Freedom of expression and the Internet

-

Livres
194 pages
Lire un extrait
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus

Description


With the rise of the Internet, the opportunities to express oneself have grown exponentially, as have the challenges to freedom of expression. From the Arab Spring to the global Occupy movement, freedom of expression on the Internet has had a profound impact on the debates which shape our future. At the same time, an increasing number of states use the Internet to spy on journalists and citizens, to prosecute and jail bloggers, and to censor online information.


This book sets out to answer essential questions regarding the extent and limits of freedom of expression online. It seeks to shed light on the often obscure landscape of what we are allowed to say online and how our ideas, and the process of imparting and receiving information, are protected.


It shows the large ambit of rights protected by freedom of expression – including freedom of the media and the right to access information via the Internet. It also highlights the importance of the standard-setting, monitoring and promotion activities of international and non-governmental organisations, with a chapter on relevant national practices that illustrates how different states deal with the challenge that the Internet has brought to ensuring freedom of expression for all. As the importance of the Internet in our daily lives grows, readers will find this book to be a valuable resource for understanding the rights and obligations of each actor on the Internet, including states, Internet companies and civil society.


Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2014
Nombre de lectures 4
EAN13 9789287178381
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0112€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Signaler un problème
FREEDOMOFEXPRESSIONAND THEINTERNET
“Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.” Article 10, European Convention on Human Rights
WolfgangBenedek and Matthias C.Kettemann
Freedom of expressîon and the Internet
by Wofgang Benedek and Matthîas C. Kettemann
Councîl of Europe Publîshîng
The opînîons expressed în thîs work are the responsîbîîty of the authors and do not necessarîy relect the oficîa poîcy of the Councî of Europe.
A rîghts reserved. No part of thîs pubîcatîon may be transated, reproduced or transmîtted, în any form or by any means, eectronîc (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.) or mechanîca, încudîng photocopyîng, recordîng or any înformatîon storage or retrîeva system, wîthout prîor permîssîon în wrîtîng from the Dîrectorate of Communîcatîons (F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex or pubîshîng@coe.înt).
Cover photo: Shutterstock Cover desîgn: Documents and Pubîcatîons Productîon Department (SPDP),Councî of Europe Layout: Jouve, Parîs
Councî of Europe Pubîshîng F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex http://book.coe.înt
ISBN 978-92-871-7702-5 ©Councî of Europe, December 2013 Prînted at the Councî of Europe
Contents
Lîst of abbrevîatîons...................................................7.................................... Table of cases.................................................................................................. 9 Preface............................................................................................................ 13 1. Introductîon: the challenges of ensurîng freedom of expressîon on the Internet............................................................................................... 17 2. The content of freedom of expressîon onlîne.....................................23.. 2.1. Maîn eements of the rîght ............................................................. 23 2.1.1. Freedom of opînîon .............................................................. 26 2.1.2. Freedom of înformatîon ....................................................... 27 2.1.3. Freedom of the press and the medîa.................................... 28 2.1.4. Freedom of înternatîona communîcatîon .......................... 32 2.1.5. Freedom of artîstîc expressîon............................................. 33 2.1.6. Freedom of cutura expressîon ........................................... 35 2.1.7. Freedom of scîence ............................................................... 36 2.1.8. A new freedom? Internet freedom and openness............... 36 2.1.9. Rîght to anonymîty .............................................................. 37 2.1.10. Rîght to whîste-bowîng .................................................... 38 2.2. Coroary rîghts: freedom of assemby and assocîatîon, rîght to educatîon and access to knowedge .................................. 39 2.3. Rîght to access to the Internet........................................................ 41 3. Restrîctîons on freedom of expressîon onlîne...................................... 45 3.1. Prîncîpes and probems.................................................................. 45 3.2. Crîterîa for restrîctîons and the practîce of the Court în Internet cases................................................................................................. 47 3.2.1. Crîterîa for restrîctîons ........................................................ 47 3.2.2. The practîce of the Court ..................................................... 48 3.3. Concusîon ....................................................................................... 54 4. Standard-settîng by the Councîl of Europe and non-state actors....... 55 4.1. The context: the roe of human rîghts în Internet governance .... 55 4.2. Actîvîtîes of the Councî of Europe: awareness raîsîng and standard-settîng .............................................................................. 56 4.2.1. Recommendatîons and decaratîons.................................... 57 4.2.2. Guîdeînes and recommendatîons for busîness .................. 62 4.3. Actîvîtîes of non-state actors .......................................................... 66 4.3.1. The Charter on Human Rîghts and Prîncîpes for the Internet ....................................................................................... 66
3
Freedom of expressîon and the Internet
4.3.2. Standard-settîng în the prîvate sector ................................. 68 4.3.3. Transparency to protect freedom of expressîon ................. 69 5. Specîic îssues........................................................................................... 73 5.1. Internet content reguatîon and freedom of expressîon ......................74 5.2. Access to the Internet as a precondîtîon for freedom of expressîon onîne ............................................................................ 75 5.3. Technoogîca neutraîty and freedom of expressîon .................... 78 5.4. Network neutraîty and freedom of expressîon............................. 79 5.5. Characterîstîcs of protected and unprotected speech onîne ........ 81 5.6. Fîghtîng onîne hate speech ............................................................ 82 5.7. Defamatîon, reputatîon and freedom of expressîon onîne .......... 88 5.8. Protectîon of chîdren în îght of freedom of expressîon .............. 92 5.9. Freedom of expressîon and Internet domaîn names ..................... 93 5.10. The roe of Internet întermedîarîes.............................................. 97 5.11. Freedom of expressîon în socîa networks................................... 98 5.12. Prîvate and pubîc spaces on the Internet.................................. 102 5.13. Transcendîng the natîona eve ................................................. 107 6. Relevant practîce on the natîonal level................................................ 109 6.1. Jurîsdîctîon and freedom of expressîon onîne.............................110 6.1.1.France v. USandYahoo! v. LICRA:a tae of two countrîes and two courts ...........................................................................110 6.1.2. UK: the Internet comes under natîona jurîsdîctîon .........111 6.2. Access and freedom of expressîon onîne .....................................111 6.2.1. Egypt: Internet shutdowns ................................................ 112 6.2.2 Internet access as a protected rîght în 20 Councî of Europe member states.............................................................. 113 6.3. Copyrîght and freedom of expressîon onîne............................... 115 6.3.1. France: the îmîts to enforcîng copyrîght .......................... 115 6.3.2. European Unîon: cîtîzen actîvîsm for freedom of expressîon ................................................................................. 116 6.4. Pubîc and prîvate vîoatîons of freedom of expressîon onîne .. 118 6.4.1. Unîted Kîngdom: îmîts of freedom of expressîon onîne – and the îmîts of these îmîts.................................................... 118 6.4.2. Twîtter în France, Germany and the US: testîng boundarîes of free speech......................................................... 119 6.4.3. Unîted Kîngdom: prîvate censorshîp through hotînes .... 119 6.5. Powerfu Internet companîes and natîona aws: who wîns the batte for freedom of expressîon?................................................. 120 6.5.1. Germany: regîona approaches to ensurîng pseudonymîty 121 6.5.2. Googe Itay: personaîsîng (crîmîna) îabîîty for onîne content ...................................................................................... 122 6.5.3. UK: pubîsher’s îabîîty for Googe conirmed ................. 123 6.5.4. UK, Germany and the Councî of Europe: whîste-bowîng as a human rîght ........................................... 124
4
Contents
6.6. Busîness and freedom of expressîon onîne................................. 126 6.6.1. Tajîkîstan: no compîcîty of companîes în censorshîp ..... 126 6.6.2. EU: does the export of censorshîp and surveîance technoogy vîoate human rîghts? ........................................... 127 7. European monîtorîng mechanîsms...................................................... 129 7.1. Councî of Europe Internet governance strategy......................... 129 7.2. Monîtorîng by Councî of Europe bodîes..................................... 130 7.2.1. The Commîttee of Mînîsters.............................................. 130 7.2.2. The Parîamentary Assemby ............................................ 131 7.2.3. The Secretary Genera........................................................ 132 7.2.4. The Commîssîoner for Human Rîghts .............................. 132 7.2.5. The European Court of Human Rîghts............................. 134 7.2.6. The Councî of Europe’s other monîtorîng bodîes ........... 134 7.2.7. The European Commîttee on Socîa Rîghts ...................... 135 7.2.8. The Framework Conventîon for the Protectîon of Natîona Mînorîtîes (FCNM) .............................................. 136 7.2.9. The European Commîssîon agaînst Racîsm and Intoerance (ECRI)................................................................... 137 7.2.10. Capacîty buîdîng .............................................................. 138 7.3. Monîtorîng by the OSCE and the EU .......................................... 138 7.3.1. The OSCE ........................................................................... 138 7.3.2. The EU................................................................................ 139 7.4. European hotînes ......................................................................... 141 7.5. Cîvî socîety watchdogs................................................................. 144 8. Promotîon of freedom of expressîon onlîne....................................... 149 8.1. The Councî of Europe.................................................................. 149 8.2. The European Unîon .................................................................... 152 8.3. The Organîzatîon for Securîty and Co-operatîon în Europe (OSCE) .......................................................................................... 153 8.4. The Unîted Natîons Educatîona, Scîentîic and Cutura Organîzatîon (UNESCO) ............................................................. 157 8.5. The UN Specîa Rapporteur on Freedom of Opînîon and Expressîon..................................................................................... 158 8.6. Inîtîatîves by îndîvîdua states...................................................... 159 9. Conclusîons............................................................................................. 161 9.1. Freedom of expressîon as the key rîght of the Internet age ........ 161 9.2. Settîng standards for free speech onîne: the împact of the Councî of Europe................................................................................. 163 9.3. Protectîng Internet-based freedom of expressîon: a daîy chaenge........................................................................................ 164 9.4. The correctîve functîon of the European Court of Human Rîghts ............................................................................................ 165
5
Freedom of expressîon and the Internet
9.5. Judges outsîde the courtroom: monîtorîng freedom of expressîon ................................................................................. 166 9.6. Takîng thîngs one step further: promotîng freedom of expressîon ................................................................................. 167 9.7. Freedom of expressîon on the Internet: a catayst and an enaber of human rîghts................................................... 168 Executîve summary.................................................................................... 171 Bîblîography................................................................................................ 173
6
Lîst of abbrevîatîons
A2K ACHPR ACPO ACTA AFP APC Art. ccTLD CDMC CJEU CMPF CNIL CPT DDoS DNS ECHR ECPA ECPT
ECRI ECSR EDRî ESC ETS EU EuroDIG FCNM
FoE FTC GAC GC GNI gTLD HRC IBR ICANN
Access to Knowedge Afrîcan Commîssîon on Human and Peopes’ Rîghts Assocîatîon of Chîef Poîce Oficers Antî-Counterfeîtîng Trade Agreement Agence France Press Assocîatîon for Progressîve Communîcatîons Artîce country code Top-Leve Domaîn Commîttee on the Medîa and New Communîcatîon Servîces Court of Justîce of the European Unîon Centre for Medîa Puraîsm and Medîa Freedom Commîssîon Natîonae de ’Informatîque et des Lîbertés European Commîttee on the Preventîon of Torture Dîstrîbuted Denîa-of-Servîce Domaîn Name System European Conventîon on Human Rîghts Eectronîc Communîcatîons Prîvacy Act European Conventîon for the Preventîon of Torture and Inhuman or Degradîng Treatment or Punîshment European Commîssîon agaînst Racîsm and Intoerance European Commîttee on Socîa Rîghts European Dîgîta Rîghts European Socîa Charter European Treaty Serîes European Unîon European Dîaogue on Internet Governance Framework Conventîon for the Protectîon of Natîona Mînorîtîes (FCNM) Freedom of Expressîon Federa Trade Commîssîon Governmenta Advîsory Commîttee Grand Chamber Goba Network Inîtîatîve generîc Top-Leve Domaîns Human Rîghts Councî Internet Bî of Rîghts Internet Corporatîon for Assîgned Names and Numbers
7
Freedom of expressîon and the Internet
ICCPR ICESCR
ICT IFEX IGF INHOPE IP ISP IT ITU IWF NGOs NTD OAS ODIHR OHCHR OSCE PDHRE PIPA Rec. RevESC RFoM RWB SEC SOPA TİB
TLD TMG UDHR UN UNESCO
URL US VPNs WSIS www
8
Internatîona Covenant on Cîvî and Poîtîca Rîghts Internatîona Covenant on Economîc, Socîa and Cutura Rîghts Informatîon and Communîcatîon Technoogy Internatîona Freedom of Expressîon Exchange Internet Governance Forum Internatîona Assocîatîon of Internet Hotînes Internet Protoco Internet Servîce Provîder Informatîon Technoogy Internatîona Teecommunîcatîon Unîon Internet Watch Foundatîon Non-Governmenta Organîsatîons Notîce and Take Down Organîzatîon of Amerîcan States Ofice for Democratîc Instîtutîons and Human Rîghts Ofice of the Hîgh Commîssîoner for Human Rîghts Organîzatîon for Securîty and Co-operatîon în Europe Peope’s Movement for Human Rîghts Educatîon Protect IP ACT Recommendatîon Revîsed European Socîa Charter Specîa Representatîve for the Freedom of the Medîa Reporters wîthout Borders US Securîtîes and Exchange Commîssîon Stop Onîne Pîracy Act Teekomünîkasyonİetîşîm Başkanığı (Turkîsh Teecommunîcatîons Dîrectorate) Top-Leve Domaîn German Teemedîengesetz (Teemedîa Act) Unîversa Decaratîon of Human Rîghts Unîted Natîons Unîted Natîons Educatîona, Scîentîic and Cutura Organîzatîon Unîform Resource Locator Unîted States Vîrtua Prîvate Networks Word Summît on the Informatîon Socîety Word Wîde Web
Table of cases
European Court of Human Rîghts Anheuser-Busch Inc. v. Portuga(11 October 2005), appîcatîon No. 73049/01 Appeby v. Unîted Kîngdom(6 May 2003), appîcatîon No. 44306/98 B.H; M.W; H.P; G.K. v. Austrîa(12 October 1989), appîcatîon No. 12774/87 Bergens Tîdendeand Others v. Norway(2 May 2000), appîcatîon No. 26132/95 Casado Coca v. Spaîn(24 February 1994), appîcatîon No. 15450/89 Communîst Party of Germany v. the Federa Repubîc of Germany(20 Juy 1957), appîcatîon No. 250/57 Defî AS v. Estonîa(communîcatîon of 11 February 2011), appîcatîon No. 64569/09 Dînk v. Turkey (14 September 2010), appîcatîon Nos. 2668/07, 6102/08, 30079/08, 7072/09 and 7124/09 Heînîsch v. Germany(21 Juy 2011), appîcatîon No. 28274/08 Edîtorîa Board of Pravoye Deoand Shteke v. Ukraîne(5 May 2011), appîca-tîon No. 33014/05 Erbakan v. Turkey(6 Juy 2006), appîcatîon No. 59405/00 Faruk Teme v. Turkey(1 February 2011), appîcatîon No. 16853/05 Fatuayevv. Azerbaîjan(22 Aprî 2010), appîcatîon No. 40984/07 Féret v. Begîum(16 Juy 2009), appîcatîon No. 15615/07 Garaudy v. France(24 June 2003), appîcatîon No. 65831/01 Handysîde v. the Unîted Kîngdom(7 December 1976), appîcatîon No. 5493/72 Honsîk v. Austrîa(18 October 1995), appîcatîon No. 25062/94 Jankovskîs v. Lîthuanîa(communîcated on 27 September 2010), appîcatîon No. 21575/08 Jersîd v. Denmark(23 September 1994), appîcatîon No. 15890/89 K.U. v. Fînand(2 December 2008), appîcatîon No. 2872/02 Karakó v. Hungary(28 Aprî 2009), appîcatîon No. 39311/05 Karatas v. Turkey(8 Juy 1999), appîcatîon No. 23168/94 Krone Verag GmbH & Co KG v. AustrîaNo. 3(11 December 2003), appîca-tîon No. 39069/97 Leroy v. France(2 October 2008), appîcatîon No. 36109/03 Lîngens v. Austrîa(8 Juy 1986), appîcatîon No. 9815/82 Mosey v. the Unîted Kîngdom(10 May 2011), appîcatîon No. 48009/08
9