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Knowledge at Work

296 pages
This book's unique perspective stems from its “knowledge diamond” framework to examine how individuals, communities, organizations and host industries reciprocally influence each other in the course of knowledge work.

  • This highly topical book focuses on work-based projects as a focus for organizational learning.
  • Establishes the link between individual, community, organization and industry learning.
  • Suggests that organizations need to recognise and understand this link if they are to capitalize on project-based learning.
  • Incorporates material on project-based learning in virtual communities.
  • Refers to different examples, such as the film industry, the software industry and the boat building industry.
  • Includes end-of-chapter questions provoking reflection and discussion.
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List of Figures List of Tables List of Case Studies Preface Acknowledgments
Chapter 1
Knowledge Workers and Knowledge Work
Knowledge Work in the Global Economy What Do Knowledge Workers Do? Explicit and Tacit Knowledge Who Owns the Knowledge? Knowing and Learning The Interplay of Knowing and Learning Knowledge Work as Practice Communication between Practices Tools for Knowledge Work Closed versus Open Perspectives Participants in Knowledge Work The individual The community The organization The industry The Knowledge Diamond The Chapters to Follow Questions for Reflection
xi xii xiii xvi xx
4 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 20 21
Chapter 2
Individual Knowledge at Work
Three Ways of Knowing Knowing-why Knowing-how Knowing-whom Interdependence among the Ways of Knowing Knowing-why and knowing-how Knowing-why and knowing-whom Knowing-how and knowing-whom The Individual and the Knowledge Diamond One individual and another The individual and the community The individual and the organization The individual and the industry Keeping the Individual in View Other Ways of Knowing? Free Agency and Trust Networks and Social Capital Tools for Individuals Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 3
Community Knowledge at Work
Three Dimensions of Community Activity Joint enterprise Shared repertoire Mutual engagement Interdependence among the Dimensions Joint enterprise and shared repertoire Joint enterprise and mutual engagement Shared repertoire and mutual engagement The Community and the Knowledge Diamond One community and another The community and the organization The community and the industry The community and the individual Keeping the Community in View Other Meanings of Community Organizational Communities
28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 32 33 35 37 38 40 41 42 44 45 46
52 53 53 53 54 55 55 55 56 56 57 58 60 61 62 63
Occupational Communities Community Social Capital The Returns on Community Social Capital Community and Inter-Community Knowledge Work Tools for Communities Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 4
Organizational Knowledge at Work
The Organization’s Core Competencies Organizational culture Organizational capabilities Organizational connections Interdependencies among the Core Competencies Culture and capabilities Culture and connections Capabilities and connections The Organization and the Knowledge Diamond One organization and another The organization and the individual The organization and the community The organization and the industry Keeping the Organization in View Knowledge Transfer in Strategic Alliances Exploitation versus Exploration Codification versus Personalization Closed versus Open Innovation Tools for Organizations Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 5
Industry Knowledge at Work
Three Attributes of Industry Activity Industry milieu Industry recipes Industry system Interdependence among Industry Attributes Industry milieu and industry recipes
65 66 67 69 70 71 72
77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81 83 84 86 86 87 90 91 93 95 96 97
104 104 104 105 105 105
Industry milieu and industry system Industry recipes and industry system The Industry and the Knowledge Diamond One industry and another The industry and the individual The industry and the community The industry and the organization Keeping the Industry in View Industry Regions and Regional Advantage Regional Closure versus Brokerage Knowledge Transfer between Industries Business Ecosystems Tools for Industry Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 6
Projects and Knowledge Work
The Evolution of Project-Based Knowledge Variation: the beginnings of exploration Selection: between exploration and exploitation Retention: the shift to exploitation Projects as Episodes in Knowledge Work Contrasting Project-Based Learning Experiences Low performance, low learning High performance, low learning Low performance, high learning High performance, high learning Learning Landscapes and their Beneficiaries Organizations and Project Organizing Projects, Practice and “Boundary Objects” Tools for Project Work Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 7
Virtual Knowledge Work
Virtual versus Physical Space Properties of Virtual Communications Brokerage and Closure in Virtual Work
106 106 107 108 109 111 112 114 114 116 117 119 121 122 123
130 131 131 132 133 134 134 136 137 138 140 141 144 146 148 148
155 156 158
Managing Virtual Projects Working with a distant subsidiary Working on a complex project Selecting communications media Facilitating Cross-Disciplinary Teams Open-Source Software Communities Grid Computing From e-Business to Virtual Product Testing Tools for Virtual Knowledge Work Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 8
Global Knowledge and Learning
The Global Organization Harnessing and exploiting local knowledge Acting locally, thinking globally Born global through international alliances Knowledge Flows in Global Organizations The Individual’s Role in Global Knowledge Work The Community’s Role in Global Knowledge Work Industry’s Role in Global Knowledge Work Local versus Global Knowledge Accessing Global Knowledge Workers Tools for Global Knowledge Work Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 9
Intellectual Property in Knowledge Work
Intellectual Property and the Knowledge Diamond The individual The community The organization The industry A Changing Global Context Individual–organization conflict Contrasting organizational strategies National initiatives Open knowledge sharing
159 160 162 163 166 167 168 170 172 173 173
180 181 182 184 186 187 188 189 191 193 194 195 196
202 202 204 205 206 208 209 210 211 213
An Intellectual Property Paradox Tools Related to Intellectual Property Summary Questions for Reflection
Chapter 10
Participating in the Knowledge Economy
The Knowledge Diamond at Work The individual The community The organization The industry Interdependencies Why, How and with Whom We Work Conditions Underlying Knowledge Work Alignment Conflict Open versus closed positions Processes behind Knowledge Work Making and sustaining connections The evolution of projects Collaboration over the web Contributing to global knowledge work Developing intellectual property Using the knowledge work toolkit Playing Parallel Roles A Final Message Questions for Reflection
About the Authors Bibliography Index
215 216 217 218
225 225 225 225 226 226 227 228 228 230 230 231 231 232 232 233 233 234 234 235 236
238 239 253