Family Guide to Health

Family Guide to Health

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English
610 pages

Description

The essential family reference when it comes to understanding the treatment and prevention of illnesses that affect the human body.
A reference work that has benefited from the participation of some 300 physicians, medical specialists and university professors.

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Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 08 mars 2013
Nombre de lectures 20
EAN13 9782764411896
Licence : Tous droits réservés
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page €. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

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FAMILYGUIDE TOHEALTH Visualize, Heal, Prevent
Extrait de la publication
FAMILYGUIDE TOHEALTH Visualize, Heal, Prevent
QA INTERNATIONAL
Extrait de la publication
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is the work of a team of experienced and passionate medical illustrators, graphic artists, and editors. It was developed based on the needs of the general public from an initial work validated by close to 300 health professionals: specialists in cardiology, oncology, genetics, obstetrics, pediatrics, immunology, neurology, surgery, urology, nutrition, psychology, rheumatology, toxicology, pneumology, hepatology, orthopedics, traumatology, gastroenterology, opthalmology, and other life sciences. We would like to thank these doctors, professors, and researchers affiliated with North American and European institutions.
Very special recognition is given to Dr. Éric Philippe, professor at the Université Laval's Faculty of Medecine, who reviewed theFamily Guide to Healthand who made sure that we had presented with rigor and clarity the different systems and parts of the human body, as well as the diseases that may affect it and the treatments that they require. His assistance as well as that of the other technical reviewers were essential in order to make this book an essential reference for the whole family.
DISCLAIMER The contents of this work are offered strictly for informational purposes and cannot substitute for the advice and counsel of your doctor or of a healthcare professional. Consequently, the information provided herein does not replace a medical consultation. All of the data have been carefully verified. If, in spite of the precautions taken and the care given in the preparation and the writing of this family health guide, it is found to contain some errors, this does not engage the liability of the publisher and of the numerous collaborators associated with its production.
TheFamily Guide to Healthwas created and designed by QA International 329 de la Commune Street West, 3rd floor Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2Y 2E1 T: 514.499.3000 F: 514.499.3010 www.qainternational.com © QA International, 2010. All rights reserved. Any reproduction or use of the contents of this work, in any form and by any means whatsoever  electronic or physical reproduction, including photocopying and recording  without the written permission of QA International is prohibited.
ISBN : 9782764411896 Version 1.2
Extrait de la publication
PUBLISHER QA International, a division of Les Éditions Québec Amérique
President: Jacques Fortin VicePresident: Caroline Fortin
EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Martine Podesto
EDITORS-IN-CHIEF MarieAnne Legault Stéphane Batigne
EDITORIAL STAFF Mathieu Burgard Myriam Caron Belzile Julie Cailliau Ophélie Delaunay Claire de Guillebon Christine Leroy JeanFrançois Noulin Aurélie Olivier Olivier Peyronnet RoseHélène Philippot
PRINT DESIGN Mélanie GiguèreGilbert
GRAPHIC DESIGN Johanne Plante
LAYOUT Julien Brisebois Émilie Corriveau Pascal Goyette Caroline Grégoire François Hénault Cécile Lalonde Karine Lévesque Danielle Quinty Shadia Toumani
ILLUSTRATION Danielle Bader Manuela Bertoni Jocelyn Gardner Mélanie GiguèreGilbert Alain Lemire Raymond Martin Émilie McMahon Anouk Noël
Under the direction of Sylvain Bélanger, medical illustration specialist
PHOTOGRAPHIC RESEARCH Olivier Delorme Gilles Vézina
IT MANAGER Martin Lemieux
PROGRAMMING Éric Gagnon Gabriel TrudeauStHilaire
PROJECT MANAGEMENT Nathalie Fréchette Véronique Loranger
SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OF THIS EDITION Principal Reviewer: Dr. Éric Philippe, PhD St. John Ambulance (First Aid) Extenso  Nutrition Reference Center of the University of Montréal, www.extenso.org (The Digestive System — The Health of the Digestive System; Childhood and Adolescence — Diet diversification; Prevention — Nutrition) Dr. Isabelle Arsenault (The Reproductive System — Sexually Transmitted Infections) Christina Blais, M.Sc., professional dietitian (The Senses — Smell, Taste) Dr. Pierre Blondeau (The Senses — Eye Diseases) Dr. Olivier Deguine (The Senses — Balance Disturbances) Dr. LouisGilles Durand (The Cardiovascular System) Dr. Daniel Grenier (The Digestive System— Oral Diseases, Cavities) Dr. Sylvain Ladouceur (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Bernard Lambert (The Reproductive System — Diseases Affecting Women) Dr. Robert Patenaude (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Claude Poirier (The Respiratory System) Dr. Claude Rouillard (The Nervous System — Drug Addiction) Dr. Julio Soto (The Immune System — p.292 to 301, 380, 381) Dr. Julie Thibault (Directory of Symptoms) Dr. Catherine Vincent (The Digestive System — Hepatitis)
TRANSLATION TransPerfect
COPYEDITING Veronica Schami Editorial Services
INDEX François Trahan
PRINT MANAGEMENT Salvatore Parisi
CONTRIBUTORS QA International thanks the following people for their contribution to this work: Émilie Bellemare, Dr. Vincent Bernier, Pascal Bilodeau, Sonia Charette, Mathieu Douville, François Fortin, Véronique Gosselin, Dr. Claude Lamarche, Pascal Laniel, Samuel Larochelle, Benoit Nantais, Josée Noiseux, Odile Perpillou, Serge Robert, Anne Rouleau, Sylvain Simard, Kien Tang and Anne Tremblay.
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HOW TO USE THIS BOOK TheFamily Guide to Healthis divided into 20 themes which most often correspond to a mechanism or system in the human body. The themes are divided into subthemes, then into subjects that describe the anatomy, functioning and diseases associated with a group of organs. The contents of the encyclopedia can be accessed in several ways:
 from the table of contents, which presents the detailed outline of the work;  from the index, which lists the work’s keywords and makes it possible to quickly find  the information required on a particular subject;  from the directory of symptoms, which makes it possible to find, based on a symptom,  diseases that can be connected with it, and the corresponding pages in the book.
Subjects The subjects covering diseases are identifiable by the colored outline.
Subtheme
Theme Each theme is marked by a distinct color.
Glossary term The shaded terms are defined in the glossary.
Introduction The text of the introduction states the basis of the subject and is completed by articles.
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Bacteria may be introduced in the urinary tract and multiply, causing a urinary tract infection. The germ responsible is oftenEscherichia coli, a bacterium that is part of the normal intestinal flora. Contamination of the urinary tract may occur upon sexual | Diseases relations, but may also be due to hygienic negligence, malformations of the urinary tract, or obstruction of urine flow (urinary stone, prostate adenoma, etc.). Urinary tract infections may also result from physiological changes that occur during pregnancy or may arise spontaneously in girls under 2 years of age.
The urinary system
Escherichia coli Escherichia coli, also called coliform bacteria, is one of the primary bacteria of the digestive tract. It is the leading cause of urinary tract infections.
Bladder Urethra Infection of the urethra, which especially affects men, is often due to sexually transmitted infections. Genital infections… page 441 Urethral orifice
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
SYMPTOMS: Painful, urgent, and frequent urination; cloudy and smelly urine, containing blood. Pyelonephritis: back and abdominal pains near the affected kidney, high fever with chills.
TREATMENT: Antibioticsand elimination of risk factors.
PREVENTION: Proper hydration, frequent urination, good personal hygiene.
406
Summary box Each subject coveringa disease contains a summary box whichpresents an overall view of the symptoms, treatments and preventive methods that are associated with it.
Rectum The rectum, like the intestines, is home to numerous bacteria that make up the intestinal flora.
Anus Cross section of lower urinary tracts in women In women, urinary tract infections are often caused by the passing of bacteria from the rectum to the urethral orifice, then to the bladder.
CYSTITIS Bladder infection, or cystitis, is generally benign and relatively common. A woman's anatomy, characterized by the short length of the urethra and the proximity of the anus and the urethral orifice, makes her more susceptible to this type of infection. Cystitis notably entails painful, urgent, and frequent urination. A cytobacteriological analysis of the urine will recognize an infectious agent and antibiotic treatment will begin if a bacterium is detected. Cystitis can reoccur and, in the absence of treatment, the infection can spread to the kidneys. Urine analysis… page 403
Illustration Very realistic illustrations, combined with terms and short complementary texts, aid in the understanding of the subject.
Article
Footnote The footnote directs the reader to a page of the encyclopedia which contains additional information.
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
PYELONEPHRITIS Pyelonephritis is a kidneyinfection. In itsacuteform, it often follows cystitis when the bacteria present in the bladder ascend the ureters to reach the kidneys. The slowing down of the urinary flow, caused by the presence of a urinary stone or malformation, also promotes the multiplication of bacteria in the bladder and their ascent to the kidneys.Chronicpyelonephritis, which is more rare and develops slowly, may lead to kidney atrophy and kidney failure. Kidney failure… page412
PREVENTING URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS
Here is some advice for preventing urinary tract infections and their recurrence.
DRINK SUFFICIENTLY Drink 1½ to 2 quarts (1.4 to 1.9 liters) of water every day. Berrybased juices, such as cranberry juice, are also recommended to prevent the recurrence of urinary tract infections.
URINATE AS SOON AS YOU FEEL THE URGE Retaining urine promotes the proliferation of germs.
MAINTAIN PROPER PERSONAL HYGIENE Regularly wash the anal and vulvar regions, but not excessively. Avoid vaginal douching as well as irritating soaps and cosmetic products (deodorants, bath products, etc.). After defecation, wipe from front to back and wash your hands with soap and water.
WEAR PROPER CLOTHING Avoid overly tight clothing and synthetic undergarments, which promote perspiration and the proliferation of germs. Change undergarments regularly.
URINATE AFTER SEXUAL RELATIONS Urinate after each sexual encounter to eliminate certain germs.
FIGHT CONSTIPATION Treat or prevent constipation to avoid the proliferation and propagation of bacteria towards the urethra. Fibers contained in foods such as legumes, green vegetables, fruits, or whole grains encourage proper functioning of the intestines.
DO NOT HESITATE TO CONSULT A DOCTOR Avoid selfmedication that may mask symptoms of more serious illnesses and consult a doctor, particularly in the event of recurrence of the infection.
407
The urinary system
| Diseases
Additional box Three types of boxes may complement the subjects:
A box marked with a heart indicates lifestyle habits to adopt in order to prevent or treat a disease. Extrait de la publication
A box marked with an eye offers surprising information connected with a subject.
A box marked with a press clipping provides information on current affairs debated in the media.
PREFACE At a time when emergency rooms are overflowing and the health system is having difficulty meeting the demand, it may prove useful to have a book on hand that deals with all of the aspects of health and disease.
The first step in health promotion is prevention, and having a good knowledge of one’s body and its functioning. To this end, theFamily Guide to Healthis full of advice that everyone can put into practice in order to improve their health and prevent disease. It also includes illustrations of extraordinary quality, produced by experienced medical illustrators, and quality texts, concise, simple to understand and, above all, reviewed by a team of experienced experts. In addition, a significant portion of the encyclopedia is devoted to the description of different diseases: flu, heart disease, asthma, diabetes, cancer, etc. This specifically enables the reader to recognize the first symptoms of a disease and, when it strikes, to consult a doctor sooner and obtain a better prognosis. The work also includes a list of symptoms as well as a chapter on first aid, reviewed and approved by St. John Ambulance.
Three words perfectly summarize this encyclopedia: UNDERSTAND, PREVENT, TREAT.
Bravo!
Yves Lamontagne, MD PresidentChief Executive Officer Collège des médecins du Québec Extrait de la publication
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TABLEOFCONTENTS PREVENTION  Nutrition  Healthy weight  Exercise  Tobacco, alcohol, and drugs  Stress control  Hygiene and the prevention of infections  Control of the environment  Medical examinations  Health while traveling
OVERVIEW OF THE ANATOMY  The systems  General anatomy of the human body  From the system to the cell
CELLS
The body  The human cell  DNA and genes  Cell division  Heredity
Diseases  Trisomies  Gangrene  Cysts  Edema  Benign tumors Cancer
THE SKIN
The body  Structure of the skin  Skin color  Healing
Diseases  Skin lesions  Burns  Warts  Ulcers  Dermatitis  Psoriasis  Bacterial skin infections  Skin mycosis  Cold sores  Skin parasites  Skin cancer  Skin discoloration
1037 11 20 22 26 28 30 32 34 36
3843 38 40 43
4461
46 48 49 50
51 52 52 53 54 55
6291
64 68 69
70 72 75 76 78 80 82 84 86 87 88 91
BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES
The body  The bones  The joints  The muscles  Healthy bones, joints, and muscles
Bone diseases  Bone fractures Osteoporosis Paget's disease  Osteitis  Bone cancer
Joint diseases  Sprain  Dislocation  Herniated disk Backache Rheumatism Arthrosis  Rheumatoid arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis  Gout  Bursitis
Muscle diseases  Muscle pain  Muscle injuries  Tendon injuries  Dystonia  Dupuytren's contracture  Myasthenia  Muscular dystrophy  Tetanus
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
The body  The structure of the nervous system  The neuron  The nerves  The spinal cord  The brain  Movements  Consciousness  Imaging of the nervous system
Diseases  Neuralgia  Canal syndrome Headaches and migraines Cranial traumas  Paralysis  Loss of consciousness
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92131
94 96 98 100
102 106 108 108 109
110 111 112 114 116 117 119 120 121 121
122 125 126 128 129 129 130 131
132185
134 136 137 139 140 143 144 145
146 147 148 150 151 154
Cerebrovascular accidents Tumors of the nervous system  Encephalitis  Rabies  Meningitis  Herpes zoster  Poliomyelitis  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  Multiple sclerosis  Epilepsy  Parkinson's disease  Abnormal movements  Amnesia Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia  Psychosis  Neurosis Sleep disorders Depression and other affective disorders Burnout Drug addiction
THE SENSES
The body  The sensory organs  Sight  Hearing and balance  Touch  Smell  Taste
Eye diseases Ametropia Inflammation of the eye  Dry eye Cataracts  Glaucoma  Retinopathy  Macular degeneration  Color blindness  Strabismus
Ear diseases Deafness Otitis Balance disturbances
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
The body  The endocrine glands and hormones  The thyroid gland  The adrenal glands  The pituitary gland  Stress
156 158 159 160 161 162 163 163 164 166 167 168 169 170 172 173 176 179 182 184
186217
188 189 194 198 200 201
202 204 205 206 207 208 210 210 211
212 214 216
218231
220 222 222 223 224
Diseases  The diseases of the thyroid gland  The diseases of the pituitary gland Diabetes
THE BLOOD
The body  The blood  The blood transfusion  The blood sample
Diseases  Hemorrhage  Anemias  Hemophilia  Leukemias
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
The body  High blood circulation and blood vessels  The heart  Blood pressure
Diseases High blood pressure Heart disease  Cardiac insufficiency  Cardiac arrhythmia  Cardiac malformations  Valve disease  Heart inflammations  Aneurysm Varicose veins Thrombosis
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
The body  The immune system  The lymphatic system  Infectious agents Diseases Infectious diseases Allergies AIDS  Infectious mononucleosis  Yellow fever  Dengue  Malaria  Leishmaniasis  Typhus
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225 226 228
232245
234 236 238
239 242 244 245
246275
248 250 252
253 256 262 264 267 268 269 270 272 274
276307
278 281 282
284 288 292 295 296 296 297 298 299
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Plague Bilharziasis Typhoid fever Diphtheria Leprosy Listeriosis Lyme disease Lupus Inflammations of the lymphatic system Lymphedema Lymphomas
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
The body  The respiratory system  The upper respiratory tracts  The lungs
Diseases  Sleep apnea  Lesions of the nasal septum  Respiratory infections The flu Bronchitis  Pneumonia  Tuberculosis Asthma Cystic fibrosis  Chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy  Pneumothorax  Pleurisy  Pneumoconiosis  Respiratory insufficiency  Pulmonary edema  Tumors of the respiratory system Nicotine addiction
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The body  The digestive system  The mouth  The digestive tract  The liver and pancreas  Metabolism  Health of the digestive system Dietrelated diseases Obesity Alcoholism  Nutritional deficiencies  Dietary intolerances  Indigestion
299 300 300 301 301 302 303 304 305 306 307
308339
310 311 312
316 317 318 320 322 323 324 326 328 329 330 330 331 332 335 336 338
340397
342 343 346 350 351 352
355 358 360 362 363
Oral diseases  Oral diseases Cavities  Dental prostheses  Dental malocclusion
Digestive tract diseases  Gastroesophageal reflux  Gastroduodenal ulcer  Digestive tract cancers Gastroenteritis  Intestinal parasites  Dysentery  Cholera  Colitis  Colon polyps  Irritable bowel syndrome  Diverticulosis  Intestinal obstruction  Hernias  Appendicitis  Hemorrhoids
Liver and pancreatic diseases  Hepatitis  Cirrhosis of the liver  Liver cancer  Cholelithiasis  Pancreatitis  Pancreatic cancer
THE URINARY SYSTEM
The body  How the urinary system works  Examinations of the urinary system
Diseases  Urinary incontinence Urinary tract infections  Urolithiasis  Glomerulonephritis  Kidney cysts  Urinary system tumors  Kidney failure
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The body  The genital organs  The sex cells  The menstrual cycle Menopause
Diseases affecting men  Testicular cancer  Spermatic cord diseases
364 367 370 371
372 374 375 378 380 381 381 382 383 384 385 385 386 387 388
390 392 394 395 396 397
398413
400 403
404 406 408 410 410 411 412
414449
416 421 423 426
428 429
 Prostate adenoma Prostate cancer Phimosis Diseases affecting women  Endometriosis  Genital prolapse  Uterine tumors  Ovarian cysts  Ovarian cancer  Benign breast tumors Breast cancer
Infectious diseases  Genital infections Sexually transmitted infections Syphilis  Chlamydia  Genital herpes  Genital warts  Gonorrhea  Trichomoniasis
REPRODUCTION
The body  Sexuality  Contraception  Abortion  Fertilization  Multiple pregnancies  Pregnancy  Prenatal examinations  Childbirth  Postpartum
Diseases and complications  Puerperal fever  Miscarriage  Extrauterine pregnancy  Toxoplasmosis  Fetal alcohol syndrome  Rhesus incompatibility  Twintotwin transfusion syndrome  Placenta previa  Fetal distress  Preeclampsia Sterility
CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
The body  Development of a human being  Newborns  Childhood  Child nutrition  Adolescence
429 430 431
432 433 434 436 436 437 438
441 444 445 446 447 448 449 449
450489
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Diseases  Congenital malformations  Labiopalatine clefts  Spina bifida  Sudden infant death syndrome  Icterus of the newborn  Acute intestinal invagination  Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  Infant skin diseases Acne  Infectious diseases in children  Febrile seizures  Skeletal deformities  Dwarfism Eating disorders Pervasive developmental disorders  Mental retardation Learning disabilities
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE
FIRST AID
At home and in daily life 452  First aid materials and services 454  First steps 457  Cardiopulmonary arrest 458  Airway obstruction 461  Respiratory difficulties 462  Poisoning 468  Bleeding 470  Falls and traumas 474  Head and spinal injuries  Burns and electrocution 475 Convulsions and fever 476 Malaise and loss of consciousness 477 Outdoors 478  Sunburn 479  Heatstroke 480  Hypothermia and frostbite 481  Insect bites, bite wounds and stinging plants 482 483 484DIRECTORY OF SYMPTOMS 486 INDEX 490533 GLOSSARY 492 494LINKS AND RESOURCES 499 503 PHOTO CREDITS 508 Extrait de la publication
510 512 513 514 515 515 516 517 518 519 524 525 526 527 530 531 532
534539
540563
541 542 544 547 548 549 550 552 554 557 558 559
560 561 562 563
564589
590601
602605
606
607608
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