352 pages
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Arabic - English Syntax in Translation

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This book aims to introduce students to English translation through their comprehension of the Arabic syntax, therefore, help them to understand how to think and translate into English, its also attempts to show how the translation of a phrase or sentence is produced, and in the later chapters how source texts are analysed before they are being translated, in order to show the workings of the translator’s mind and the research that needs to be done by the translator before putting pen to paper and translating a full text.This book starts with the translation of words and sentences, as it is the first step students need to take before one attempts to translate paragraphs and eventually texts. So the main focus of the discussion throughout the book is on the practical approach so that students and professional translators benefit most from the examples, and get as it were hands-on experience in translation from the exercises of each section. In these exercises one sees how different translators approach the ST (the Arabic text) and produce their own translations.

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Publié par
Date de parution 01 janvier 2014
Nombre de lectures 2
EAN13 9796500125657
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,005€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Arabic/English syntax in translation: Equivalence at word and sentence levels By Dr Ahmad Khuddro 2014
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Arabic/English syntax in translation
Dedication To Sammy, Melanie, Aemon, Rema and Lejane
And all members of my family
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ContentsPreface:.................................................................................................................................................... 10
PART I: Equivalence at word level...................................................................................................... 25
Chapter One: Arabic word and its English equivalence ..................................................................... 27
1.1. Functionality of Arabic word and its English equivalence ........................................................... 27
1.2. Arabic word acting as particle, verb or noun and its English equivalence .................................. 29
Some words in Arabic can be problematic as they can act as a particle, verb or noun ..................... 29
1.2.1. The word ﺎﻣ ................................................................................................................................. 29
1.2.2. The word ﻞﻫ ................................................................................................................................ 38
1.2.3. The words ﻦﻣ and ﻰﺘﻣ ............................................................................................................... 40
Chapter Two: Arabic word acting as noun and its English equivalence ............................................ 43
2.1. The defective noun رﻮﺼﻘﳌا ﻢﺳﻻا ending with its contracted ‘alif’ ى alongside its English equivalence ............................................................................................................................................. 43
2.2. The defective noun صﻮﻘﻨﳌا ﻢﺳﻻا that ends with ي alongside its English equivalence ................ 46
2.3. Another type of defective noun ﻞﺘﻌﳌا ﻢﺳﻹا and its English equivalence ...................................... 47
2.4. Redundant Arabic prepositions and their English equivalence ................................................. 51
2.5. Redundant Arabic semi-prepositions and their English equivalence .......................................... 53
2.6. Functionality of Arabic pronouns and certain nouns along with their English
equivalence.............................................................................................................................................. 57
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Arabic/English syntax in translation
2.7. Duality and gender in Arabic with their English equivalence ..................................................... 103
Chapter Three: Arabic word acting as verb and its English equivalence ............................................ 111
3.1. The five forms of verb 111ﺔﺴﻤﺨﻟا لﺎﻌﻓﻷا and their English equivalence .................................
3.2. The present aspect of defective verbs ﺮﺧﻵا ﻞﺘﻌﳌا عرﺎﻀﳌا ﻞﻌﻔﻟا ....................................................... 114
3.3. The past tense of the Arabic verb and its English equivalence ..................................................... 120
3.4. Imperative forms of the verb in the SL along with their equivalence .......................................... 1233.5. Verbs in the present tense with the feminine ‘n’ ةﻮﺴﻨﻟا نﻮﻧ or the emphatic ‘n’ ﺪﻴﻛﻮﺘﻟا نﻮﻧ and their English equivalenc.................................................................................................................. 123Chapter Four: Superseding auxiliary verbs ﺦﺳاﻮﻨﻟا in the nominal SL sentence and their TL equivalence.............................................................................................................................................. 125
4.1. نﺎﻛ = verb ‘to be .............................................................................................................................. 125
4.1.1. Proper verb to mean ‘happen’...................................................................................................... 125
4.1.2. Auxiliary to the nominal SL sentence:......................................................................................... 126
4.1.3. Present participle or gerund ........................................................................................................ 126
4.1.4. In a collocation ............................................................................................................................. 127
4.1.5. Redundant verb for exclamation ................................................................................................. 127
4.1.6. In a conditional form ................................................................................................................... 127
4.1.7. In negation in the present tense .................................................................................................. 128
4.1.8. Being omitted from SL sentence.................................................................................................. 128
4.1.9. Being omitted alongside its subject or predicate........................................................................129
4.2. ﻞﻇ = Be still or continue to do ...................................................................................................... 130
4.3. ﺢﺒﺻأ = to become (but usually implies ‘morning time’)................................................................ 130
4.4. ﻰﺤﺿأ = to become (but usually implies ‘late morning time’) ....................................................... 130
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4.4.1. As proper verb .............................................................................................................................. 1314.5. ﴗﻣأ = to become or end up (but usually implies ‘evening time’) ................................................ 1314.6. تﺎﺑ = to stay (but usually implies ‘all night long’)......................................................................... 132
4.6.1. As an auxiliary .............................................................................................................................. 1324.6.2. As a proper verb ........................................................................................................................... 1324.7. رﺎﺻ = to become (implying ‘to transform’) .................................................................................... 1324.7.1. Other similar auxiliary verbs with similar function and meaning to the verb رﺎﺻ = ‘to become’ .................................................................................................................................................. 1334.8. ﺲﻴﻟ = not to be ............................................................................................................................... 135
4.9. لاز (ﻻ) = to be still (implying ‘continuity’)................................................................................... 1394.10. ﻚﻔﻧا (ﺎﻣ) = to be still (implying ‘continuity’) ................................................................................ 1404.11. ﺊﺘﻓ (ﺎﻣ) = to be still (implying ‘continuity’) ................................................................................. 140
4.12. حﺮﺑ (ﺎﻣ) = to be still (implying ‘continuity’ .................................................................................. 141
4.13. ماد (ﺎﻣ) = to be so long as (implying ‘for a certain period of time’)............................................ 141
Chapter Five: SL verbs of appropinquation, beginning and beseeching ( عوﴩﻟاو ﺔﺑرﺎﻘﳌا لﺎﻌﻓأ ءﺎﺟﺮﻟاو) functioning as auxiliary and their English equivalence ......................................................... 149
5.1. SL verbs of approximation, along with their equivalence............................................................. 1495.1.1. دﺎﻛ = To be about to or almost..................................................................................................... 1495.1.2. ﻚﺷوأ = To be about to ................................................................................................................. 1495.2. SL verbs of initiation and their equivalence: ................................................................................ 1505.2.1. عﴍ = To start to ......................................................................................................................... 150
5.2.2. ّﺐﻫ = To start or to rush to ...................................................................................................... 150
5.2.3. ﻞﻬﻠﻫ = to start to become............................................................................................................. 1505.2.4. ﻞﻌﺟ = to make someone do or to begin .................................................................................... 151
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Arabic/English syntax in translation
5.2.5. ﻖﻔﻃ = To start to do or to do something suddenly ................................................................. 151
5.2.6. ﺬﺧأ = To start to do or to begin .................................................................................................. 151
5.2.7. ﺖﻘﻟﻮﻠﺧا = To start or To be about to ......................................................................................... 151
5.3. SL verbs of beseeching and their equivalence ................................................................................ 151
5.3.1. ﴗﻋ = To hope to happen........................................................................................................... 152
PART II: Equivalence at sentence level ................................................................................................ 155
Chapter Six: Nominal SL sentence and its TL equivalenc.................................................................... 157
6.1. The subject in the nominal SL sentence and its corresponding equivalence in the TL............... 157
6.2. Where are the SL predicate and its corresponding TL equivalence? ............................................ 167
6.2.1. The predicate in the nominal SL sentence with just one noun, and its equivalence ................ 168
6.2.2. The predicate in the nominal SL sentence and its equivalence.................................................. 168
6.2.3. Nominal SL sentence, whose predicate must be a clause, and its equivalence ......................... 169
6.2.4. Tautology or repetition of the subject for rhetoric, including intensiveness or hyperbole................................................................................................................................................. 1726.2.5. Repetition of the subject in the form of demonstrative pronoun, its predicate clause and their equivalence.............................................................................................................................. 173
6.3. Predicate as prepositional phrase .................................................................................................. 173
6.3.1. Predicate with ـﻓ............................................................................................................................ 174
6.3.2. Multiple predicates in the nominal SL sentence and their equivalence ................................... 174
6.3.3. Omission of SL predicate and its equivalence ...........................................................................175
6.3.4. Fronted or delayed predicate in the nominal SL sentence and its equivalence......................... 177
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6.3.5. Predicate is a verbal sentence in the ST ...................................................................................... 179
6.3.6. Subject and predicate in the nominal SL sentence defined and their equivalence ................... 180
6.3.7. Subject strictly defined by predicate, or limited to predicate .................................................... 180
6.3.8. Predicate with the ـﻓ ..................................................................................................................... 181
6.3.9. Predicate separated with a pronoun ........................................................................................... 181
6.3.10. Fronting the predicate in interrogative and its equivalence .................................................... 181
6.3.11. Predicate limited to subject in the nominal SL sentence and their equivalence..................... 182
6.3.12. Subject undefined in the nominal SL sentence and its sentential or semi-sentential predicate.................................................................................................................................................. 183
6.3.13. The subject in the ST implicitly refers to a pronoun which acts as the predicate.................. 183
Chapter Seven: Other superseding words functioning auxiliaries ّنإ and its sisters in
nominal SL sentence and their English equivalence ............................................................................ 193
7.1. ّنإ or ّنأ = certainly/actually/definitely........................................................................................... 193
7.2. ﺖﻴﻟ = to wish................................................................................................................................... 196
7.3. ّنﺄﻛ or ْنﺄﻛ = Just like/ as if/ as though ........................................................................................... 197
7.4. ّﻦﻜﻟ or ْﻦﻜﻟ = But/however/yet ........................................................................................................ 197
7.5. ل attached to subject or predicate in nominal SL sentence and its equivalence........................ 197
7.6. Cases with combinations of ْنأ and either ﺪﻗ –  – ﻻ – ﻦﻟ and their English equivalence.......... 198
Chapter Eight: ‘No’ which denies the whole genus ﺲﻨﺠﻠﻟ ﺔﻴﻓﺎﻨﻟا ﻻ in the SL and its TL equivalence.............................................................................................................................................. 209
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Arabic/English syntax in translation
8.1. Undefined subject in nominal SL sentence and its TL equivalence.............................................. 209
8.2. Defined subject in nominal SL sentence and its TL equivalence.................................................. 211
Chapter Nine: Verbal SL sentence and its TL equivalence................................................................... 217
9.1. Subject ﻞﻋﺎﻔﻟا .................................................................................................................................... 217
9.2. Pro-agent or subject of the passive voice ﻞﻋﺎﻔﻟا ﺐﺋﺎﻧ ....................................................................232
9.3. Object ﻪﺑ لﻮﻌﻔﳌا and its types alongside their English equivalence .............................................. 238
9.3.1. One direct object in the verb SL sentence and its straightforward equivalence ....................... 238
9.3.2. Accusative of specification or particularisation صﺎﺼﺘﺧﻻا ﲆﻋ ﻪﺑ لﻮﻌﻔﳌا ................................... 258
9.3.3. Object for cautioning or instigation in the verbal SL sentence and its equivalence................. 259
9.3.4. Unrestricted object, or absolute object ﻖﻠﻄﳌا لﻮﻌﻔﳌا ................................................................ 265
9.3.5. Causative Object, also known as Cognate accusative ﻪﻠﺟﻷ لﻮﻌﻔﳌا ............................................ 273
9.3.6. Adverbial object ﻪﻴﻓ لﻮﻌﻔﳌا, or adverb of time and place نﺎﻣزو نﺎﻜﻣ فﺮﻇ with its TL equivalence ............................................................................................................................................. 276
9.3.7. Concomitant object ﻪﻌﻣ لﻮﻌﻔﳌا .................................................................................................... 288
9.3.8. Denotative of state or circumstantial accusative لﺎﺤﻟا ............................................................... 289
9.3.9. Objective complement for distinction ﺰﻴﻴﻤﺘﻟا .............................................................................. 297
9.3.10. Vocative....................................................................................................................................... 304
9.3.11. Exception and Restriction ﻰﻨﺜﺘﺴﳌا ............................................................................................. 311
9.3.12. Wonder, praise and blame, or vituperative مﺬﻟاو حﺪﳌاو ﺐﺠﻌﺘﻟا................................................ 316
Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 321
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Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 325
Appendices ............................................................................................................................................. 329
Appendix I: Varieties, analysis of STs translated from English into Arabic ...................................... 329
The use of the conjunction وأ ‘or’ in the SL and its equivalence ......................................................... 329
Two clauses links with the conjunction و ............................................................................................ 330
The use of the word ﻏ to be mean ‘the opposite of’ .......................................................................... 331
Gender related matters when translating from English into Arabic................................................... 331
Homonyms in Arabic............................................................................................................................. 331
Polysemous words in English and their Arabic equivalence................................................................ 332
Appendix II: Practicals .......................................................................................................................... 333
Foreword:................................................................................................................................................ 333
Practical One .......................................................................................................................................... 335
Practical Two ......................................................................................................................................... 337
Practical Three........................................................................................................................................ 341
Practical Four ......................................................................................................................................... 345
Practical Five .......................................................................................................................................... 349
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