The Blue Shirts

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While Adolf Hitler was seizing power in Germany, Adrien Arcand was laying the foundations in Quebec for his Parti national social chrétien. The Blue Shirts, as its members were called, wore a military uniform and prominently displayed the swastika. Arcand saw Jewish conspiracy wherever he turned and his views resonated with his followers who, like him, sought a scapegoat for all the ills eroding society.




Even after his imprisonment during the Second World War, the fanatical Adrien Arcand continued his correspondence with those on the frontlines of anti-semitism. Until his death in 1967, he pursued his campaign of propaganda against communists and Jews.




Hugues Théorêt describes a dark period in Quebec’s ideological history using an objective approach and careful, rigorous research in this book, which won the 2015 Canada Prize (Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences).

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Date de parution 16 mai 2017
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EAN13 9780776624686
Langue English

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THE BLUE SHIRTS
THE BLUE SHIRTS Adrien Arcand and Fascist Anti‑Semitism in Canada
BY Hugues Théorêt
Translated by Ferdinanda van Gennip and Howard Scott
University of Ottawa Press 2017
The University of Oawa Press gratefully acknowledges the support extended to its publishing list by Canadian Heritage through the Canada Book Fund, by the Canada Council for the Arts, by the Ontario Arts Council, by the Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences through the Awards to Scholarly Publications Program, and by the University of Oawa.
We acknowledge the ïnancial support of the Government of Canada through the National Translation Program for Book Publishing, an initiative of theRoadmap for Canada’s Ocial Languages 2013-2018: Education, Immigration, Communities, for our trans-lation activities.
Originally published asLes Chemises bleues© Les éditions du Septentrion 2012
Copy editing: Proofreading: Typeseing: Cover design: Cover image:
Robbie McCaw Robert Ferguson and Shyla Fairfax Édiscript enr. Édiscript enr. Alex Dworkin Canadian Jewish Archives / Archives juives canadiennes Alex Dworkin
Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication
Théorêt, Hugues, 1969-[Chemises bleues. English]
The blue shirts: Adrien Arcand and fascist anti-semitism in Canada / Hugues Théorêt; translation by Ferdinanda Van Gennip and Howard Sco.
Translation of: Les Chemises bleues : Adrien Arcand, journaliste antisémite canadien-français. Includes bibliographical references and index. Issued in print and electronic formats. ISBN 978-0-7766-2467-9 (socover). ISBN 978-0-7766-2468-6 (PDF). ISBN 978-0-7766-2469-3 (EPUB). ISBN 978-0-7766-2470-9 (Kindle)
1. Arcand, Adrien, 1900–1967. 2. National Unity Party of Canada. 3. Fascism—Québec (Province)—History. 4. Fascism—Canada—History. 5. Antisemitism—Québec (Province)— History—20th century. 6. Right and le (Political science)—Canada—History—20th century. 7. Politicians—Québec (Province)—Biography. I. Gennip, Ferdinanda van, 1948-, translator II. Sco, Howard, 1952-, translator III. Title. IV. Title: Chemises bleues. English.
FC2924.1.A72T4313 2017
© University of Oawa Press, 2017
971.4’03092
C2017-902393-4 C2017-902394-2
Printed in Canada
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements ............................................................................... ix
Preface...................................................................................................... xi
Introduction ............................................................................................ 1
CHAPTER I Le GogluBuilds its Nest ......................................................................... 13 Arcand’s Parents.............................................................................. 17 Studies .............................................................................................. 19 The Journalist .................................................................................. 21 Leisure Pursuits............................................................................... 23
CHAPTER II Le GogluTakes Flight ............................................................................. Quebec in 1929 ................................................................................ Le Miroir............................................................................................ Le Goglu............................................................................................. L’Ordre Patriotique des Goglus .................................................... The “David Bill” on Jewish Schools ............................................. Jewish Immigration to Quebec ..................................................... TheAchat chez nousCampaign...................................................... Arcand and R. B. Benne’s Conservatives .................................. Dr. Lalanne....................................................................................... The “Bercovitch Bill” on Hate Propaganda ................................
27 27 29 31 35 37 43 44 50 60 64
CHAPTER III The Blue Shirts........................................................................................ 71 Le Patriote........................................................................................57.. The National Social Christian Party ............................................. 82 Le Fasciste canadien........................................................................... 89 The Choquee Aair ...................................................................... 94 Arcand Advocates for Canadian Unity ....................................... 100
Arcand Supports Maurice Duplessis ........................................... 104 Arcand Outside Quebec................................................................. 106 Watchful Eye of the RCMP ............................................................ 109 Incidents of Violent Anti-Semitism in Canada ........................... 110 Fascist Lile Italy ............................................................................ 114 A Split in the PNSC......................................................................... 116 Anticosti Island Controversy ........................................................ 117
CHAPTER IV The Key to the Mystery ......................................................................... 125 The Inuence of Édouard Drumont............................................. 130 Protocols of the Elders of Zion........................................................... 132 TheProtocolsin Quebec .................................................................. 139 The Key to the Mystery..................................................................... 141
CHAPTER V The Canadian Union of Fascists........................................................... 153 The National Unity Party of Canada............................................ 154 Arcand Abandons the Swastika.................................................... 157 Arcand Preaches Canadian Corporatism .................................... 159 The Party’s Principles ..................................................................... 165 Le Combat national..........................................................................1..76 Against War ..................................................................................... 170 Canadian Fascists Under Scrutiny by the Authorities .............. 173 Power Hungry ................................................................................. 176 The Opposition Goes on the Oensive........................................ 179
CHAPTER VI Arrests and Internments ....................................................................... 187 Canada Goes to War Against Germany....................................... 187 Raid at Arcand’s Party Headquarters .......................................... 191 Arrests .............................................................................................. 194 Arcand’s Internment....................................................................... 196 Life Behind Barbed Wire................................................................ 199 Eorts to Obtain Arcand’s Release ............................................... 201 “Mr. Montreal” ................................................................................ 203
Chapter VII Liberation ................................................................................................ 207 Arcand’s Political Failures ............................................................. 210
CHAPTER VIII The Cold War Years ............................................................................... 215 Anti-Communism in Quebec ........................................................ 216 Le GogluPicks Up its Refrain......................................................... 219 La République Universelle ............................................................ 221 “Social reconstruction is inevitable” ............................................ 223 L’Unité nationale224Reborn ................................................................. Is the unrest troubling our world today intentional? ................ 227
CHAPTER IX Post-War Anti-Semitic Correspondence ............................................. 231
CHAPTER X Arcand’s Legacy ..................................................................................... 255 Serviamand the Fleur-de-Lys ........................................................ 257 À bas la haine!................................................................................... 262 Arcand Denies the Holocaust ....................................................... 264 Arcand and the State of Israel ....................................................... 267 Arcand and the Second Vatican Council ..................................... 268 La Révolte du Matérialisme............................................................... 272 Oawa Examines Hate Propaganda ............................................ 273 Ernst Zündel .................................................................................... 277 Tributes to Arcand .......................................................................... 279 Death of Arcand .............................................................................. 287 Arcand’s Heirs ................................................................................. 288 Arcand Before the Judgment of History...................................... 289 From Communism to Internationalism....................................... 291 ServiamReborn ................................................................................ 292
Conclusion .............................................................................................. 299
The Historiographical Debates ............................................................ 305
Bibliography ........................................................................................... 311
Index ........................................................................................................ 317
Acknowledgements
his book has been published with the help of a grant from the ATwards to Scholarly Publications Program, using funds provided by Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences, through the the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. I would like to personally thank historian Pierre Anctil, who penned the preface to this book; my friends Gilles Toupin and Michel Bédard, for their precious counsel; and my spouse, Emmanuelle Dubois, who encouraged me throughout this project, long and perilous though it was. And, ïnally, I wish to emphasize the invaluable collaboration of Janice Rosen and Hélène Vallée, of the Alex Dworkin Canadian Jewish Archives / Archives juives canadiennes Alex Dworkin, as well as the archivists of Library and Archives Canada and the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.