A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act

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This book presents a detailed and practical explanation of the law of Civil Procedure in Kenya. It discusses the principles of Civil procedure Law in a practical setting. The intricate points of law have been illustrated by examples, and in the introduction the subject has been dealt with by topics rather than in the strict order of sections in the Act and Rules. This has been done to avoid cross-referencing to enable users to adequately grasp the doctrinal aspects of the subject.

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Date de parution 29 décembre 2013
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EAN13 9789966031877
Langue English

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A COMMENTARY ON THE
CIVIL PROCEDURE ACT CAP
21
Second EditionA COMMENTARY ON THE
CIVIL PROCEDURE ACT CAP
21
Second Edition
Steve OumaPublished by:
LawAfrica Publishing (K) Ltd.
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nd© Steve Ouma 2 Edition 2013; LawAfrica
© Steve Ouma 2010; LawAfrica
ISBN 9966-1532-2-7
Copyright subsists in this work. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means, or stored in a retrieval
system of any nature without the prior publisher’s written permission. Any unauthorized reproduction of this work will constitute a
copyright infringement and render the doer liable under both criminal and civil law.
Application for permission for use of copyright material including permission to reproduce extracts in other published works shall be
made to the publishers. Full acknowledgement of the author, publisher and source must be given.
Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information published in this work is accurate, the author, the editors, publishers
and printers take no responsibility for any loss or damage suffered by any person as a result of reliance upon the information contained
herein.TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Dedication ....................................................................................................... xxvii
Preface to the Second Edition ......................................................................... xxix
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................... xxxi
Table of Cases ............................. xxxiii
1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................. 1
1.1 Adversarial Procedure ............................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Bilaterality .................................................................................... 4
1.1.2 Party Prosecution ......................................................................... 4
1.1.3 Party Presentation ........................................................................ 4
1.1.4 Lawyers ........................................................................................ 5
1.1.5 The Role of the Court................................................................. 5
1.1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Adversarial
System ......................................................................................... 6
1.2 The Continental System ............................................................................. 6
1.2.1 Lawyers 6
1.2.2 Judges .......................................................................................... 6
1.2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Continental 7
2.0 Civil and Criminal Proceedings ................................................................ 7
2.1 Civil Procedure......................................................................................... 8
2.2 The Civil Procedure Act Cap. 21 .............................................................. 9
2.3 Recognized Agents and Advocates ............................................................ 10
2.4 Appraisal ................................................................................................... 11
3.0 Sources of Civil Procedure Law 12
3.1 The Constitution of Kenya 2010 ............................................................... 12
3.2 The Civil Procedure Act Cap 21 12
3.3 The Civil Procedure Rules ....................................................................... 13
4.0 Lacunae in the Act and Rules.................................................................... 13
5.0 Doctrines of Civil Procedure 14
5.1 Justiciability .............................................................................................. 14
5.2 Jurisdiction ............................................................................................... 15
5.2.1 The Supreme Court ..................................................................... 16
5.2.2 The Court of Appeal 16
5.2.3 The High Court .......................................................................... 16
5.2.4 Jurisdictional Authority ................................................................ 17
5.2.5 Inherent Jurisdiction..................................................................... 18 Steve Ouma
vi A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
5.2.5.1 To meet the ends of justice ............................................... 19
5.2.5.2 To prevent the abuse of the process
of the court ...................................................................... 19
5.2.5.3 Limitations to the exercise of inherent
powers ............................................................................. 20
5.3 Audi Alteram Partem ................................................................................ 21
5.4 Cause of Action ........................................................................................ 22
6.0 Terminology ............................................................................................. 23
6.1 The Demand Letter .................................................................................. 23
6.2 Pleadings .................................................................................................. 24
6.3 Service of Process ..................................................................................... 24
6.4 Trial ......................................................................................................... 25
6.5 Parties ....................................................................................................... 26
6.6 Judgment 26
6.7 Appeal ...................................................................................................... 26
6.8 An Appellate Court .................................................................................. 26
7.0 Post-judgment Remedies .......................................................................... 26
7. 1 Monetary Damages ................................................................................... 26
7.2 Equitable Relief ........................................................................................ 27
7.3 Declaratory Judgment ............................................................................... 28
PART 1- PRELIMINARY ..................................................................................... 29
PART II – SUITS IN GENERAL ......................................................................... 36
Jurisdiction of Courts ................................................................................... 36
Place of Suing .............................................................................................. 43
Judgment and Decree 52
Interest ......................................................................................................... 52
Costs ............................................................................................................ 53
PART III – EXECUTION ................................................................................... 54
General ........................................................................................................ 54
Courts by which Decrees may be Executed .................................................. 55
Questions to be Determined by Court Executing Decree ............................. 57
Procedure in Execution ................................................................................ 59
Attachment .................................................................................................. 63
Sale .............................................................................................................. 67
Distribution of Assets .................................................................................... 68
Resistance to Execution ............................................................................... 69Steve Ouma
Table of Contents vii
PART IV - INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS ............................................................. 69
Commissions ................................................................................................ 69
PART V - SUITS IN PARTICULAR CASES ........................................................... 71
Suits by Aliens and by or against Foreign Rulers ........................................... 71
Interpleader .................................................................................................. 71
PART VI - SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS.................................................................... 72
Arbitration ................................................................................................... 72
Special Case ................................................................................................. 72
Suits Relating to Public Matters ................................................................... 72
PART VII - SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS ....................................................... 74
PART VIII - APPEALS TO THE HIGH COURT AND
COURT OF APPEAL .................................................................................... 76
Appeals from Original Decrees ..................................................................... 76om Appellate Decrees of a Subordinate Court ............................... 78
Appeals from ees of the High Court ....................................... 78om Orders .................................................................................... 80
General Provisions Relating to Appeals ......................................................... 81
PART IX – REVIEW ......................................................................................... 84
PART X – RULES ............................................................................................ 84
PART XI -MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS........................................................... 85
THE CIVIL PROCEDURE ACT, CHAPTER 21 ...................................................... 95
THE CIVIL PROCEDURE RULES, 2010 .............................................................. 95
ORDER 1 PARTIES TO SUIT ............................................................................ 95
Rule 1—Who may be joined as plaintiffs ..................................................... 95
Rule 2—Power of court to order separate trial ............................................. 98
Rule 3—Who may be joined as defendants .................................................. 98
Rule 4—Court may give judgment for or against one or
more of joint parties ................................................................................. 99
Rule 5—Defendant need not be interested in all relief claimed ..................... 100
Rule 6—Joinder of parties liable on same contract ........................................ 100
Rule 7—When plaintiff in doubt from whom redress to be sought ............... 101
Rule 8—One person may sue or defend on behalf of all in same interest ...... 101 Steve Ouma
viii A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 9—Mis-joinder and Non-joinder ........................................................ 103
Rule 10—Substitution and addition of parties .............................................. 104
Rule 11—Government proceedings ............................................................. 107
Rule 12—Conduct of suit ............................................................................ 107
Rule 13—Appearance of one of several plaintiffs or defendants for others ..... 108
Rule 14—Practice ........................................................................................ 109
Rule 15—Notice to third and subsequent parties ......................................... 109
Rule 16—Notice to Government as third party ............................................ 110
Rule 17—Default of appearance by third party ............................................. 111
Rule 18—Defy Government as third party .................... 111
Rule 19—Judgment against third party in default ......................................... 111
Rule 20—No judgment against Government without leave of the court ...... 111
Rule 21—Judgment after trial against third party in default .......................... 111
Rule 22—Appearance of third party and directions ...................................... 112
Rule 23—Costs ........................................................................................... 112
Rule 24—Defendant claiming against a co-defendant ................................... 112
Rule 25—Procedure .................................................................................... 112
ORDER 2 PLEADINGS GENERALLY .................................................................... 115
Rule 1—Pleadings in Proceedings against the Government .......................... 116
Rule 2—Formal requirements ...................................................................... 116
Rule 3—Facts not evidence to be pleaded .................................................... 117
Rule 4—Matters which must be specifi cally pleaded (Particularized) ............ 119
Rule 5—Matter may be pleaded whenever arising ........................................ 122
Rule 6—Departure ................................................................................. 122; 123
Rule 7—Particulars in defamation actions 124
Rule 8—Particulars of evidence in mitigation............................................... 124
Rule 9—Points of law .................................................................................. 125
Rule 10—Particulars of pleading .................................................................. 126
Rule 11—Admissions and denials ................................................................. 127
Rule 12—Denial of joinder of issue ............................................................. 128
Rule 13—Close of pleadings ........................................................................ 128
Rule 14—Technical objection ...................................................................... 128
Rule 15—Striking out pleadings 129
Rule 16—Pleading to be signed ................................................................... 132
Rule 17—Proceedings in rem. Cap. 40 ......................................................... 132
ORDER 3 FRAME AND INSTITUTION OF SUIT ................................................... 133
Rule 1—Commencement of suit and case track allocation ........................... 133Steve Ouma
Table of Contents ix
Rule 2—Documents to accompany suit ....................................................... 135
Rule 3—Register of civil suits and fi ling ...................................................... 136
Rule 4—Suit to include the whole of claim ................................................. 137
Rule 5—Joinder of causes of action .............................................................. 138
Rule 6—Only certain claim to be joined for recovery
of immovable property .............................................................................. 139
Rule 7—Claims by or against executor, administrator or heir ........................ 140
Rule 8—Power of court to order separate trials ............................................ 140
Rule 9—Declaratory judgment .................................................................... 141
ORDER 4 PLAINT ............................................................................................ 143
Rule 1—Particulars to be contained in the plaint ......................................... 143
Rule 2—Money suits ................................................................................... 145
Rule 4—Capacity of parties ......................................................................... 146
Rule 5—Defendant’s interest and liability to be shown ................................. 146
Rule 6—Statement of relief claimed ............................................................. 147
Rule 7—Relief founded on separate grounds ............................................... 148
Rule 8—Copies of plaint ............................................................................. 148
Rule 9—Return of plaint............................................................................. 148
ORDER 5 ISSUE AND SERVICE OF SUMMONS .................................................... 151
Rule 1—Issue of Summons .......................................................................... 151
Rule 2—Duration and renewal of summons ................................................. 152
Rule 3—Service on a corporation ................................................................ 153
Rule 4—Concurrent summons .................................................................... 153
Rule 5—Delivery or transmission of summons for service ............................ 154
Rule 6-8—Service on several defendants ...................................................... 155
Rule 9A—Mode of service on the Government ........................................... 156
Rule 10—Service on agent by whom defendant carries on business ............. 157
Rule 11-12—Service on agent in charge in suits for immovable
property .................................................................................................... 157
Rule 13—Person served to sign acknowledgment ......................................... 158
Rule 14—Procedure when defendant refuses to accept
service or cannot be found ........................................................................ 159
Rule 15—Affi davit of service ....................................................................... 160
Rule 16—Examination of serving offi cer ..................................................... 160
Rule 17—Substituted service 159
Rule 18—Service on defendant in prison 160
Rule 19—Service on public offi cers and soldiers .......................................... 160
Rule 20—Duty on person to whom the summons is sent ............................. 161 Steve Ouma
x A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 21—Service out of Kenya summons or notices .................................... 161
Rule 29—Service of Foreign Legal Process in Kenya 162
ORDER 6 APPEARANCE OF PARTIES ................................................................. 165
Rule 1—Time for appearance ...................................................................... 165
Rule 2—Mode of appearance....................................................................... 165
Rule 3—Defendant’s address for service ....................................................... 165
Rule 4—Memorandum irregular, address fi ctitious ....................................... 166
Rule 5—Defendants appearing by same advocate ......................................... 166
Rule 6—Delivery of documents to address for service .................................. 166
ORDER 7 DEFENCE AND COUNTERCLAIM ........................................................ 169
Rule 1—Defence ......................................................................................... 169
Rule 2—Defence of tender .......................................................................... 170
Rule 3—Set-off and counterclaim ................................................................ 170
Rule 4—Set-off or counterclaim in proceedings by Government .................. 172
Rule 5-7—Documents to accompany defence or counterclaim .................... 172
Rule 8—Pleading a counterclaim ................................................................. 173
Rule 9—Title of counterclaim ..................................................................... 173
Rule 10—Claim against person not party ..................................................... 173
Rule 11—Reply to counterclaim 173
Rule 12—Exclusion of counterclaim ............................................................ 174
Rule 14— Judgment for balance .................................................................. 174
Rule 16— New ground of defence .............................................................. 175
Rule 17—Subsequent pleadings ................................................................... 175
Rule 18— Filing subsequent pleadings ......................................................... 176
Rule 19—Register of documents ................................................................. 177
ORDER 8 AMENDMENT OF PLEADINGS ............................................................. 179
Rule 1—Amendment of pleading without leave ........................................... 180
Rule 2—Application for disallowance of amendment ................................... 182
Rule 3—Amendment of pleading with leave ................................................ 182
Rule 4—Amendment of originating process ................................................. 184
Rule 5—General power to amend ................................................................ 184
Rule 6—Failure to amend after order ........................................................... 190
Rule 7—Mode of amendment ..................................................................... 190
ORDER 9 RECOGNIZED AGENTS AND ADVOCATES ............................................ 191
Rule 1—Appearances etc. may be in person, by recognized agent or
by advocate ............................................................................................... 191Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xi
Rule 2—Recognized agents ......................................................................... 192
Rule 3—Service of process on recognized agent ........................................... 193
Rule 4—Agent to accept service .................................................................. 193
Rule 5—Change of advocate ....................................................................... 193
Rule 6—Service of notice of change of advocate .......................................... 194
Rule 7—Notice of appointment of advocate ................................................ 194
Rule 8—Notice of intention to act in person ............................................... 194
Rule 9—Change to be effected by order of court or consent of parties ......... 195
Rule 10—Procedure .................................................................................... 195
Rule 11—Power to act in person or through new advocate .......................... 195
Rule 12—Removal of advocate from record at instance of another party ...... 196
Rule 13—Withdrawal of advocate who has ceased to act for a party ............. 197
ORDER 10 CONSEQUENCE OF NON-APPEARANCE, DEFAULT OF DEFENCE
AND FAILURE TO SERVE ............................................................................ 199
Rule 1—Suits against infants and persons of unsound mind .......................... 199
Rule 2—Affi davit of Service upon non-appearance ...................................... 199
Rule 3—Failure to serve .............................................................................. 199
Rule 4—Judgment upon a liquidated demand .............................................. 200
Rule 5—Liquidated demand against several defendants ................................. 200
Rule 6—Interlocutory Judgment .................................................................. 201
Rule 7—Interlocutory judgment where several defendants ........................... 201
Rule 8—Judgment in default against the Government .................................. 201
Rule 9—General rule where no appearance entered ..................................... 202
Rule 10—Default of defence ....................................................................... 202
Rule 11—Setting aside judgment ................................................................. 202
ORDER 11 PRE-TRIAL DIRECTIONS AND CONFERENCES .................................. 205
Rule 1—Application .................................................................................... 205
Rule 2—Pre-trial questionnaire .................................................................... 205
Rule 3—Case conference ............................................................................. 207
Rule 4—Case conference order 209
Rule 5—Settlement conference 211
Rule 6—Trial conference questionnaire ....................................................... 213
Rule 7—Trence 214
Rule 8—Trial conference order 215
ORDER 12 HEARING AND CONSEQUENCE OF NON-ATTENDANCe ..................... 217
Rule 1—When neither party attends ............................................................ 217
Rule 2—When only plaintiff attends 217 Steve Ouma
xii A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 4—When only some of plaintiffs attend ............................................... 217
Rule 5—When only some of defendants attend............................................ 217
Rule 6— Effect of dismissal .......................................................................... 218
ORDER 13 ADMISSIONS .................................................................................... 223
Rule 1—Notice of admission of case ............................................................ 223
Rule 2—Judgment on admissions ................................................................. 223
ORDER 14 PRODUCTION, IMPOUNDING AND RETURN OF DOCUMENTS ............ 227
Rule 1—Endorsements on documents admitted in evidence ........................ 227
Rule 2—Endorsements on copies of admitted entries in books, accounts,
and records ............................................................................................... 228
Rule 3—Record of admitted and return of rejected documents .................... 229
Rule 4—Court may order any document to be impounded ......................... 229
Rule 5—Return of admitted documents ...................................................... 230
Rule 6—Court may send for records of its own or of other court ................. 230
Rule 7—Provisions as to documents applied to material objects ................... 230
ORDER 15 ISSUES ............................................................................................ 233
Rule 1—Framing of issues ........................................................................... 233
Rule 2—Materials from which issues may be framed .................................... 235
ORDER 16 SUMMONING AND ATTENDANCE OF WITNESSES ............................... 237
Rule 1—Summons to attend to give evidence or produce documents .......... 237
Rule 2—Expenses of witnesses to be paid into court on applying
for summons ............................................................................................. 237
Rule 3—Tender of expenses or notifi cation of sum lodged ........................... 237
Rule 4—Procedure where insuffi cient sum paid in ....................................... 237
Rule 5—Time, place, and purpose of attendance to be specifi ed in
summons .................................................................................................. 237
Rule 6—Summons to produce documents ................................................... 237
Rule 7—Power to require persons present in court to give evidence or
produce document .................................................................................... 237
Rule 8—Summons, how served ................................................................... 238
Rule 9—Time for serving summons ............................................................ 238
Rule 10—Procedure where witness fails to comply with summons ............... 238
Rule 11—If witness appears, attachment may be withdrawn ......................... 238
Rule 12—Procedure if witness fails to appear ............................................... 238
Rule 13—Mode of attachment ..................................................................... 238
Rule 14— .................................................................................................... 238
Rule 15— 239Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xiii
Rule 16— .................................................................................................... 239
Rule 17— 239
Rule 18— 239
Rule 19— 239
ORDER 17 PROSECUTION OF SUITS ................................................................. 245
Rule 1—Hearing to be from day-to-day ...................................................... 245
Rule 2—Notice to show cause why suit should not be dismissed .................. 245
Rule 3—Procedure if parties fail to appear on day fi xed................................ 245
Rule 4—Court may proceed notwithstanding either
party failing to produce evidence .............................................................. 245
ORDER 18 HEARING OF SUITS AND EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES ................... 257
Rule 1—Right to begin ............................................................................... 257
Rule 2—Statement and production of evidence ........................................... 257
Rule 3—Witnesses to be examined in open court ........................................ 257
Rule 4—How evidence is to be recorded ..................................................... 257
Rule 5—Any particular question and answer may be taken down ................. 257
Rule 6—Questions objected to and allowed by court ................................... 257
Rule 7—Remarks on demeanour of witness ................................................ 257
Rule 8—Power to deal with evidence taken before another judge ................ 257
Rule 9—Power to examine witness immediately .......................................... 258
Rule 10—Court may recall and examine witness 258
Rule 11—Power of court to inspect ............................................................. 258
ORDER 19 AFFIDAVITS ..................................................................................... 261
Rule 1—Power to order any point to be proved by affi davit ......................... 261
Rule 2—Powder attendance of deponent for cross-examination ........ 261
Rule 3—Matters to which affi davits shall be confi ned .................................. 261
Rule 4—Deponent’s particulars .................................................................... 261
Rule 5—Manner of drawing affi davit ........................................................... 261
Rule 6—Striking out matter ........................................................................ 261
Rule 7—Irregularity in form of affi davit ...................................................... 261
Rule 8—Affi davit sworn before suit fi led ..................................................... 261
Rule 9—Procedure ...................................................................................... 261
ORDER 20 APPLICATION FOR AN ACCOUNT ..................................................... 269
Rule 1—Order for accounts ......................................................................... 269
Rule 2—Order for accounts on counterclaim ............................................... 269
Rule 3—Procedure 269 Steve Ouma
xiv A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 4—Orders by the court ....................................................................... 269
ORDER 21 JUDGMENT AND DECREE ................................................................ 271
Rule 1—Judgment when pronounced .......................................................... 271
Rule 2—Power to pronounce judgment written by another judge ................ 271
Rule 3—Judgment to be signed ................................................................... 271
Rule 4—Contents of judgment .................................................................... 271
Rule 5—Court to state its decision on each issue ......................................... 271
Rule 6—Judgment affecting registered title to land ....................................... 271
Rule 7—Contents of decree ......................................................................... 273
Rule 8—Preparation and dating of decrees and orders .................................. 273
Rule 9—Costs ............................................................................................. 274
Rule 10—Decree for recovery of immovable property ................................. 274
Rule 11—Decree for delivery of movable property ...................................... 274
Rule 12—Decree may direct payment by instalments ................................... 274
Rule 13—Decree for possession and mesne profi ts ....................................... 275
Rule 14 —Decree in administration suit ....................................................... 275
Rule 15 —Decree in suit for dissolution of partnership ................................ 275
Rule 16—Decree in suit for account between principal and agent ................ 276
Rule 17—Special directions as to accounts ................................................... 276
Rule 18—Decree in suit for partition of property or separate possession
of a share .................................................................................................. 276
Rule 19—Decree where set-off is allowed .................................................... 276
Rule 20—Certifi ed copies of judgment and decree to be furnished .............. 276
ORDER 22 EXECUTION OF DECREES AND ORDERS .......................................... 289
Rule 1—Modes of paying money under decree ............................................ 292
Rule 2—Payment out of court to decree-holder .......................................... 293
Rule 3—Lands situate in more than one jurisdiction .................................... 294
Rule 4—Procedure where court desires that its own
decree shall be executed by another court ................................................. 294
Rule 5—Court receiving copies of decree to fi le same without proof ........... 294
Rule 6—Application for execution............................................................... 295
Rule 7—Oral and written applications ......................................................... 295
Rule 8—Application for attachment of movable
property not in judgment debtor’s possession............................................. 296
Rule 9—Application for attachment of immovable
property to contain certain particulars ....................................................... 296
Rule 10—Power to require certifi ed extract from
Land Registries in certain cases ................................................................. 297Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xv
Rule 11—Application for execution by joint decree-holder .......................... 297
Rule 12—Application for exy transferee of decree ......................... 298
Rule 13—Procedure on receiving an application for execution of decree ...... 299
Rule 14—Execution in case of cross-decrees ................................................ 300
Rule 15—Exoss-claims under same decree ..................... 301
Rule 16—Cross-decrees and cross-claims in mortgage suits .......................... 301
Rule 17—Simultaneous execution ............................................................... 302
Rule 18 —Notice to show cause against execution in certain cases ............... 302
Rule 19 —Procedure after issue of notice ..................................................... 303
Rule 20—Process for execution ................................................................... 303
Rule 21—Endorsement of process 304
Rule 22—When court may stay execution ................................................... 304
Rule 23—Liability of judgment-debtor discharged ....................................... 306
Rule 24—Order of court which passed decree or of appellate court
to be binding upon court applied to .......................................................... 306
Rule 25—Stay of execution pending suit between decree-holder and
judgment-debtor....................................................................................... 306
Rule 26—Decree for payment of money ...................................................... 307
Rule 27—Decree for specifi c movable property ........................................... 307
Rule 28—Decr c performance, or for an injunction ................... 308
Rule 29—Decree for immovable property .................................................... 309
Rule 30—Decree for delivery of immovable property
when in occupancy of tenant .................................................................... 309
Rule 31—Discretionary power to permit judgment-debtor
to show cause against detention in prison .................................................. 310
Rule 32—Warrant for arrest to direct judgment-debtor to be brought up ..... 310
Rule 33—Subsistence allowance................................................................... 310
Rule 34—Proceedings on appearance of judgment-debtor
on obedience to notice or after arrest ........................................................ 311
Rule 35—Examination of judgment-debtor as to his property ...................... 312
Rule 36—Attachment in case of decree for rent, or mesne profi ts, or
other matter, amount of which to be subsequently determined .................. 312
Rule 37—Attachment of movable property other than agricultural
produce, in possession of judgment-debtor ................................................ 313
Rule 38—Attachment of agricultural produce .............................................. 313
Rule 39—Provisions as to agroduce under attachment ................. 314
Rule 40—Attachment of share and other property not in
possession of judgment-debtor .................................................................. 314
Rule 41—Attachment of share in movables .................................................. 315
Rule 42 —Attachment of salary or allowance ............................................... 315 Steve Ouma
xvi A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 43—Attachment of partnership property ............................................. 316
Rule 44—Execution of decree against fi rm .................................................. 317
Rule 45—Attachment of negotiable instrument ........................................... 318
Rule 46—Attachment of property in custody of court ................................. 318
Rule 47—Attachment of decree ................................................................... 318
Rule 48 —Attachment of immovable property ............................................. 319
Rule 49 —Removal of attachment after satisfaction of decree ....................... 320
Rule 50—Determination of attachment ....................................................... 320
Rule 51—Objection to attachment .............................................................. 321
Rule 52—Stay of execution ......................................................................... 321
Rule 53—Raising of attachment .................................................................. 321
Rule 54—Notice of intention to proceed ..................................................... 322
Rule 55—Power to order property attached to be sold
and proceeds to be paid to person entitled ................................................. 322
Rule 56—Sale, by whom conducted and how made ..................................... 322
Rule 57—Notifi cation of sale by public auction ........................................... 323
Rule 58—Time of sale ................................................................................. 323
Rule 59—Adjournment or stoppage of sale .................................................. 324
Rule 60—Defaulting purchaser answerable for loss on re-sale ....................... 324
Rule 61—Decree-holder not to bid for or buy property without permission 325
Rule 62—Restriction on bidding or purchase by offi cers ............................. 325
Rule 63—Negotiable instruments and shares in corporations ........................ 325
Rule 64 —Sale by public auction ................................................................. 326
Rule 65—Irregularity not to vitiate sale, but any person injured may sue ...... 326
Rule 66—Delivery of movable property, debts and shares ............................. 326
Rule 67—Vesting order in case of other property ......................................... 327
Rule 68 —Sale of immovable property ......................................................... 327
Rule 69—Deposit by purchaser and re-sale on default .................................. 327
Rule 70—Payment of purchase money 328
Rule 71—Procedure in default of payment ................................................... 328
Rule 72—Notifi cation on re-sale ................................................................. 328
Rule 73—Bid of co-sharer to have preference .............................................. 328
Rule 74—Application to set aside sale on deposit ......................................... 329
Rule 75—Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud...... 329
Rule 76—Application by purchaser to set aside sale on grounds of
judgment-debtor having nosaleable interest ............................................... 330
Rule 77—Sale, when to become absolute or be set aside .............................. 330
Rule 78—Return of purchase money in certain cases ................................... 330
Rule 79—Certifi cate to purchaser ................................................................ 331Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xvii
Rule 80—Delivery of property in occupancy of judgment-debtor ................ 331
Rule 81—Delivery of property in occupancy of tenant ................................ 331
Rule 82—Resistance or obstruction to possession of immovable property .... 332
Rule 83—Resistance or obstruction by judgment-debtor ............................. 332
Rule 84—Resistance or obstry bona fi de claimant ........................... 332
Rule 85—Rules not applicable to transfer lite pendente ............................... 332
Rule 86—Order conclusive subject to regular suit ........................................ 333
ORDER 23 ATTACHMENT OF DEBTS [GARNISHEE PROCEEDINGS] .................... 335
Rule 1—Order for the attachment of debts .................................................. 337
Rule 2—Attachment of deposits .................................................................. 340
Rule 3—Effect of garnishee order ................................................................ 340
Rule 4—Execution against garnishee ........................................................... 340
Rule 5 —Trial of liability of garnishee ......................................................... 341
Rule 6—Claim of third person ..................................................................... 341
Rule 7—Trial of claim of third person 342
Rule 8—Payment made by or execution on the garnishee
is a valid discharge..................................................................................... 342
Rule 9—Record of proceedings ................................................................... 342
Rule 10—Costs of pr.................................................................... 342
ORDER 24 DEATH AND BANKRUPTCY OF PARTIES .......................................... 343
Rule 1—No abatement by party’s death if right survives ............................... 343
Rule 2—Procedure where one of several plaintiffs or
defendants dies and right to sue survives .................................................... 344
Rule 3—Procedure in case of death of one of several
plaintiffs or of sole plaintiff ........................................................................ 344
Rule 4—Procedurveral defendants or
of sole defendant ....................................................................................... 345
Rule 5—Determination of question as to legal representative ....................... 346
Rule 6—When plaintiff ’s bankruptcy bars suit ............................................. 346
Rule 7—Effect of abatement or dismissal ...................................................... 347
Rule 8—Procedure in case of assignment before fi nal order in suit ............... 347
Rule 9—Application of Order to appeals 347
Rule 10 —Application of Order to execution of proceedings ....................... 347
ORDER 25 WITHDRAWAL, DISCOUNTNUANCE AND ADJUSTMENT OF SUITS ....... 349
Rule 1—Withdrawal by plaintiff .................................................................. 349
Rule 2 —Discontinuance ............................................................................. 349
Rule 3—Costs ............................................................................................. 349 Steve Ouma
xviii A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 4—Stay of subsequent suit ................................................................... 349
Rule 5—Compromise of a suit ..................................................................... 350
ORDER 26 SECURITY FOR COSTS .................................................................... 355
Rule 1—Security for costs ........................................................................... 355
Rule 2—Application before defence............................................................. 355
Rule 3—Where two or more defendants ...................................................... 355
Rule 4—Claims by non-resident plaintiff ..................................................... 355
Rule 5—Effect of failure to give security 355
Rule 6—Investment of security .................................................................... 355
ORDER 27 PAYMENT INTO COURT AND TENDER ............................................. 359
Rule 1—Payment into court ........................................................................ 359
Rule 2—Acceptance of payment .................................................................. 359
Rule 3—Money remaining in court ............................................................. 359
Rule 4—Payment into court where several defendants ................................. 360
Rule 5—Pat on a counterclaim ........................................... 360
Rule 6—Confi dentiality of payments into court 360
Rule 7—Register of payments to be kept ..................................................... 360
Rule 8 —Investment of payment .................................................................. 361
Rule 9—Money paid in under order ............................................................ 361
Rule 10—Moneys recovered by infants or persons of unsound mind ............ 361
Rule 12—Procedure .................................................................................... 361
ORDER 28 COMMISSIONS AND REFERENCES .................................................... 367
Rule 1—Cases in which court may issue commission to examine witnesses .. 367
Rule 2—Where witness resides within court’s jurisdiction ............................ 367
Rule 3—Persons for whose examination commission may issue .................... 367
Rule 4—Request to examine witness abroad ................................................ 367
Rule 5—Court to examine witness pursuant to commission ......................... 367
Rule 6—Return of commission with deposition of witness .......................... 368
Rule 7—Commission to make investigations 368
Rule 8—Procedure of commissioner ............................................................ 368
Rule 9—Referee to examine accounts ......................................................... 368
Rule 10—Court to give referee necessary instructions, Proceedings
and report to be evidence ......................................................................... 369
Rule 11—Partition of immovable property................................................... 369
Rule 13—Expenses of commission to be paid into court .............................. 369
Rule 14—Powers of commissioner ............................................................... 369
Rule 15—Attendance and examination of witnesses before commissioner .... 369Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xix
Rule 16—Parties to appear before commissioner .......................................... 370
Rule 17—Commissions issued by foreign courts 370
Rule 18—Evidence in proceedings by or against the Government ................ 370
ORDER 29 PROCEEDINGS BY OR AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT .......................... 377
Rule 1—Interpretation ................................................................................ 377
Rule 2—Rules to apply to proceedings by or against the Government ......... 377
Rule 3—Application for a certifi cate under section 21
of the Government Proceedings Act .......................................................... 378
Rule 4—No order for attachment of debts or appointment of a receiver
to be made in respect of moneys due by Government ............................... 378
ORDER 30 SUITS BY OR AGAINST FIRMS AND OTHER PERSONS CARRYING
ON BUSINESS IN NAMES OTHER THAN THEIR OWN .................................... 383
Rule 1—Suing of partners in name of fi rm .................................................. 383
Rule 2—Disclosure of partners’ names ......................................................... 383
Rule 3—Service .......................................................................................... 383
Rule 4—Notice in what capacity served ...................................................... 384
Rule 5—Appearance of partners .................................................................. 384
Rule 6—No appearance except by partners .................................................. 384
Rule 7—Appearance in action against fi rms ................................................. 384
Rule 8—Suits between fi rm and partners ..................................................... 384
Rule 9—Suit against person carrying on business in name other than
his own ..................................................................................................... 385
Rule 10 —Proceeding.................................................................................. 385
ORDER 31 SUITS BY OR AGAINST TRUSTEES, EXECUTORS,
AND ADMINISTRATORS .............................................................................. 387
Rule 1—Representation of benefi ciaries in suits
concerning property vested in trustees ...................................................... 387
Rule 2—Joinder of trustees, executors and administrators ............................. 387
Rule 4—Procedure ...................................................................................... 387
ORDER 32 SUITS BY OR AGAINST MINORS AND
PERSONS OF UNSOUND MIND ................................................................... 389
Rule 1—Minor to sue by next friend ........................................................... 389
Rule 2—Where suit is instituted without next friend, plaint
may be dismissed 389
Rule 3—Guardian for the suit to be appointed by court
for minor defendant .................................................................................. 389
Rule 4—Who may act as next friend or be appointed guardian for the suit .. 390
Rule 5—Representation of minor by next friend or guar..... 390 Steve Ouma
xx A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 6—Receipt by next friend or guardian for the suit of property
under decree for minor ............................................................................. 391
Rule 7—Agreement or Compromise by next friend
or guardian for the suit .............................................................................. 391
Rule 8—Retirement of next friend .............................................................. 391
Rule 9—Removal of next friend .................................................................. 391
Rule 10—Stay of proceedings on removal etc. of next friend ........................ 391
Rule 11—Retirement, removal, or death of guardian for the suit .................. 392
Rule 12—Course to be followed by minor plaintiff
or applicant on attaining majority ............................................................. 392
Rule 13—Where minor co-plaintiff attaining majority
desires to repudiate suit ............................................................................. 392
Rule 14—Unreasonable or improper suit ..................................................... 393
Rule 15—Application of rules to persons of unsound mind .......................... 393
ORDER 33 SUITS BY PAUPERS ......................................................................... 399
Rule 1—Suits may be instituted in forma pauperis .......................................... 399
Rule 2—Contents of application .................................................................. 399
Rule 3—Presentation of application ............................................................. 399
Rule 4—Examination of applicant ............................................................... 399
Rule 5—Rejection of application ................................................................. 399
Rule 6—Notice of day for receiving evidence of applicant pauperism .......... 400
Rule 7—Procedure at hearing ...................................................................... 400
Rule 8—Procedure if application admitted ................................................... 400
Rule 9—Dispaupering ................................................................................. 400
Rule 10—Costs where pauper succeeds........................................................ 400
Rule 11—Procedure where pauper fails ....................................................... 401
Rule 12—Government may apply for payment of court fees ........................ 401
Rule 13—Government to be deemed a party ............................................... 401
Rule 14—Refusal to allow applicant to sue as pauper
to bar subsequent application of like nature 401
Rule 15—Costs ........................................................................................... 401
Rule 16—Court fees .................................................................................... 401
Rule 17—Recovery of court fees from pauper ............................................. 402
Rule 18—Procedure 402
ORDER 34 INTERPLEADER PROCEEDINGS ......................................................... 407
Rule 1—Practice under this Order ............................................................... 407
Rule 2—Averments to be proved by applicant .............................................. 407
Rule 3—Stay of suit ..................................................................................... 407Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xxi
Rule 4—Order upon summons .................................................................... 407
Rule 5—Summary procedure....................................................................... 407
Rule 6—Costs and other orders ................................................................... 408
Rule 7—Order upon a claimant’s failure to appear ....................................... 408
Rule 8—Questions of law ............................................................................ 408
Rule 9—Adverse title of claimants ............................................................... 408
ORDER 35 PROCEEDINGS BY AGREEMENT OF PARTIES (CASE STATED) ............ 411
Rule 1—Power to state case for court’s opinion ............................................ 411
Rule 2—Where value of subject-matter must be stated ................................. 411
Rule 3—Agreement to be fi led and registered as suit .................................... 411
Rule 4—Parties to be subject to court’s jurisdiction ...................................... 411
Rule 5—Hearing and disposal of case ........................................................... 412
ORDER 36 SUMMARY PROCEDURE ................................................................... 413
Rule 1—Summary judgment ....................................................................... 413
Rule 3—Application by Government 413
Rule 4—Time for defence ........................................................................... 413
Rule 5—Judgment for part of claim ............................................................. 413
Rule 6—Procedure where more than one defendant .................................... 414
Rule 8—Costs ............................................................................................. 414
Rule 9—Forms ............................................................................................ 414
ORDER 37 ORIGINATING SUMMONS ................................................................. 419
Rule 1—Who may take out originating summons
and in respect of what matters ................................................................... 419
Rule 3—Summons by vendor or purchaser of land ....................................... 421
ORDER 38 SELECTION OF TEST SUIT ............................................................... 427
Rule 1—Staying several suits against the same defendant............................... 427
Rule 2—Staying similar suits upon application by defendant ......................... 427
ORDER 39 ARREST AND ATTACHMENT BEFORE JUDGMENT ............................. 429
Rule 1—Where defendant may be called upon to
furnish security for appearance .................................................................. 429
Rule 2—Security ......................................................................................... 429
Rule 3—Procedure on application by surety to be discharged ....................... 429
Rule 4—Procedure where defendant fails to furnish
security or fi nd fresh security .................................................................... 430
Rule 5—Where defendant may be called upon to
furnish security for production of property................................................ 430 Steve Ouma
xxii A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 6—Attachment where cause not shown or security not furnished ........ 430
Rule 7—Mode of making attachment .......................................................... 430
Rule 8—Investigation or claim to property attached before judgment ........... 431
Rule 10—Attachment before judgment not to affect
rights of strangers nor bar decree-holder
from applying for sale ................................................................................ 431
Rule 11—Property attached before judgment not
to be re-attached in execution of decree .................................................... 431
Rule 12—Procedure .................................................................................... 431
ORDER 40 TEMPORARY INJUNCTIONS AND INTERLOCUTORY ORDERS .............. 435
Rule 1—Where in any suit it is proved by affi davit or otherwise ................... 435
Rule 2—Injunction to restrain breach of contract or other injury ................. 435
Rule 3—Consequence of breach .................................................................. 435
Rule 4—Notice of application ..................................................................... 436
Rule 5—Order for injunction may be discharged, varied, or set aside ............ 436
Rule 6—Lapse of injunction ........................................................................ 436
Rule 7—Order for injunction to be discharged, varied, or set aside ............... 436
Rule 8—Injunction against a corporation binding on its offi cers .................. 436
Rule 9—Power to order interim sale ............................................................ 437
Rule 10—Detention, preservation and inspection of property ....................... 437
Rule 11—Deposit of money and other deliverables ...................................... 437
ORDER 41 APPOINTMENT OF RECEIVERS ......................................................... 447
Rule 1—Appointment of receivers ............................................................... 447
Rule 2—Remuneration ............................................................................... 447
Rule 3—Duties ............................................................................................ 447
Rule 4—Enforcement of receiver’s duties ..................................................... 447
ORDER 42 APPEALS ......................................................................................... 455
Rule 1—Form of appeal .............................................................................. 455
Rule 2—Filing of decree or order ................................................................ 455
Rule 3—Amendment of memorandum of appeal ......................................... 455
Rule 4—Grounds which may be taken in appeal .......................................... 455
Rule 5—One of several plaintiffs or defendants may obtain reversal of
whole decree where it proceeds on ground common to all ........................ 455
Rule 6—Stay in case of appeal ..................................................................... 456
Rule 7—Security in case of order for execution of decree appealed from ...... 456
Rule 8—No security to be required from the Government .......................... 456
Rule 9—Exercise of powers in appeal from order made in execution of
decree ....................................................................................................... 457Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xxiii
Rule 10—Register and fi ling of appeals ....................................................... 457
Rule 11—Directions under section 79B 457
Rule 12—Service of memorandum .............................................................. 457
Rule 13—Directions .................................................................................... 457
Rule 14—Security for costs.......................................................................... 458
Rule 15—Notice to be given where decree appealed from ........................... 458
Rule 16—Filing declaration and written submissions .................................... 458
Rule 17—Service of hearing notice ............................................................. 459
Rule 18—Contents of notice ....................................................................... 459
Rule 19—Right to begin ............................................................................. 459
Rule 20—Dismissal of appeal for appellant’s default ...................................... 459
Rule 21—Re-admission of appeal dismissed for default ................................ 459
Rule 22—Power to adjourn hearing and direct persons appearing
interested to be made respondents ............................................................. 459
Rule 23—Re-hearing on application of respondent against whom
ex parte decree made ................................................................................. 460
Rule 24—Remand of cases .......................................................................... 460
Rule 25—Where evidence on record suffi cient appellate court may
determine case fi nally ............................................................................... 460
Rule 26—Power to order new trial .............................................................. 460
Rule 27—Production of additional evidence in appellate court .................... 460
Rule 28—Mode of taking additional evidence ............................................. 461
Rule 29—Points to be defi ned and recorded ................................................ 461
Rule 30—Where court consists of more than one judge ............................... 461
Rule 31—What judgment may direct ........................................................... 461
Rule 32—Power of appellate court on appeal ............................................... 461
Rule 33—Preparation and contents of decree 461
Rule 34—Certifi ed copy of decree to be sent to court whose decree
appealed from ........................................................................................... 462
Rule 35—Dismissal for want of prosecution ................................................. 462
ORDER 43 APPEALS FROM ORDERS ................................................................. 469
Rule 1—Appeals from Orders ..................................................................... 469
Rule 2—Procedure ...................................................................................... 470
Rule 3—Saving ............................................................................................ 470
ORDER 44 PAUPERS APPEALS .......................................................................... 473
Rule 1—Who may appeal as a pauper .......................................................... 473
Rule 2—Inquiry into pauperism .................................................................. 473 Steve Ouma
xxiv A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
ORDER 45 REVIEW .......................................................................................... 479
Rule 1—Application for review of judgment ................................................ 479
Rule 2—To whom application for review may be made ............................... 479
Rule 3—Application where rejected, where granted ..................................... 479
Rule 4—Application where more than one judge hears ................................ 480
Rule 5—Re-hearing upon application granted ............................................. 480
Rule 6—Bar of subsequent applications ........................................................ 480
ORDER 46 ARBITRATION UNDER ORDER OF A COURT AND
OTHER ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION ............................................. 487
Rule 1—Parties to a suit may apply for arbitration ........................................ 487
Rule 2—Appointment of arbitrator .............................................................. 487
Rule 3—Form of order ................................................................................ 487
Rule 4—Provisions where two or more arbitrators ....................................... 487
Rule 5—Power to appoint arbitrator ............................................................ 487
Rule 6—Power of arbitrator or umpire appointed by court .......................... 487
Rule 7—Summoning witnesses and default .................................................. 487
Rule 8—Extension of time for making award ............................................... 488
Rule 9—Where umpire may arbitrate in lieu of arbitrators ........................... 488
Rule 10—Award to be signed, dated and fi led .............................................. 488
Rule 11—Time for reading award may be fi xed ........................................... 489
Rule 12—Statement of special case by arbitrator or umpire .......................... 489
Rule 13—Costs of arbitration ...................................................................... 489
Rule 14—Power to modify or correct award ................................................ 489
Rule 15—Power to remit for reconsideration ............................................... 489
Rule 16—Grounds for setting aside award .................................................... 489
Rule 17—Time for application .................................................................... 489
Rule 18—Judgment on award ...................................................................... 489
Rule 19—Forms .......................................................................................... 489
ORDER 47 DISTRICT REGISTRIES .................................................................... 501
Rule 1—Institution of suits in High Court ................................................... 501
Rule 2—Schedule of District Registries and areas ........................................ 501
Rule 3—Title of suits fi led in a District Registry ......................................... 501
Rule 4—Suits fi led in a registry remain there when all defendants
reside within that area ............................................................................... 501
Rule 5—Proceedings against the Government .............................................. 501
Rule 6—Place of trial .................................................................................. 501
Rule 7—All preliminary steps taken before the District Registrar ................. 501
Rule 8—Appeal from decision of District Registrar ..................................... 501Steve Ouma
Table of Contents xxv
Rule 9—Taxation in District Registries ....................................................... 501
Rule 10—Appeals from subordinate courts ................................................... 502
ORDER 48 MISCELLANEOUS ............................................................................. 503
Rule 1—Process to be served at expense of party issuing .............................. 503
Rule 2—Service of orders, notices and documents ....................................... 503
Rule 3—Use of forms .................................................................................. 503
Rule 4—Special rules of procedure not contained in these Rules ................. 503
ORDER 49 SPECIAL POWERS OF REGISTRARS .................................................. 505
Rule 1—Registrar to be ministerial offi cer ................................................... 505
Rule 2—when Judgment may be entered by Registrar ................................. 505
Rule 3—Consent orders .............................................................................. 505
Rule 4—No judgment against Government in default of pleading
without leave of court ............................................................................... 505
Rule 5—Execution may be ordered by Registrar .......................................... 505
Rule 6—Registrar a Civil Court .................................................................. 505
Rule 7—Hearing of applications 505
ORDER 50 TIME .............................................................................................. 507
Rule 1—Month means calendar month ........................................................ 507
Rule 2—Exclusion of Sundays and public holidays ....................................... 507
Rule 3—Time expiring on Sunday or day offi ces closed............................... 507
Rule 4—When time does not run ................................................................ 507
Rule 5—Time for giving security for costs, when not to be reckoned .......... 507
Rule 6—Power to enlarge time .................................................................... 507
Rule 7—Enlargement of time by consent ..................................................... 508
Rule 8—Computation of days...................................................................... 508
Rule 9—Time of day of service ................................................................... 508
ORDER 51 APPLICATIONS ................................................................................ 511
Rule 1—Procedure ...................................................................................... 511
Rule 2—Applications under section 25(2) of Cap. 40 ................................... 511
Rule 3—Notice to parties ............................................................................ 511
Rule 4—Contents of notice ......................................................................... 511
Rule 5—Dismissal or adjournments for want of notice ................................. 511
Rule 6—Adjournment of hearing ................................................................ 511
Rule 7—Service of notice on defendant served with summons to enter
appearance but not appearing .................................................................... 512
Rule 8—Transfer from court to chambers .................................................... 512 Steve Ouma
xxvi A Commentary on the Civil Procedure Act Cap 21
Rule 9—Transfer from chambers to court .................................................... 512
Rule 10—Provision under which application is made to be stated ................ 512
Rule 11—Costs and other relief ................................................................... 512
Rule 12—When application made ............................................................... 512
Rule 13—Signature of motion or summons ................................................. 513
Rule 14—Grounds of opposition to application in High Court .................... 514
Rule 15—Setting aside an ex parte order ...................................................... 514
Rule 16—Court may limit time for submissions ........................................... 514
ORDER 52 THE ADVOCATES ACT ..................................................................... 515
ORDER 53 APPLICATION FOR JUDICIAL REVIEW (ORDERS
OF MANDAMUS, PROHIBITION AND CERTIORARI) ......................................... 517
Rule 1—Applications for mandamus, prohibition and certiorari to be
made only with leave ................................................................................ 517
Rule 2—Time for applying for certiorari in certain cases ................................ 517
Rule 3—Application to be by notice of motion ........................................... 517
Rule 4—Statements and affi davits ................................................................ 518
Rule 5—Applicant to have right to begin ..................................................... 518
Rule 6—Right to be heard in opposition 518
Rule 7—Provisions as to orders of certiorari for the purpose of quashing ..... 518
INDEX .............................................................................................................. 523DEDICATION
To my parents; they are the reason why I am here. To my wife and children who
of all that walk the earth are most precious to me. To all my students over the years
with love, appreciation, and thanks for allowing me to be a part of your lives. And
to anyone who fi nds themselves at a place in life where the question of why seems
unanswerable, you are not alone.