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Les mots-clefs de l'action commerciale

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160 pages

Sommaire : Économie / Finance / Vie de l'entreprise / Technologie et automatisation / Moyens de communication / Mercatique et vente / Commerce et relations internationales.

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L’ÉCONOMIE Economic issues
accord/transaction/entente deal The local government worked hard to complete a deal that would eventually save thousands of jobs. accord agreement/accord At the center of the agency’s new push is a $14 billion agreement to allow Europe to explore space without help from the U.S. (à) court/moyen/long terme in the short/medium/long term/run They will run out of capital in the short term, if they keep spending so much money.
atout asset Specialised agencies help concerns to maximise the efficient use of their most valuable assets : people.
avoir lieu/survenir to occur/happen/take place The crash happened and thereafter the country experienced its longest and hard est depression.
composant(e) component The most important component in any economy is the quality of the workforce.
continuer/avancer to proceed The C.E.O. paused to have a look at his notes, and then proceeded with his ques tions.
diversification diversification Diversification has its attractions and its pitfalls. domaine field/domain This problem lies outside my specific do main ; I cannot handle it. économie economy “Creating a genuinely hightech economy will require more than a skilled and obe dient workforce” say specialists. économie planifiée planned economy Planned economy in the Eastern block has entailed huge disparities between the regions. économie de marché market economy/economics Whatever its risks, free enterprise is necessary in market economy. économie officielle aboveground/visible economy Legal economic and financial proce dures are sometimes called “above ground economy” in specialised mag azines. marché noir the black market They were buying dollars on the black market when the police caught them. marché clandestin/ économie souterraine underground market/economy submerged/shadow/unrecorded/ secondary/informal/concealed/ hidden/black/parallel/secret economy
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L’ÉCONOMIE
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The underground economy includes all the moneymaking activities that are not declared to the tax authorities. économies d’échelle economies of scale The development of the carmaking industry in the 1960s has enabled many companies to achieve many economies of scale. libéralisme économique/ libre entreprise free enterprise Most economies are based on free en terprise and competition. science économique economics Enthusiasts saw Keneysian economics as a delicate course between the ex tremes of Smithian market economics and Marxian collectivism. système économique mondial world’s economic system The basic problems must be tackled by a reform of the world’s economic sys tem. économique (qui a rapport à l’économie) economic Singapore lies at the heart of the world’s most dynamic economic re gion. économique/de façon écono mique (en dépensant moins) economical/economically The bigger the plant, the lower the cost per unit : that is one way of work ing economically. crise économique economic crisis (pluriel : crises) The current economic crisis will come to an end one day, whatever the gov ernment’s policy. bouleversement économique economic shakeout These measures could produce over capacity in the industry and a shake out sometime in the next few years.
en jeu at stake There is more at stake than market shares of the next generation of computer hard ware. étendue scope The politics of a country would be outside the scope of a tourist guide book. évaluer to assess/evaluate He was unable to assess the value of our house. facette facet Personnel work has many very exciting facets. facteur factor Many different factors are working to keep wages and inflation low. groupe de pression lobby/pressure group A powerful antismoking lobby is getting organized throughout the whole country. défendre les intérêts/faire pres sion (auprès des autorités) to lobby If recession goes on, industries may lobby to safeguard their domestic markets. modèle pattern Economic and industrial patterns are changing ; TUs will have to adapt if they want to survive. mondial worldwide/global In the telephone handset sector, the world wide industry is currently dominated by two Japanese companies : Nec and Pana sonic.
une moyenne/moyen(adj.) an average/average (adjective) Taking as basis the average figures for the last 5 years, we can say that the adult male population is stable. phase phase With sales slumping and profits off by a third, the company has entered an unwel come new phase. phénomène phenomenon (pluriel : phenomena) International terrorism is a worrying phe nomenon. produit intérieur brut (P.I.B.) Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.) The total value of goods and services pro duced within a country in one year forms the G.D.P. produit national brut (P.N.B.) Gross National Product (G.N.P.) The G.N.P. consists of the G.D.P. plus in come from abroad, i.e. earned by nation als abroad. politique (ensemble de mesures) policy These countries’ policies are rational, predictable and welcoming to foreigners. politique (science/activité) politics It’s becoming harder and harder to be involved in politics and to keep a steady professional activity at the same time. décider d’une politique to decide on a policy It is high time the Cabinet decided on a serious environment policy. mettre en œuvre une politique to implement a policy A new policy has just been implement ed to help spur production.
ECONOMIC ISSUES
exécuter une politique to carry out a policy Although it was well defined and car ried out properly, the policy failed to be fruitful. (pour)suivre une politique to pursue a policy The government is pursuing a suc cessful policy of nonintervention. faire face à to face (verbe transitif) Eastern European economies must face a 30% cut in Soviet oil supplies. pourcentage percentage Only a small percentage of human beings have a decent life. privatiser/dénationaliser to privatize/denationalize British Airways was privatized in Febru ary 1987. nationaliser to nationalize The British government nationalized the railways in 1948 projet/plan d’action scheme/project J. Delors solved the biggest financial cri sis in the E.E.C’s history and launched the 1992 project. relance économique industrial recovery The development of the National Health Service was supposedly dependent on in dustrial recovery. somnolent torpid In recent years the government has made futile attempts to reverse the country’s tor pid economic performance. statistiques statistics Ministry of Justice statistics reveal that 2,500 people were brought to trial for vio lating intellectual property rights.
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tendance trend/tendency Various trends are altering the qualities for which today’s employer is typically looking. traité treaty The E.E.C. was created on March 25, 1957 when the member countries signed the Treaty of Rome. vie industrielle industrial life The mass of legislation affecting industri al life has compelled firms to recruit ex perts to deal with personnel. production industrielle globale overall industrial production They have revealed a MaytoJune de cline of 1.5% in overall industrial pro duction.
1 LES VARIATIONS Fluctuations
aplanir to iron out Emergency measures are being taken to iron out this social unrest. arrêter dans sa croissance/cesser to stunt/halt A lack of fresh capital may stunt our growth. considérable/énorme sweeping Another brutal energy crisis would entail sweeping changes in the industrial world. croissance/développement growth The rate of economic growth basically de pends on increased productivity and the size of the labor force.
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taux de croissance growth rate The French economic growth rate is not so bad as some may say. augmenter de to rise by + % The price of bread has recently risen sharply by 25%. s’accroître de/se développer to increase/grow by + % The government recently increased by half its offer of a 4% pay increase for most N.H.S. workers. s’étendre/être en expansion to expand An economist at Frankfurt’s Com merzbank predicts a united German economy should still expand 3.5% in 1991. augmenter/pousser/stimuler to boost/push up The development of hitech has pushed up costs faster than ever. rapide expansion boom être en rapide expansion to boom Together with the boom in computers, a lot of new problems have cropped up. s’envoler/décoller to soar/skyrocket/take off After linking up with Brazil’s largest beer distributor, PepsiCo’s sales in Brazil took off. monter en flèche to shoot up After shooting up at an annual rate of 3.5% in the first quarter of last year, productivity slowed to an annual growth rate of just 1% in the final quarter. (se) gonfler to surge It will take another year or so to estab lish whether last year’s surge in pro ductivity marked the end of a decade of poor performance by U.S. indus tries.
montée/gonflement surge A quick surge in labor costs is very un likely even if unemployment edges lower again. faire un bond to jump The price of oil will certainly jump sharply if the war does not stop. culminer to peak pointe/sommet peak Demand for electricity was at its peak in January. dépasser une quantité to top Their profits have topped £2,000,000 this year. empêcher l’augmentation to hold down The government are doing their best to try and hold down the rate of interest. inflation inflation If inflation stays above 10%, this will be another year of doubledigit rises. déclencher to trigger It was estimated that unemployment could have fallen to 5.8% without trig gering inflation. inflation galopante raging inflation Even dissenters to this policy do not see a return to raging inflation. nouvelle flambée de l’inflation rekindling inflation European leaders are fearful of rekind ling inflation. vaincre l’inflation to defeat inflation According to some experts, price con trols alone cannot defeat inflation. taux d’inflation inflation rate
ECONOMIC ISSUES
The inflation rate is measured by the weighted index, which includes not only the retail price index, but also other elements. inflation à deux chiffres twofigure inflation doubledigit inflation Doubledigit inflation could turn into triple digits, recession could become depression and foreign debt would go unpaid. compte tenu de l’inflation adjusted for inflation Adjusted for inflation, our prices have not increased exaggeratedly. manquer de (ne pas avoir du tout) to lack something (verbe transitif) manquer de/ne pas avoir assez to be short of/run out of People have bought up supermarkets as they were so scared to run out of flour and sugar. (un) manque de (a) lack of Everybody more or less suffers from a lack of free time nowadays. pénurie de shortage of The region’s overall shortage of hy dropower is cramping expansion of the aluminium industry. nul(le) nil This new robot reduced labour costs to al most nil. période d’austérité austere times programme d’austérité austerity package We’ve entered austere times and these measures aim at restoring the coun try’s economic growth. politique de restriction belttightening policy These two consecutive belttightening policies are purely unbearable.
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L’ÉCONOMIE
perspective (morne/brillante) prospect/outlook (bleak/bright) When the President released its annual economic outlook, it gave no hint that any new policy initiatives were in store. perspective sombre gloomy outlook Despite the gloomy outlook, our poli cy has proved totally successful. prévision forecast The economic forecasts for the coming months are quite optimistic. prévoir to forecast/foresee/anticipate/ predict Some British forecasters predict pric es could start falling by next year. planifier/projeter to plan/program(me) We haven’t planned our holidays yet ; we should actually call the travel agency. en vue de in anticipation of/at sight of Many factories have ordered huge quantities of ore in anticipation of a shortage of raw materials. ralentissement slack Some of the slack in jobs lost to gadgets may disappear as industries become more productive. ralentir to slacken The pace of growth has slackened dramatically over the past ten months. déclin decline Gold’s big decline on world markets accompanied by a bad drought have hit South Africa hard. être en déclin to decline/decay Shipbuilding has been a declining sec tor for years now.
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réduire to shrink/cut European governments have already cut interest rates and taxes to stimu late growth. baisser/chuter de to decrease/fall/drop/ depress (by + %) Output per hour was depressed by rapid growth in the labour force. faire baisser/déprimer to depress dépression depression Ahead of us lies not a global depres sion of historic proportions but an oldfashioned recession. récession recession At a time of recession, the war adds up to a sharper economic, social and po litical concern for different govern ments. s’affaiblir/diminuer to dwindle My savings are gradually dwindling away ; I’ll be broke before long. chuter to plummet In Taipei, shares have plummeted 65% from their yearend high. chute/diminution falloff If there is a falloff in Britainbound traffic next summer, British Airways could be in trouble. s’effondrer to collapse Their project helped the world price of tin to collapse when the mine’s output first hit the market. effondrement collapse A collapse of international coopera tion between rich and poor countries should have serious consequences. baisse/marasme slump
Giant firms used to export only when there was a domestic slump. être dans un marasme profond to be deep in the doldrums The car industry is presently deep in the doldrums. baisse périodique trough The business cycle is a series of peaks and troughs. baisse d’activité downturn/downswing The slump is partly a reflection of a worldwide downturn. renouveau/redémarrage revival/recovery In 1984, the economic recovery accounted for America’s soaring spirits. se remettre de/redémarrer to recover from/revive/pick up/ to gain momentum Fortunately, trade is picking up again. remontée upturn/upswing An upturn in business activity would really be appreciated. être de nouveau sur la bonne voie to be back on track remettre sur la bonne voie to get back on track The country may have to move more dramatically in the direction of a free market to get its economy back on track. mesure de relance de l’écono mie par injection de capitaux publics a pumppriming measure European governments are not likely to engage further pumppriming measures. progresser/avancer to progress Work on the new skyscrapers is pro gressing quite well. prospère prosperous We are looking forward to more pros perous times.
ECONOMIC ISSUES
prospérer to prosper/flourish/thrive Baron Marcel Bich bought the Water man Pen Corp. in 1958 and built it into the flourishing Bic Pen Corp. prospérité prosperity As prosperity has spread, it has creat ed a general sense of wellbeing among the people. stagnation stagnation Economic stagnation means nothing good for business. stagner to stagnate If prices stagnate at $25 per bbl (bar rel), Saudi Arabia should sweep in an extra $38 million. être saturé de to be glutted with All supermarkets are glutted with to matoes because of this summer’s record crop. surchauffe overheating Higher productivity supports the notion that the economy can absorb more work ers without overheating. zéro zero Zero inflation : that’s what the govern ment are aiming at.
2 LES CATÉGORIES SOCIO-ECONOMIQUES Socioeconomic groups
assistant(e) social(e) social worker (G.B.) welfare worker (U.S.)
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L’ÉCONOMIE
Every school has a social worker. She/he deals with the most deprived children. bureaucrate bureaucrat The Japanese style of investment reas sures local U.S. bureaucrats. classe moyenne citadine urban middle class In this recession, the urban middle class has begun to feel the taste of unemploy ment. classe ouvrière working class The working class does not usually sup port the Conservative Party. manœuvre labourer He is an electrical machine labourer and lives in one of the capital’s poor est districts. un col bleu a bluecollar (worker) This company is short of bluecollar workers such as machinists. un col blanc a whitecollar (worker) Whitecollar workers are employed in offices rather than workshops. ouvrier nonqualifié unskilled worker Nobody is quite sure whether robots will definitely replace unskilled work ers. ouvrier spécialisé semiskilled worker He is a semiskilled worker in welding and plumbing. ouvrier qualifié skilled worker The economy is short of skilled blue collar workers. ouvrier professionnel craftsman In Egypt, you can still buy carpet made by the finest craftsmen.
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travailleur occasionnel casual worker In summer, many casual workers are employed to pick the fruit. travailleur immigré migrant/guest worker Some jobs are held by migrant work ers because other workers are reluc tant to take them. personne originaire (d’un pays/ d’une ville) native He came here from Turkey fifteen years ago and now speaks German like a native. travailleur étranger foreign worker The number of foreign workers in Iran has fallen by 150,000 since the depar ture of the Shah. un étranger a foreigner A foreigner is a person belonging to a race or country different to his/her own. un étranger (non naturalisé) an alien An alien is a foreigner who has not be come a citizen of the country where he/she is living. couple sans enfants ayant un double revenu DINKs (DoubleIncome NoKids) The number of DINKs in America is in creasing dramatically nowadays. fonctionnaire civil servant (G.B.) public officer (U.S.) The civil servants come from France and hold all the office jobs right down to the bank tellers and postal clerks. les indépendants the selfemployed The selfemployed are said to be very in dependent ; however, it is not always true.
ingénieur engineer Japan now produces twice as many engi neers and as a result Japanese products are better engineered. jeune cadre dynamique YUPPIE (Young Urban Profes sional) (souvent pluriel YUPPIES) YUPPIES like spending a lot of money and having a fashionable way of life. professions libérales/ les professionels (par opposition aux amateurs) professionals Last year, 4,700 Singaporeans emigrated. Most of them were wellqualified profes sionals. 3 LA VIE SOCIALE Social issues
allocations familiales family allowances To influence the birthrate, the govern ment might give family allowances of the same size to all children. assimilation integration/assimilation Racial integration in the American school system is far from achieved. bénéficiaire recipient/beneficiary Exporting countries do not always know how to meet the needs of the recipients.
creuset de civilisations melting pot A melting pot is a place where racial amalgamation and social and cultural as similation are going on.
ECONOMIC ISSUES
denrées/produits alimentaires foodstuff(s) The North is glutted with foodstuff ; aiding the South is a way of getting rid of food surpluses.
effectuer un recensement to hold/take a census The Americans took their 21st census in 1990.
enseignement/instruction/ éducation education Our country’s economic success depends on the good education of our children.
espace vital par habitant per capita living space With an average per capita living space of thirteen square feet, the city’s 12 m resi dents endure the worst overcrowding in China. Etatprovidence Welfare State The Welfare State gives money to the poor or the unemployed and provides them with free medical treatment. excédents (alimentaires) food surpluses Food aid seems the perfect solution to the West’s need to reduce its surpluses. foyer household In the U.S., the T.V. sets of a sample of households are connected to an audimeter. frapper/toucher to strike Since January, the city has been ravaged by a hepatitis epidemic that has struck more than 300,000 people.
ghetto social social ghetto Money is not enough to destroy social ghettos ; mentalities must also change.
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L’ÉCONOMIE
logement housing Too many people only have access to quite bad housing, which should be dealt with in priority. mallogés badlyhoused In our county, the badlyhoused are get ting ready to demonstrate pretty soon. bidonvilles shanty towns Shanty towns, where poor people live, are made up of badlybuilt houses of thin metal, wood, etc. taudis slums Slums and shanty towns should be de molished to avoid impending disasters in already overcrowded cities. migration migration Largescale migrations are always ac companied by ethnic conflicts. émigration emigration Emigration is sometimes considered as a solution to some economic problems. les réfugiés refugees Refugees leave their countries because they are persecuted “on grounds of race, religion, nationality or politics”. immigration immigration The U.S. and Australia have always been countries of immigration. minorités raciales racial/ethnic minorities Why are racial minorities persecuted ? organisme body Different voluntary bodies do good work for children around the world. personnes âgées elderly (people) (adj. et nom) In 1989, for the first time, Honda used an elderly couple in its advertising in America.
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personne à charge dependant When you fill out your tax sheet, you must state the number of dependants you have. produits de première nécessité/denrées de base staple commodities In some countries, staple commodities, such as bread, eggs, dairy produce and meat, should be subsidized. racisme racism Will racism be eradicated one day ? discrimination raciale racial discrimination Racial discrimination still exists in many countries, such as South Africa. préjugé racial racial prejudice Parliament is about to pass a new law to discourage racial prejudice. retraite (l’action/l’état) retirement He was given a T.V. set on his retirement. retraite anticipée early retirement In an effort to reduce staff numbers, the management has offered early re tirement to people over 50. prendre sa retraite to retire Before, parents would hand their business over to their children when they retired. un(e) retraité(e) a retiree Britain and many other Western Eu ropean countries are faced with a se rious issue : fewer workers cannot fund more retirees. un(e) retraité(e) an oldage pensioner (G.B.) a senior citizen (U.S.) Oldage pensioners can get a special card to travel cheaper on public trans ports.