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A Textbook of Neuroanatomy

De
464 pages
This complete, yet concise text is designed to help students easily master the anatomy and basic physiology of the nervous system. Accessible and clear, the text highlights interrelationships between systems, structures and the rest of the body as it moves through various regions of the brain. The first nine chapters introduce the main principles and terms in neuroanatomy, and the remaining chapters then use this information to describe the anatomy and function of the various pathways and discrete systems.
  • Navigates students through the general principles and integrative components of the Nervous System
  • Highlights interrelationships between systems, structures, and the rest of the body
  • Emphasizes clinical relevance through clinical cases, questions, and follow-up discussions in each chapter
  • Indicates medical conditions relevant to each chapter in the Clinical Considerations
  • Features an accompanying website, www.blackwellpublishing.com/patestas, which includes all the illustrations, along with animations of key processes; also available on CD-ROM. Please contact our Higher Education team at HigherEducation@wiley.com for more information.
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Contents
Preface
Part 1 General Principles of the Nervous System
Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nervous System Cells of the nervous system Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Questions to ponder
Chapter 2 Development of the Nervous System Clinical case Early development Neurulation Early development of the spinal cord and brain Development of the spinal cord Development of the brain Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 3 Histophysiology of the Nervous System Clinical case Neurons Neuroglia Generation and conduction of nerve impulses Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 4 Neurotransmitter Substances Clinical case Classification of neurotransmitter substances Clinical considerations Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 5 Spinal Cord Clinical case Morphology of the spinal cord Internal morphology of the spinal cord Vascular supply of the spinal cord Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms
viii
1
3 3 5 7 9
10 10 11 12 18 19 21 26 27 27 27
28 28 29 35 38 42 43 43 43
44 44 47 52 53 53
54 54 55 60 63 66 67
Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 6 Gross Anatomy of the Brain Clinical case Cerebrum Diencephalon Cerebellum Brainstem Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 7 Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid Clinical case Cranial meninges Spinal meninges Venous sinuses of the cranial dura mater Cerebrospinal fluid Ventricles of the brain Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 8 Vascular Supply of the Central Nervous System Clinical case Vascular supply of the spinal cord Arterial supply of the brain Venous drainage of the brain Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 9 Autonomic Nervous System Clinical case Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Enteric nervous system Neurotransmitters and receptors of the autonomic nervous system Pelvic autonomic functions Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
67 67
68 68 69 77 77 80 82 82 82 83
84 84 85 92 93 95 95 97 97 97 98
99 99 100 101 112 116 117 117 117
118 118 119 126 129
130 131 132 133 133 133
vi
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CONTENTS
Part 2 Integrative Components of the Nervous System
Chapter 10 Ascending Sensory Pathways Clinical case Sensory receptors Anterolateral system Tactile sensation and proprioception Sensory pathways to the cerebellum Clinical considerations Modulation of nociception Neuroplasticity Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 11 Motor Cortex and Descending Motor Pathways Clinical case Cortical areas controlling motor activity Descending motor pathways Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 12 Basal Ganglia Clinical case Components of the basal ganglia Nuclei associated with the basal ganglia Input, intrinsic, and output nuclei of the basal ganglia Connections of the basal ganglia Circuits connecting the basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebral cortex Other circuits of the basal ganglia Neurotransmitters of the basal ganglia “Direct” and “indirect” loops (pathways) of the basal ganglia Circuits that modulate activity of the basal ganglia Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 13 Cerebellum Clinical case Morphology of the cerebellum Cerebellar peduncles Deep cerebellar nuclei Afferents (input) to the cerebellum Efferents (output) from the cerebellum Functional organization of the cerebellum: intrinsic circuitry Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
135
137 137 138 146 154 157 161 166 168 169 170 170
171 171 172 174 187 188 189 189
190 190 191 196 196 198
205 207 208
209 210 212 217 218 218
219 219 220 227 229 231 235
236 238 240 240 240
Chapter 14 Reticular Formation Clinical case Morphology of the reticular formation Zones of the reticular formation Nuclei associated with the reticular formation Input to and output from the reticular formation Functions of the reticular formation Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 15 Cranial Nerves Clinical case Olfactory nerve (CN I) Optic nerve (CN II) Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Trochlear nerve (CN IV) Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Abducent nerve (CN VI) Facial nerve (CN VII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Vagus nerve (CN X) Spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 16 Visual System Clinical case Eye Central visual pathways Visual reflexes Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 17 Auditory System Clinical case Ear Auditory transmission Central auditory pathways Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 18 Vestibular System Clinical case Vestibular apparatus Vestibular nerve (CN VIII) Central pathways of the vestibular system Control of ocular movements Vestibular nystagmus Caloric nystagmus
241 241 241 242 245 245 245 250 251 251 252
253 253 256 256 258 260 261 266 268 272 272 274 277 277 280 280 281
282 282 282 287 291 298 302 302 303
304 304 304 308 309 315 316 316 317
318 318 319 325 326 329 332 334
Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 19 Olfactory System Clinical case Olfactory receptor cells Olfactory transduction Olfactory nerve (CN I) Central connections of the olfactory system Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 20 Limbic System Clinical case Limbic lobe Brainstem centers associated with limbic system function Pathways of the limbic system Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Chapter 21 Hypothalamus Clinical case Borders Hypothalamic zones and component nuclei Hypothalamic regions (areas) and component nuclei Connections of the hypothalamus Pathways of the hypothalamus Functions of the hypothalamus Hypothalamohypophyseal connections
334 334 335
336 336 336 338 338 339 342 342 342 343
344 344 345
355 356 358 359 359 360
361 361 362 362 368 370 370 374 376
Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
CONTENTS
Chapter 22 Thalamus Clinical case Borders Anatomy Internal and external medullary laminae Thalamic nuclei Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
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Chapter 23 Cerebral Cortex Clinical case Cells of the cerebral cortex Types of cortex Cell layers of the neocortex Vertical columnar organization of the cerebral cortex Afferents (input) to the cerebral cortex Efferents (output) from the cerebral cortex Internal capsule and corona radiata Lobes of the cerebral cortex Functional areas of the cerebral cortex Cerebral dominance Clinical considerations Synonyms and eponyms Follow-up to clinical case Questions to ponder
Questions to ponder: answers to odd questions
Index
vii
382 383 383 384
385 385 385 385 388 389 395 396 396 397
398 398 400 402 402 404 404 404 406 408 408 417 417 421 422 423
425
435