The Unbearable Whiteness of Being
178 pages
English

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The Unbearable Whiteness of Being

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178 pages
English

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The history of colonial land alienation, the grievances fuelling the liberation war, and post-independence land reforms have all been grist to the mill of recent scholarship on Zimbabwe. Yet for all that the country�s white farmers have received considerable attention from academics and journalists, the fact that they have always played a dynamic role in cataloguing and representing their own affairs has gone unremarked. It is this crucial dimension that Rory Pilossof explores in The Unbearable Whiteness of Being. His examination of farmers� voices � in The Farmer magazine, in memoirs, and in recent interviews � reveals continuities as well as breaks in their relationships with land, belonging and race. His focus on the Liberation War, Operation Gukurahundi and the post-2000 land invasions frames a nuanced understanding of how white farmers engaged with the land and its peoples, and the political changes of the past 40 years. The Unbearable Whiteness of Being helps to explain why many of the events in the countryside unfolded in the ways they did.

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Date de parution 24 avril 2012
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9781779222596
Langue English

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The Unbearable Whiteness of Being
The Unbearable Whiteness of Being
Farmers Voices from Zimbabwe
Rory Pilossof
Published in Zimbabwe
by
Weaver Press
PO Box A1922
Avondale, Harare
Zimbabwe
www.weaverpresszimbabwe.com
Published in South Africa
by
UCT Press
an imprint of Juta and Co. Ltd
1st Floor, Sundare Building
21 Dreyer Street, Claremont
7708 South Africa
www.uctpress.co.za
Rory Pilossof, 2012
Cover: Danes Design, Harare
Cover photo: David Brazier
Typeset by forzalibro designs
Printed by Academic Press, Cape Town
All rights reserved.
No part of the publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means - electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise - without the express written permission of the publisher
ISBN 978-1-77922-169-8 (Zimbabwe)
ISBN 978-1-92409-997-6 (South Africa)
Contents
Acknowledgements
List of Acronyms
List of Tables, Map Appendices
A Note on Currency
Foreword
Introduction
Why the Voices of White Farmers?
1 White Farmers Their Representatives, 1890-2000
2 No Country for White Men White Farmers, the Fast-Track Land Reforms Jambanja , 2000-2004
3 Discourses of Apoliticism in The Farmer
4 Discursive Thresholds Episodes of Crisis The Liberation War, Gukurahundi the Land Occupations
5 The Consolidation of Voice White Farmers Autobiographies The Narration of Experience after 2000
6 Orphans of Empire Oral Expressions of Displacement Trauma
Appendices
Bibliography
Index
Epigraph
Acknowledgements
The research, writing and completion of this book has been aided by a community of people and institutions to whom a great deal of gratitude is extended. By far the largest proportion of that thanks is reserved for Professor Ian Phimister. It is no overstatement to say that without his support, guidance and counsel, which have been ever-present right from my undergraduate years at the University of Cape Town, I would not have had the opportunity to undertake the research necessary to produce this book.
The generous financial support of several institutions has made this book possible. Firstly, I am hugely grateful to the Overseas Research Studentship, and the University of Sheffield Studentship. I also received grants from the Beit Trust Emergency Support Fund, the Royal Historical Society Research Funding and The Petrie Watson Exhibition.
Justice for Agriculture generously allowed me access to their interview archive. The Commercial Farmers Union of Zimbabwe were also helpful in allowing me to consult their collection of The Farmer magazine. Furthermore, thanks must go the Research and Advocacy Unit who gave me the opportunity to explore the stories of white farmers in Zimbabwe. In Oxford, the Rhodes House Library provided invaluable access to other records and secondary sources. Chapter 2 draws on an article first published in the Journal of Developing Societies (26: 71-97, March 2010).
My thanks are also extended to all the farmers I interviewed and talked to in the process of my research. Many spoke of personal traumas and events that were difficult to relate, and their courage is exemplary.
Many others have helped me through the last three years. Special mention must go to Gary Rivett, who provided not only much needed intellectual stimulation, but ready and welcome relief from my research. He has contributed in so many ways to the creation and completion of this book and I thank him dearly for his companionship. I must also thank Miles Larmer, Mike Rook, Felicity Wood, Ben Purcell Gilpin, Alois Mlambo, Tony Reeler, Simon de Swardt, Jonathan Saha, Rachel Johnson, Charles Laurie and Andrew Iliff for their help and assistance. Weaver Press, and Murray McCartney in particular, have been a pleasure to work with and their input and attention to detail has vastly improved the book before you.
I also want to thank my family, Ray and Jayne Pilossof and Shane Samten Drime Billy-the-Lionsblood Pilossof, for humouring me through this process. And Boo, for all the sacrifices and trying to understand.
Lastly, I would like to thank Lance van Sittert, without whose inspiration and mentorship this journey would never have taken place.
List of Acronyms
CCJPZ
Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace in Zimbabwe
CFU
Commercial Farmers Union of Zimbabwe
CIO
Central Intelligence Organisation
COHRE
Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions
CZC
Crisis in Zimbabwe Collation
ESAP
Economic Structural Adjustment Programme
EU
European Union
GAPWUZ
General Agricultural and Plantation Workers Union of Zimbabwe
ICG
International Crisis Group
IMF
International Monetary Fund
IPFP
Inception Phase Framework Plan
JAG
Justice for Agriculture
MDC
Movement for Democratic Change
MFP Trust
Modern Farming Publications Trust
MFU
Matabeleland Farmers Union
NCA
National Constitutional Assembly
NCC
National Constitutional Commission
NLHA
Native Land Husbandry Act
RAU
Research and Advocacy Unit
RF
Rhodesian Front
RNFU
Rhodesian National Farmers Union
RTA
Rhodesian Tobacco Association
SI6
Statutory Instrument 6
TRC
Truth and Reconciliation Commission
UDI
Unilateral Declaration of Independence
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
WB
World Bank
ZANLA
Zimbabwe National Liberation Army
ZANU
Zimbabwe African National Union
ZANU-PF
Zimbabwe African National Union -Patriotic Front
ZAPU
Zimbabwe African People s Union
ZCTU
Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions
ZIPRA
Zimbabwe People s Revolutionary Army
ZJRI
Zimbabwe Joint Resettlement Initiative
ZNLWVA
Zimbabwe National Liberation War Veterans Association
ZTA
Zimbabwe Tobacco Assocation
List of Tables and Map
1.1 The number of registered commercial farms by CFU administrative province in 2000
1.2 Number of farms and acreage cultivated in Rhodesia, 1904-1922
2.1 Number of farm invasions per province in Zimbabwe
3.1 Tag lines of The Farmer , 1942-1982
3.2 Editors of The Farmer , 1966-2002
Map of Zimbabwe
List of Appendices
1
The organisational structure and past presidents of the CFU
2
Land use on large commercial farms, 1970-99
3
Summary of major crop sales in Z millions, 1970-99
4
The number and total area of large-scale farms, 1970-99
5
White farmers killed in 1964-79, 1981-87, and 2000-04
6
Date of purchase of properties in the 1997 acquisition list
7
Biographical data on white farmers interviewed
A Note on Currency
Throughout this book I have used the original currencies quoted in sources and documents referenced. Before independence these were generally Pounds Sterling ( ) and Rhodesian Dollars (R$). After independence the currency was converted to Zimbabwean Dollars (Z$). For ease of comparison I have supplied a US equivalent, using contemporary conversion rates.
Foreword
One of the most difficult challenges confronting post-colonial societies in southern Africa which had a resident white population is how to redress the inequalities of inherited land ownership and distribution. Consequently, the governments of Zimbabwe, Namibia and post-apartheid South Africa have to confront challenges of how to resolve the land question in a situation where the black majority demands redress of colonial inequalities and a more equitable racial distribution of land.
With respect to Zimbabwe, in particular, much has been written on the land question by a wide range of scholars including Robin Palmer, Henry Moyana, Sam Moyo, Jocelyn Alexander and Ian Phimister. Such studies have focused, inter alia, on the history of colonial land alienation, the racialisation of land under various colonial laws, including the Land Apportionment Act of 1931 and the Native Land Husbandry Act (NLHA) of 1951, the role of African land grievances in fuelling the armed liberation struggle of the 1960s and 1970s, the Lancaster House Constitution s role in the immediate post-colonial land reform process and the general inability of the post-colonial government to fully address the land question by the end of the twentieth century. The farm invasions from 2000 onwards and the political, social and economic impact of the chaotic fast-track land redistribution exercise have also been subjected to scholarly analysis. Until now, therefore, analyses have focused mainly on how colonial land policies have impacted on the African population, and the African people s responses. What has been conspicuously absent is the voice of white farmers themselves, presenting their perceptions of the history of the country and the land question and their views on either the necessity, desirability or the modalities of land redistribution. In fact, until now, there has been no serious study of how white farmers articulated their perceptions of their role in and attitudes to these and other national matters. This is rather surprising given the fact that white farmers have always been at the centre of the controversies surrounding the land question in Zimbabwe.
As a keen student of Zimbabwean history and an occasional contributor to scholarly debates on the country s recent past, I am particularly excited by the publication of Rory Pilossof s book. It breaks new ground and makes an invaluable contribution to scholarship on Zimbabwe in general and studies of Zimbabwe s agrarian history in particular. It provides the important missing piece to the puzzle of the history of the land question by examining how white farmers perceptions and representations reflect their attitudes to land, land reforms and the country s history, while also providing insights into the role white farmers themselves have had in the events that have unfolded . It is vital for this voice to be heard, for as the author rightly observes, there can be no full understanding of or solution to the country s land problem without an appreciation of the role white farmers have played and what their perceptions have been.
Pilossof captures the voices of this critical segment of the community extremely well. Always grounded in the social, economic and political realities of the group under study and the country at large, The Unbearable Whiteness of Being traces and analyses the ebb and flow of white farming discourses from the 1970s to 2004 and demonstrates that, while there were many and sometimes competing views on these and other issues and while white farmers did not always speak with one voice, there was, nevertheless, a coherent language employed to talk about events and experiences in Zimbabwe and Rhodesia ; a language that suggests a distinct sense of identity and view of the country and makes for a more sophisticated understanding of the white farmer s role in its unfolding history.
This book is essential reading for anyone interested in understanding not only the complexity of the Zimbabwean land question but also how identities and notions of citizenship are shaped, contested and deployed in a post-colonial setting. Although Pilossof focuses on Zimbabwe, he speaks to a much wider readership than those interested in this country alone. His findings and insights are relevant to southern Africa as a whole, particularly to those countries where the racialisation of land in the colonial or apartheid period has raised similar challenges after the political transition. There too, an understanding of the white discourses on land and related issues may be crucial in appreciating the dynamics at work and in the quest to find a solution to the vexed land question.
A.S. Mlambo
Professor of History
University of Pretoria
South Africa
Map of Zimbabwe
Introduction
Why the Voices of White Farmers?
If Karenin had been a person instead of a dog, he would surely have long since said to Tereza, Look, I m sick and tired of carrying that roll around in my mouth every day. Can t you come up with something different? And therein lies the whole of man s plight. Human time does not turn in a circle; it runs ahead in a straight line. That is why man cannot be happy: happiness is the longing for repetition.
Yes, happiness is the longing for repetition, Tereza said to herself.
- Milan Kundera. 1
We call them gooks .
- Farmer 3. 2
In 2006, after having been out of the country for a while, I returned to Zimbabwe and took up employment with the Research and Advocacy Unit (RAU), who assisted various organisations and civic bodies with research they were undertaking in Zimbabwe. The first (and last) project I was contracted to assist with was interviewing white farmers about their experiences since 2000 with the commercial farming lobby group, Justice for Agriculture (JAG). That project sought to document the abuses suffered by (white) commercial farmers and the losses they had incurred as a result of the state-sponsored land occupations that began after the Constitutional Referendum in February 2000. It was while working on this project that I became interested in the history and evolution of the white farming community in Zimbabwe. Working alongside and conducting interviews with evicted white farmers gave me direct and unadulterated insights into what they had undergone, as well as first-hand experience of their responses to what had transpired.
Alongside the very visible emotional and psychological scars of the land occupations and evictions, many of the farmers I interviewed related their experiences in what I initially found to be remarkable ways. 3 They described the people who moved onto their farms, and the events that followed, in language and terminology reminiscent of the Liberation War, which had ended over 20 years earlier. As the epigraph to this introduction attests, the use of such words as gook , terr and mujiba were commonplace, all highly loaded and negative terms that came into prominence within the white farming community during the war. ( Terr is/was shorthand for terrorist; gook was adopted to describe black guerrillas after US veterans who had served in Vietnam joined the Rhodesian forces as mercenaries; and mujiba was the Shona word for young boys who acted as informants and messengers for the guerrilla forces.)
Such language and reaction made me question why this response was so widespread, and the ease with which the discourse of the Liberation War was so easily resuscitated. One of the farmers I interviewed mentioned that his son had recently completed a thesis on white farmers and their interactions with the state. This was Angus Selby s Commercial Farmers and the State: Interest Group Politics and Land Reform in Zimbabwe . 4 He lent me his copy, which, because of its broad historical overview of white farmers, proved invaluable reading. However, about language and discourse of white farmers after 2000, Selby had very little to say. His only comment was, Like ZANU-PF s reversion to liberation war rhetoric many older farmers resorted to terminology from that era, referring to invaders as gooks and younger invaders as mujibas . 5 No explanation was given as to why this was the case. This book is an attempt to provide answers to the clear and obvious echoes of past discourses in the white farming community. It seeks to explore the voice (or voices) of white farmers in Zimbabwe in order to establish a deeper understanding of their attitudes not only towards events of the very recent past (2000 and after), but also of the longer trajectory of Zimbabwe (and Rhodesia s) history.
Throughout Zimbabwe s tortured past, land has been one of the categorical focal points for control, mobilisation, resistance and nation building, evidenced in both its colonial and post-colonial manifestations. As a result, the country s white farmers, on and around whom so much of the countryside s formative legislation and development has hinged, have not only received a great deal of attention from politicians, writers, journalists and intellectuals, but have also played a dynamic role in cataloguing and representing their own affairs. The dramatic events in Zimbabwe s countryside since 2000 once again brought Zimbabwe s white farmers into the spotlight. The wholesale destruction of the white farming community by forces aligned to the incumbent ZANU-PF, made white farmers headline news within Zimbabwe, across the region and around the world. Countless articles, reports, opinion pieces and letters flowed forth from the world s media and print machines, all of which have created an immense archive on white farmers and the tribulations they have undergone as a result of the controversial fast-track land reforms.
Despite the volume of this attention, there has been a remarkable lack of critical engagement with the voices of white farmers, and how they have framed the events that have transpired. The descriptions, explanations and narration of events as supplied by evicted white farmers have typically been appropriated and reproduced with no investigation into the problems and language of these narratives. As a result, white farmers have been predominantly framed as innocent victims of the violent actions sanctioned by Mugabe and his ZANU-PF since 2000. The troubled history of commercial farming in Rhodesia and Zimbabwe, and the role of white farmers and landowners, have been overshadowed by the nature, scale and speed of the fast-track land reforms.
Taking stock of the complicated history and place of white farmers in Zimbabwe/Rhodesia neither negates nor belittles their experiences. The trauma they have been through is well documented and bears such a graphic and horrific representation that only the most obtuse would try to deny its significance. What I am suggesting is that the way white farmers have talked, and continue to talk, about the land reforms and their evictions, demands a great deal of scrutiny because it contains much more than a mere description of confusing and chaotic events. The language and description used so often has a very real and deep connection to pre-independence tropes of land, belonging and race. In addition, much of the evidence used to justify place and history, relies on highly problematic readings of the past. An investigation of this discourse not only offers insights into the white farming community s stances on the land, land reforms and the country s history, but also offers the opportunity to examine the role white farmers themselves have had in the events that have unfolded - a process that is crucial if the land issue is ever to be resolved, legally or otherwise, in Zimbabwe.
It must be acknowledged that a singular and cohesive white rural identity (or voice) does not exist. As Anthony Chennells has commented, In Zimbabwe, where a short twenty-four years has reduced an arrogant and politically all-powerful white elite to an anxious and embattled minority, the idea of a stable white-colonial identity is untenable. 6 This is not just because of rural/urban divides, or generational differences in the white populations. Rather, the complex nature of the country s white population, fused with the post-colonial reshaping of national, economic and social spheres means that within the white population there exists (and has existed) a wide range of beliefs and ideas, informed by a number of circumstances. More recently, with specific focus on the country s white farmers, Selby has made similar remarks. He argued that the white farmers, as a community, as an interest group, and as an economic sector, were always divided by their backgrounds, their geographical regions, their land uses and crop types. They were also divided by evolving planes of difference, such as affluence, political ideologies and farm structures . 7 Thus any stereotypical portrayal of them conforming to a single identity is bound to be fraught with inaccuracies. Both Chennells and Selby have demonstrated the importance of disaggregating the white farming community so as to avoid treating them as a homogenous, monolithic whole.
Despite the complex and disparate nature of processes of identification , and the divisions in the white farming community, there are continuities and points of connection in the way experience has been related and talked about. 8 The interviews and interactions I had with farmers while at JAG confirmed this, as do so many of the reactions by white farmers to the fast-track land reforms recorded elsewhere. What this book will illustrate is that this convergence of discourse and opinion has been true for the white farming community throughout the history of Zimbabwe/Rhodesia, and has been more evident in recent times of trauma and violence. In order to highlight these convergences, the three events focused on are the Liberation War; the years of violence in Matabeleland and the Midlands in the 1980s, or Gukurahundi; and the land occupations after 2000. Following the evolution of white farming discourse and identity since around 1970 offers the opportunity to garner a deeper understanding of how white farmers and their representative bodies have engaged with the country and the political changes that have taken place, all of which serves to supply the necessary depth and understanding to fully appreciate the reactions white farmers have had to events since 2000. In addition, it helps explain why some of the events in the rural landscape unfolded the way they did. Understanding white farming interactions with government, politics, land reforms and land occupations helps illuminate the impact white farmers and their organisations have had on the land question in Zimbabwe.
A range of sources are used to give insight into white farming voice: The Farmer magazine; autobiographies written by white farmers; and oral testimonies of white farmers. Read together, these provide a means to trace and track the changes (and continuities) in the discourses employed. It must be noted immediately that there is a strong Mashonaland bias to these sources. The Farmer was run and produced out of the Commercial Farmers Union of Zimbabwe (CFU) offices in Harare and all of the autobiographies looked at have been written by white farmers from the Mashonaland Provinces (West, Central and East) and one from Masvingo Province. The JAG collection of oral testimonies largely represent the experiences of white farmers from Mashonaland, Masvingo, Manicaland and the Midlands. JAG, whose central offices are in Harare, had hoped to carry out interviews with white farmers from Matabeleland but the difficult political situation and research climate, plus the lack of funding, prevented this from taking place. Where possible, efforts have been made to include the voices of white farmers from Matabeleland. However, it must be remembered that the vast majority of white farmers operated in the Mashonaland provinces. Table 1.1 (overleaf) shows the numbers of registered commercial farms by the administrative provinces of the CFU in the year 2000. (For administration purposes, the CFU divided the province of Mashonaland West into two units as it was too large otherwise.)
Only 13 per cent of commercial farms were in Matabeleland and over 60 per cent were in the Mashonaland Provinces. While this is not an excuse for ignoring the voice of white farmers from Matabeleland, it does reveal that this sector of the community was relatively small and would probably not dramatically alter the presentation of voice laid out here.
It must also be acknowledged that the sources and records I have used, despite their bias and inadequacies, are ones that were available to me at the time I began this project. Undertaking academic research in Zimbabwe is not without its challenges, particularly when it concerns such a sensitive topic. The political climate was extremely tense in Zimbabwe when I started my doctoral research and this had a negative impact on the availability of material. The most notable example was that the CFU denied me access to their archives, which I suspect was largely due to the political undercurrents at the time. The only documentation they gave me access to was their collection of The Farmer magazine. Compounding this problem of sensitivity was the reality that so many of the other public archives in Zimbabwe (such as the National Archives of Zimbabwe and the Central Statistics Office) were in such disrepair and disorder that doing any detailed research was inconceivable. 10
Table 1.1 The Number of Registered Commercial Farms by CFU Administrative Province in 2000 9
CFU Administrative Province
Total number of Farms in Province
Percentage of Farms in the Country
Mashonaland East
1064
19.5
Mashonaland Central
871
16
Mashonaland West (South)
428
7.9
Mashonaland West (North)
975
17.9
Masvingo
350
6.4
Midlands
426
7.8
Manicaland
555
10.2
Matabeleland
719
13.2
Other (Harare, Bulawayo)
58
1.1
TOTAL
5446
100
In order to do this project I had to rely on resources that were either outside of these archives (such as The Farmer magazine, the autobiographies of white farmers and sources in South Africa and the United Kingdom) or ones that were created and collected by other organisations (such as the interviews by JAG). Each of the sources I have chosen to use has its own distinct character and ties into different traditions or practices specific to that particular mode of voice. This has fundamentally informed how this book is constructed. I have devoted a chapter (or two in the case of The Farmer ) to each of my key sources, in the hope this will show how influential that particular expression of voice was, how it relates to the other voices examined, and how they have developed in conjunction with each other. As such, each chapter adds another layer to the analysis of white farming voice and its development and evolution. Since each chapter and form of voice it carries needs such detailed discussion, the book does not follow a chronological order. Rather each chapter discusses a theme and relates it to the discussions that have already been introduced.
While the book is primarily focused on the voices and experiences of white farmers in Zimbabwe, the findings and conclusions have wider historiographical and conceptual implications. Firstly, this study adds significantly to growing historical understandings of the complexities involved in the transitions from colonial to independent societies in Africa, and in doing so expands on Frederick Cooper s observations about the ambiguities of independence , and Brian Raftopoulos and Alois Mlambo s explorations of becoming a nation. 11 With its focus on the end of the colonial project and the post-colonial experience, the book is primarily concerned with the survival tactics of disempowered elites or the remnants of empire. Many of the assessments of their decisions and actions may thus be useful to those who study similar moments and transitions in other settings.
The construction of identities is another area where the arguments presented in the following chapters connect to wider scholarship. The sources used, in particular The Farmer magazine and the memoirs of white farmers, reveal a great deal about how the process of identification played out in Zimbabwe. The readings and methods employed here can easily be transposed to other settings. This book also connects to the developing field of diaspora studies.

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