Into the Melting Pot
221 pages
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Into the Melting Pot


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En savoir plus
221 pages


This volume examines workshop waste and discusses the craftspeople in the Viking town of Kaupang including their activities, crafted products, raw materials, skills and networks. The study focuses on artefacts used in non-ferrous metalworking: crucibles, moulds, matrix dies, tuyeres and a unique collection of lead models.The tools and the waste material provide a completely new understanding of the craftspeople who were working with gold, silver, copper alloys, lead and tin. These metalworkers mastered many different materials and techniques; indeed, they were well-informed, well-trained and skillful, and manufactured a range of different items for women and men. There is every reason to believe that visitors and residents perceived the non-ferrous metalworking as a defining feature of the Viking-period town. The combination of excavations and surface surveys has produced a broad and diverse collection of material very similar to finds in different Viking-period towns in Scandinavia including Ribe, Birka and Hedeby. The finds show that Kaupang was an important centre for the production of jewelry, and the craftsmen appear to have had access to a range of high quality raw materials including brass and kaolin clay. Their activity can be traced from the earliest layers of the beginning of the 9th Century to the early 10th Century. Altogether, the production waste from Kaupang illustrates how a range of different social groups were involved in the process of forging an urban identity.



Publié par
Date de parution 17 octobre 2016
Nombre de lectures 2
EAN13 9788771845075
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 16 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,013€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.


Kaupang Excavation Project Publication Series, Volume 4 Norske Oldfunn XXV
intothe meltingpot
b y u n n p e d e r s e n
Into te Metîng Pot Non-errous Metaworkers în Vîkîng-perîod Kaupang
By Unn Pedersen
Kaupang Excavaion Proec Publicaion Series, Volume 
Norske Oldfunn XXV
Ino e Meling Po Non-errous Mealworkers în Vîkîng-perîod Kaupang Kaupang Excavaion Proec Publicaion Series, Volume  Norske Oldfunn XXV © Aarus Universiy Press & Unn Pedersen  Englis ranslaion: Jon Hines Map producion, illusraion ediing: Julie K. Øre Askem, Elise Naumann, Unn Pedersen Cover illusraion: Arefacs found a Kaupang. Poo, Erik I. Jonsen, KHM Grapic design, ypeseing and cover: Jørgen Sparre Type: Minion and Linoype Synax E-book producion: Narayana Press, Denmark
ISBN ----
Copyrig maps: Conour disance  mere: he Municipaliy of Larvik Conour disance  meres: Norwegian Mapping and Cadasre Auoriy, Permission number: NE-SAS Scandinavia, Europe: ESRI
Publised wi suppor from: he Researc Council of Norway Cenre for Viking-Age Sudies, Universiy of Oslo Arkeologisk fond, Norsk Arkeologisk Selskap
he Universiy of Oslo wises o ank e financial conribuors o e Kaupang Excavaion Proec:
Minisry of e Environmen
Minisry of Educaion and Researc
Minisry of Culure and Curc Affairs
he Researc Council of Norway
he Anders Jare Humaniarian Foundaion
Vesfold Couny Council
he Municipaliy of Larvik
Ars Council Norway
Kaupang . he Viking-period own of Kaupang  . Kaupang in Skiringssal
he background: Vîkîng-perîod metaworkîng . Viking-period smis  .. Day-o-day smis  .. he maser of e fire  .. he ideal smi and e real smi  . Meallurgy  . he worksop and is organizaion
Non-errous metaworkîng inds rom te settement area at Kaupang. Lead models  .. Models for making equal-armed brooces  ... Models for making equal-armed brooces of e Lønnes group  ... Models for making oer equal-armed brooces  ... Unclassified fragmens wic may be models for making equal-armed brooces  ... Discussion — Lead models for making equal-armed brooces  .. Possible models for making penannular brooces  .. Model for making lozenge brooces  .. Models for making dies for cruciform pendans  .. Models for making mouns  .. Models for making armrings  .. Model for making key-andles  .. Possible model for making miniaure axes  .. Oer models  .. Lead models — summary and conex  .. he funcion of e lead models . A lead mould for producing wax models . Marix dies . Moulds  .. Mould of volcanic uff(?) for making pendans  .. Moulds of soapsone and similar maerial  ... Types, range, and disribuion  ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of soapsone moulds  .. Moulds of oer kinds of sone  .. Fired clay moulds
  
      
                         
. . . . . .
... Types, range, and disribuion ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of fired clay moulds ... Perological analyses of fired-clay moulds Crucibles .. Types, range, and disribuion .. Arcaeomeallurgical analyses for idenifying races of meal ... he firs round of analyses ... he second round of analysis ... hin-secioning ... he meal analyses summarized .. Cemical analyses of e clay in e meling crucibles .. Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of visually idenified copper alloys .. Perological analyses of e clay in e meling crucibles Oer forms of meallurgical ceramics .. Cupellaion crucibles .. Ceramic ‘packaging’ maerial .. Unidenified fragmens of meallurgical ceramics Tuyères.. Soapsoneuyères.. Fired clayuyèresRaw maerial, semi-manufacures, and meal producion wase .. A lead punc pad .. Ingos and oer raw maerial ... Types, exen and disribuion ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of silver ingos ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of copper-alloy ingos .. Fragmens ... Types and range ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of silver fragmens and acksilver .. Casing wase ... Meled drops ... Casing sprues ... he silver conen of a meling crucible and a summary  of e arcaeomeallurgical analyses of e silver ... Arcaeomeallurgical analyses of copper-alloy casing wase he idenified producs of e non-ferrous mealworking .. Circular pendans wi a S. Andrew’s cross .. Oer lead pendans .. Oer dress-accessories .. Miscellaneous .. Iems of equipmen in lead Worksops and wase managemen .. Summary of e disribuion of e finds .. he worksop on plo B .. Casing in building A .. Dumping zones, boundary dices, and pis
                
                               
            
Non-errous metaworkîng în te Vîkîng-perîod town. he pracical processes  .. Mealcasing  .. he making of pressed foil  .. Oer smiing and working of meals  .. he refining of meals  .. Soldering . Raw maerial available . Volumes of producion . he caracerisics of e producion . he non-ferrous mealworkers and e Viking-period own  .. he non-ferrous mealworkers and e oers  .. he non-ferrous mealworkers, rade, and excange  .. he skills of e non-ferrous mealworkers  .. he non-ferrous mealworkers of Kaupang?
              
During my work wi e non-ferrous mealworking finds from Kaupang, I ave drawn inspiraion from De dîversîs arîbus, wrien by a maser-smi. he book you ave in fron of you now is of a differen kind: i is e apprenice’s aemp o pu ogeer all a se as learn. he masers will no doub sake eir eads over is and a, bu ey ave been indispensible in e ourney. Ragnar Løcen, Anders Söderberg, Ken Ravn Hedegaard, and Ny Börn Gusafsson are e mos generous maser-smis in e world, and no secreive abou eir myseries. hey are due e greaes anks for aving sared eir scolarly and pracical knowledge wi a be-ginner, ime and again. Similarly I wan o ank e ravelling expers, Börn Ambrosiani, Else Roesdal, and Claus Feveile, along wi our local specialis Signe Horn Fuglesang, wo ave sared eir grea knowledge. Arne Jouiärvi is due anks for very agreeable collaboraion, and Inge Bryni for is valuable elp wi mineral idenificaion. Dagfinn Skre, e proec leader and my supervisor, as supplied me wi an incredible worksop, no only quie lierally, bu also in e more figuraive sense. he Kaupang Excavaion Proec as been a superb place of learning for e suden, e Finds Leader, and e posgraduae researcer. Our associaion wi e Deparmen of Arcaeology, Conservaion, and Hisory of e Universiy of Oslo as provided me wi a pleasan and simulaing environmen in wic o work, wic I se grea value by. Many anks o all of you wo were in Blindernveien  eier rougou or for some of e ime in wic is book was being produced.  As a conribuor o a maor researc proec, I ave gained a grea deal from being a member of a wide nework, and my colleagues in e Kaupang Excavaion Proec ave likewise elped me grealy.
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Julie K. Øre Askem, Elise Naumann, Birgi Wilser-Hansen, Elin Sorbekk, Guro Hulsad, Vegard Vike, Børn-Håkon Ekeut Ryg, Even Ballangrud Andersen, Gry Wiker, Carloe Melsom, Heid Gø-sein Resi, Seinar Krisensen, Crisop Kilger, Lars Forse and Lars Pilø ave made many useful con-ribuions and been available bo in and ouside of e ours of work. I wis also o ank Eirik Irgens Jonsen for many fine poograps and e pleasure of working ogeer for many years. he Pedersen family as also suppored me wi good advice and encouragemen, and Mum as sarpened er red pencil innumerable imes. Barne Gau and Lars Erik Gerpe ave been my callenging criics and grea supporers all e way roug. Ino e Melîng Po: Non-errous Mealworkers în Vîkîng-perîod Kaupang is a sligly modified version of my PD esisI smeledîgelen. Fînsmedene î vîkîngîdsbyen Kaupang, wic was submied on  Marc  and defended publicly a e Universiy of Oslo on  November a year. hanks o my wo opponens, Lars Senvik and Lars Jørgensen, for criique and praise wic enabled e work o advance. he book as been planned and wrien as e four volume in e Kaupang Excavaion Proec Publicaion Series, bu circumsances beyond my conrol mean a e funding was los before e esis was compleed. he consequence was a e ex remained waiing longer an one would ave wised. Many anks o Jón Viðar Sigurðsson and Bri Solli for sound advice and decisive suppor in e effor o secure e funding; wiou you, i would ave cos me muc more o bring is publicaion abou. Warm anks o Jon Hines, wo as ranslaed e ex and made is final sage bo agreeable and informaive.
Meiculous fieldwork a Kaupang from  o  produced large quaniies of finds represening a va-riey of forms of cratwork. he aim of is volume is o provide a beer undersanding of e cratspeople wo were working wi non-ferrous meals: gold, sil-ver, copper alloys, lead, and in. Wa were eir ac-complismens and capabiliies, and wa was eir posiion in Viking-period sociey? hese quesions will be explored roug qualiaive and quania-ive sudies of e crat wase from Kaupang and by discussing e caracerisics, volume, purposes, and cusomers of is producion. he pracical side of e cratwork will be given careful aenion, wic will be e basis for e discussion of e conexual framework wiin wic crat was pracised. An ul-imae obecive is o sed lig on e iner-relaion-sip beween e cratspeople and oer social groups wiin Viking-period sociey. Since e wase from non-ferrous mealworking is an exensive and famil-iar feaure of e arcaeological evidence from Kau-pang, is may also conribue o a greaer knowledge of e social dynamics of e Viking-period own.  I is relaively easy o idenify e finds from non-ferrous mealworking, bu more difficul o find a saisfacory general erm for e cratspeople. ‘Me-alsmi’ also includes ose wo were working wi iron, and is oo general. A sudy of ironworking a Kaupang falls ouside e scope of is work, as ere are fundamenal differences beween e ecnology associaed wi iron and e working of oer meals (Bayley :). ‘Mealcaser’, or e more specific erm ‘bronzecaser’, is frequenly used in scolarly lieraure, bu bo erms are oo narrow, wen e finds from Kaupang are looked a as a wole. Vari-ous differen meals were cas, and a range of me-als were also ammered and consolidaed. To sar wi, I sall refer o e cratworkers concerned as ‘non-ferrous mealworkers’. he analyses of e finds will en provide a basis for an assessmen of weer or no i is possible o idenify more specialized non-
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ferrous mealworkers, suc as bronzecasers or gold-smis, or less specialized smis wo also worked wi oer maerials.  In wrien sources, we find e ermssmîðr, smî andsmîþerin Old Norwegian, Old Danis and Old Swedis respecively (Sigum ). A long lis of differen smis suc as egull-smîðr (goldsmi), sîlr-smîðr(silversmi),járn-smîðr(‘iron-’ or black-smi),ré-smîðror carpener), (‘woodsmi’ skîp-smîðr (sipwrig),skepî-smîðr (satmaker) and skó-smîðr (soemaker) appears (Cleasby e al.  []:; Borvand and Lindeman :–). he erm us is no limied o e blacksmi or mealworker, bu is raer used in e same way as our general erm ‘cratworker’. he range of erms from e Old Norse sources sow a a disincion was drawn beween differen ypes of smis early in e Middle Ages. he quesion of weer is was also e case in e Viking Period is one for is book. ha discussion as o be limied by e fac a e working of organic maerial as let pracically no race a Kaupang, wile ironworking is ouside of e range of is sudy and as no oerwise been discussed. As a resul I sall ave problems in deer-mining weer iron and oer meals were worked by e same cratspeople or no. To remedy is prob-lem I sall, in one specifically cosen conex, look in more deail a e possible occurrence of wase from ironworking. Resuls from oer conemporary pro-ducion sies will also be included o sed more lig on is quesion.  he wase from non-ferrous mealworking a Kaupang is bo voluminous and complex, and I ave decided o include all caegories of finds, as my aim is o gain e broades possible informaion abou ese arisans. he eerogeneous evidence is able o give us a beer view of e collecive capac-iy of e non-ferrous mealworkers and eir level of accomplismen, and i offers differen angles of view from wic e exen and caracer of produc-
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