-< ;(;-< (>=868)14-<Y,-< 91>=87<
-= ,-< ?81=>;-<9+0-?(4op-< 6(17< )(4(,-><-<>=(1-7= 687d
7(1- +8>;(7=- ,(7< +-==- +80>-ou(;.81<Y87 -7=-7,(1=
>7.-66- 17<>4=-; >7 ?8C(/->; +844> 9-44- 9(; 4( 9;-<<187 ,- 4(
.8>4-op( ;>987<->=(1= ;(91,-\
1q81Y?8>< 9-48=-;Yq(,(6-b {8>< 9;-7-D ?8<
<8>0(1=< 98>; ,-< ;>(41=><b