Language and Power. The Implications of Language for Peace and Development

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Language is a tool used to express thoughts, to hide thoughts or to hide lack of thoughts. It is often a means of domination. The question is who has the power to define the world around us. This book demonstrates how language is being manipulated to form the minds of listeners or readers. Innocent words may be used to conceal a reality which people would have reacted to had the phenomena been described in a straightforward manner. The nice and innocent concept "cost sharing", which leads our thoughts to communal sharing and solidarity, may actually imply privatization. The false belief that the best way to learn a foreign language is to have it as a language of instruction actually becomes a strategy for stupidification of African pupils. In this book 33 independent experts from 16 countries in the North and the South show how language may be used to legitimize war-making, promote Northern interests in the field of development and retain colonial speech as languages of instruction, languages of the courts and in politics. The book has been edited by two Norwegians: Birgit Brock-Utne is a professor at the University of Oslo and a consultant in education and development. From 1987 until 1992 she was a professor at the University of Dar es Salaam. Gunnar Garbo, author and journalist and former member of the Norwegian Parliament, was the Norwegian Ambassador to Tanzania from 1987 to 1992.

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Publié par
Date de parution 15 septembre 2009
Nombre de lectures 1
EAN13 9789987081462
Langue English

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,0071€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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LANGUAGE AND POWER
THE ïMPLïCATïONS OF LANGUAGE FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT
Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd P. O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. www.mkukinanyota.com
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LANGUAGE AND POWER
THE ïMPLïCATïONS OF LANGUAGE FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT
Birgit Brock-Utne and Gunnar Garbo, (Editors)
Mkuki na Nyota Publisers Ltd P. O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania www.mkukinanyota.com
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Publised by: Mkuki na Nyota Publisers Ltd P. O. Box 4246 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania www.mkukinanyota.com
© Birgit Brock-Utne and Gunnar Garbo (Editors), 2009
ISBN 9789987080328
All rigts reserved. No part of tis publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means witout te written permission of te copyrigt older or publiser.
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Contents
Acknowledgements. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...vii Birgit Brock-Utne and Gunnar Garbo:Language is Power... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...1 Language in tHe Security Discourse. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...33 Carol Con: International Security, Language and Gender.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .33 Lotar Brock: he Problematic Securitisation Debates... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .48 Gunnar Garbo: Selling Wars.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .58 Berenice Carroll: Feminist Deconstructions of te Wars on Terrorism... ... ... ..65 Evelyne Accad:Cancer speaks in War Language... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..73 he Discourse of Globalization. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...79 Paul Vieille:Globalization and te Walls. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..79 Jill Bystydzienski: Gender, Language and Globalization. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..84 Macleans A. Geo-JaJa:Can Globalization in Nigeria’s Niger Delta BeHumanised for Integration and Development?.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..92 Judit Balázs:he Impact of Globalization on Knowledge and Security.. ... ... ..99 Development Speak... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..107 Steven J. Klees:he Language of Education and Development.. ... ... ... ... ... ...107 Robert Arnove: Wo Names te World wit Wat Consequences?. ... ... ... ...126 Regine Mel:Wose Education for All? he Need for Teacing Global Governance in te Ligt of Birgit Brock-Utne’s Findings... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...133 Øyvind Østerud:Evolving metapors of development... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...138 he Language of Instruction in Africa... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..143 Kwesi Kwaa Pra: he Language of Instruction: Conundrum in Africa... ...143 Adama Ouane:My Journey to and troug a Multilingual Landscape.. ... ...164 Ingse Skattum:Frenc or National Languages as Means of Instruction? Reflections on Frenc Domination and Possible Future Canges... ... ... ... ...172 Harold Herman:he start and progress of a Language of Instruction researcProject in Africa – te Spirit of Bagamoyo.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...182 Ladislau Semali:Indigenous Pedagogies and Languages for Peace and Development... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...196
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Indigenous Knowledge, Language and Culture... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..209 Jennifer Hays:he Oter Side of "All": Comparing Global Discourses of Education wit a Community’s Strategic Coices - te Case of te Nyae Nyae Ju/’oansi in Namibia.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...209 Rodney Kofi Hopson:“Oshinglisha oshapi eyi etia teka”: Englis, Colonialt st Power and Education in 20 Century Owambo and 21 century Namibia 221 Anders Breidlid:Education, Indigenous Knowledge and SustainableDevelopment in an African Context. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...232 Roger Avenstrup:Discoursing E-Value-ation: he Values Dimension... ... ... ...242 he Language of Instruction in OtHer Colonial Contexts.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..251 Carolyne Dyer:Language, Literacy and Social Equity in Indian GovernmentScools.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...251 Laksman Punci Weddirage:Science Education and Englis Medium:he Sri Lankan Experience... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...260 Arnfinn Muruvik Vonen:Sign Languages and Linguistic Imperialism.. ... ... ...267 Also tHe Nordic Languages are tHreatened... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..275 Birgit Brock-Utne:Is Norwegian hreatened as an Academic Language?... ...275 Per Åke Lindblom:Are te Nordic Languages hreatened as AcademicLanguages?... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...283 Language in tHe Courts – Examples from Tanzania and Norway... ... ... ... ..289 Haroub Otman:he Politics of Language and te Language of Politics.. ...289 Ståle Eskeland:he Importance of Language in Court – a Norwegian Case-Study... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...297 he Difficulties of PublisHing in Africa.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..301 Kwesi Kwaa Pra:Random hougts on te CASAS Publising Experience 301 Walter Bgoya:Reclaiming our Heart: Publising in African Languagesst in te 21 Century. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...308 Torill Aagot Halvorsen:320he ICT language in Tanzania’s Higer Education
About te Autors. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 329
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
his book is intended as a textbook for students in political science, policy studies, peace studies, development studies and socio-linguistics. We also ope it will be of interest for te general public. We ave cosen Mkuki na Nyota in Tanzania out of te solidarity wit African publising. his publising company is a part of te African Books Collective, wic as an office in Oxford, UK, and collaborates wit Micigan State University Press.
he capters and articles presented in tis book all deal wit language. hey ave all been presented eiter as keynotes, plenary panel talks or papers in parallel sessions at te IMPLAN (Implications of Language for Peace and Development) conference rd t eld at te University of Oslo on te 3 and 4 of May 2008. We ere want to tank te students, especially Line Kjølstad Gran, wo functioned as te conference secretary, for teir great work in making te conference a success.
It was sad to get te news about te sudden deat of two of our most dedicated autors, Haroub Otman and Roger Avenstrup, before te book was publised.
We want to tank te Faculty of Education at te University of Oslo, te Norwegian Researc Council troug te Network for Researc and Evaluation in Education and Development (NETREED) project and NORAD for te generous economic support wic made te conference possible. NETREED was a network for Norwegian based researcers and evaluators in education and development (ttp:// www.netreed.uio.no). It was led by Birgit Brock-Utne and supported by te Norwegian Researc Council for seven years from 2001 troug 2007. Permission was given to transfer a smaller sum leftover to 2008 and support te publising of tis book. For tat we are grateful.
he conference was organised by Birgit’s students and was eld to mark er sifting of scene from a fulltime professor at te Institute for Educational Researc to a more independent academic, researcer and consultant. Se will continue to ave an office at te Institute for Educational Researc and be engaged in some teacing and especially tutoring of P.D. and Master students connected to er LOITASA (Language of Instruction in Tanzania and Sout Africa) project wic will go on until 2012. Se as accepted an offer for te first part of 2010 to teac at Wartburg College in te US and elp build up a peace studies programme tere.
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LANGUAGE IS POWER
By Birgit Brock-Utne and Gunnar Garbo
“Wen I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in a rater scornful tone, “it means just wat I coose it to mean - neiter more nor less.” “he question is,” said Alice, “weter you can make words mean so many different tings.” “he question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “wic is to be master - tat’s all.” 1 (Caroll 1871) .
ïntroductîon
Humpty Dumpty in te cildren’s book Alice in Wonderland written more tan a century ago teaces Alice tat language is power. It is a question of wo as te power to define concepts, to “name te world” as Robert Arnove says in is article in tis book. Language can be used to conceal meanings, to distort facts. he same penomenon can be given different names depending upon wo does te naming. he same person may be called a freedom figter by some people and a terrorist by oters for committing exactly te same acts.
As mentioned in our “acknowledgements” most of te capters and articles in tis book were presented at te IMPLAN (Implications of Language for Peace and Development) conference eld in Oslo in May 2008. he tree plenaries at te conference were preceded by tree keynotes. he plenaries as well as te keynotes 2 concentrated on main researc fields in Birgit’s academic career, peace studies, 3 4 education and development, and African languages as languages of instruction he first two of tese academic fields are also fields in wic Gunnar as publised extensively, toug mostly in our native tongue, Norwegian. Wen it comes to peace studies, see e.g. Garbo (1975, 1995 and 2003). Wen it comes to development studies, see e.g. Garbo (1985, 1993 and Brock-Utne and Garbo (eds) 1999).
For tis book we ave given te tree keynote speakers: Carol Con, Steven Klees and Kwesi Kwaa Pra, eac around 20 pages to develop teir capters. Carol Con introduces te discussion on te language in te security discourse, Steven Klees introduces te discussion on development speak, wile Kwesi Kwaa Pra introduces
1 he real name of Lewis Carroll was Carles Lutwidge Dodgson. hroug te Looking Glass is te sequel toAlice’s Adventures in Wonderland(1865) 2 see e.g. Brock-Utne (1985, 1989, 2000a, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, 2009d) 3 see e.g. Brock-Utne (2000b, 2002a, 2006, 2007a, Brock-Utne and Tungesvik (eds) 2002) 4 see e.g. Brock-Utne (2001a, 2002b, 2003, 2007b, Brock-Utne and Hopson (eds) 2005, Brock-Utne and Skattum (eds) 2009) - 1 -