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Annual Plant Reviews, Intercellular Communication in Plants

De
296 pages
Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 16

Intercellular communication in plants plays a vital role in the co-ordination of processes leading to the formation of a functional organism. The signalling systems must function at a local level to co-ordinate events of cellular differentiation, over long distances to co-ordinate developmental and physiological responses in different parts of the plant, and they must even operate between separate individuals - for example, to control fertilization as part of the evolutionary strategy of a particular species. To cope with the diverse requirements for intercellular signalling, plants have evolved a spectrum of molecular mechanisms, and significant progress has been made over the last few years in our understanding of these processes.

This volume provides an overview of our current understanding of intercellular communication in plants, with an emphasis on those research areas showing significant recent progress and promise. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant biochemistry, physiology, cell biology and molecular biology.

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Contents
Contributors Preface
1
2
Auxin as an ˇ JIRÍFRIML
intercellular signal ´ AND JUSTYNA WISNIEWSKA
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Auxin transport – known pathways 1.2.1 Polar auxin transport pathway 1.2.2 Chemiosmotic model 1.2.3 Multicomponent auxin efflux carrier system 1.3 Molecular components 1.3.1 Auxin influx – AUX1 proteins 1.3.2 Auxin efflux – PIN proteins 1.3.3 ABC transporters 1.4 Subcellular dynamics of auxin carriers 1.4.1 Constitutive recycling of PIN proteins 1.4.2 AEIs and vesicle trafficking 1.4.3 GNOM and PIN dynamics 1.5 The role of auxin gradients in plant development 1.5.1 Monitoring of auxin distribution in planta 1.5.2 Embryonic axis formation 1.5.3 Postembryonic organ formation 1.5.4 Root meristem maintenance 1.5.5 Tropisms 1.5.6 Downstream of auxin gradients 1.5.7 Auxin as morphogen 1.6 Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Peptides as signals YIJI XIA
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Peptide signals in plants and their biological functions 2.2.1 Systemins mediate systemic and local wound responses 2.2.2 RALF regulates plant growth and development 2.2.3 ENOD40 regulates nodulation and cell proliferation
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CONTENTS
2.2.4 PSK (phytosulfokine) is a mitogenic factor 2.2.5 CLAVATA 3 (CLV3) regulates stem cell homeostasis 2.2.6S-locus cysteine-rich proteins determine specificity of self-incompatibility in the Brassicaceae 2.3 Proteolytic processing of prohormones 2.4 Technologies for discovering new peptide signals 2.5 Concluding remarks References
RNA as a signalling molecule PATRICE DUNOYER AND OLIVIER VOINNET
3.1 3.2 3.3
Intercellular movement of plant mRNAs 3.1.1 Cell-to-cell movement of plant mRNAs 3.1.1.1 Plant plasmodesmata 3.1.1.2 Cell-to-cell movement of a transcription factor with its mRNA 3.1.2 Long-distance transport of plant mRNAs Intercellular movement of viroids 3.2.1 What are viroids? 3.2.2 Intercellular movement of viroids 3.2.2.1 Cell-to-cell movement of viroids 3.2.2.2 Long-distance movement of viroids 3.2.3 Cellular factors involved in viroid movement 3.2.3.1 Phloem Lectin 2 3.2.3.2 VirP1 Intercellular movement of RNA silencing 3.3.1 Mechanism of RNA silencing 3.3.1.1 Co-suppression in petunia 3.3.1.2 Double-stranded RNA: trigger molecule of RNA silencing 3.3.1.3 Short interfering (si)RNAs are the specificity determinants of RNA silencing 3.3.1.4 RNA-induced silencing complex RISC 3.3.1.5 Transitive RNA silencing 3.3.1.6 Biological functions of RNA silencing in plants 3.3.2 The discovery of systemic RNA silencing 3.3.3 Initiation of systemic RNA silencing 3.3.3.1 Spontaneous activation of systemic RNA silencing 3.3.3.2 Exogenously induced systemic silencing 3.3.4 Propagation of systemic RNA silencing 3.3.4.1 Long-distance movement of RNA silencing 3.3.4.2 Cell-to-cell movement of RNA silencing 3.3.5 Maintenance of systemic silencing 3.3.6 What is the nucleic acid component of the silencing signal? 3.3.6.1 Cell-to-cell movement and phloem transport of silencing involve separate mechanisms and, most likely, separate signals 3.3.6.2 Possible nature of the RNA species involved in cell-to-cell movement of silencing
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CONTENTS
3.3.6.3 No specific RNA species has been correlated with long-distance transport of silencing in plants 3.3.7 Plant factors required for movement of RNA silencing 3.3.8 Biological functions of non-cell autonomous RNA silencing in plants 3.3.8.1 Antiviral defence 3.3.8.2 A role in non-cell autonomous regulation of gene expression? References
The plant extracellular matrix and signalling ANDREW J. FLEMING
4.1 Introduction 4.2 The cell wall and signalling 4.3 The cell wall as a potential source of chemical signals 4.3.1 Polysaccharide signals 4.3.2 Arabinogalactan proteins as signals 4.3.3 Cutin and signalling 4.3.4 Uncharacterised cell wall determinants involved in signalling 4.4 The cell wall and biophysical signalling 4.4.1 Connections between the cell wall and the cytosol as a conduit for intercellular signalling 4.5 Conclusions Acknowledgements References
Plasmodesmata – gateways for intercellular communication in plants TRUDI GILLESPIE AND KARL J. OPARKA
5.1 Introduction 5.1.1 Plasmodesmata – key components of the symplast 5.1.2 Plasmodesmata: simple description, complex function 5.1.3 Discovery of plasmodesmata 5.2 Structure 5.2.1 The general ultrastructure of plasmodesmata 5.2.2 Primary and secondary; simple or branched 5.2.3 Plasmodesmal frequency and distribution: gain and loss 5.2.4 Plasmodesmal components 5.2.5 Passage through the cytoplasmic sleeve 5.3 Macromolecular trafficking 5.3.1 Passive transport and the basal SEL 5.3.2 Selective transport and gating: modulation of the SEL 5.3.3 Physiological modulation of SEL 5.3.4 Fine regulation of plasmodesmal SEL – role of the cytoskeleton 5.3.5 ‘Coarse’ regulation by callose 5.3.6 Phosphorylation, protein unfolding and chaperones 5.3.7 The emerging picture of plasmodesmata Acknowledgements References
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109 109 110 110 110 110 113 116 117 120 120 122 124 124 129 130 131 134 134 135
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CONTENTS
Lessons from the vegetative shoot apex JOHN F. GOLZ
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Structure of the angiosperm shoot apical meristem 6.2.1 Zones of the meristem 6.2.2 Layers of the meristem 6.2.3 Symplastic fields within the meristem 6.3 Periclinal chimaeras reveal a role for signalling in plant development 6.4 Signalling involved in meristem maintenance 6.4.1 The CLAVATA mutants 6.4.2 The CLAVATA signalling pathway 6.4.3 The wuschel mutant 6.4.4 The CLAVATA–WUSCHEL regulatory loop 6.5 Maintaining indeterminate cells in the meristem requires homeobox genes 6.6 Interactions betweenKNOXgenes and hormones regulate meristem activity 6.7 Signals involved in organ formation 6.7.1 Models of phyllotaxis 6.7.2 The role of auxin in phyllotaxis 6.7.3 Organ outgrowth involves physical forces 6.8 Signalling between organ primordia and the meristem 6.9 Conclusion Acknowledgements References
Intercellular communication during floral initiation and development GEORGE COUPLAND
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Long-distance signaling during the induction to flowering 7.2.1 Discovery of a role for long-distance signaling in the induction of flowering 7.2.2 Mutations that impair long-distance signaling in pea and maize 7.2.3 Molecular genetic analysis of flowering-time control in Arabidopsisplaces the long-distance signal within a regulatory hierarchy 7.2.3.1 A network of pathways controls flowering ofArabidopsis 7.2.3.2 Spatial regulation of flowering-time control 7.2.3.3 Identifying the floral stimulus: a perspective from Arabidopsismolecular genetics 7.3 Intercellular communication during floral development 7.3.1 Some of the transcription factors that control floral meristem or organ identity act non-cell autonomously in the developing flower 7.3.2 Movement of transcription factors between cells defines one mechanism for short-distance signaling in the developing flower 7.4 Perspectives References
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CONTENTS
Lessons from the root apex MARTINBONKE,SARITÄHTIHARJUANDYKÄHELARIUTTA
8.1 Introduction 8.2 Organization of the root 8.2.1 Anatomy of the root meristem and procambium in the apex of a growing root 8.2.2 Cellular organization of the root is established during embryonic development 8.2.3 Development of secondary roots 8.3 Cell fate studies of the growing root 8.4 Molecular genetics of root development 8.4.1 Distal patterning 8.4.2 Genetic control of initiation of secondary roots 8.4.3 Molecular genetics of epidermal patterning 8.4.4 Patterning of ground tissue 8.4.5 Vascular patterning 8.5 Future prospects Acknowledgements References
Lessons from leaf epidermal patterning in plants BHYLAHALLI PURUSHOTTAM SRINIVAS AND MARTINHÜLSKAMP
9.1 Overview 9.2 Introduction 9.3 Mechanisms of trichome patterning 9.3.1 Trichome differentiation 9.3.2 Why is a mechanism postulated to explain the trichome spacing pattern and what kind of underlying principles are operating? 9.3.3 Analysis of trichome initiation mutants 9.3.3.1 Positive regulators of trichome initiation 9.3.3.2 Negative regulators of trichome initiation 9.3.4 Interactions between the trichome initiation genes 9.3.5 Local cell–cell interactions leading to cell fate decisions: a model 9.3.6 Long-range control of trichome initiation by hormones 9.4 Stomatal development and patterning 9.4.1 Cell division pattern during stomata patterning 9.4.2 Cell signalling and the control of asymmetric cell divisions during stomata development 9.5 Perspective References
10 Lessons on signalling in plant self-incompatibility systems ANDREW G. MCCUBBIN
10.1 Introduction
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200 203 203 205 205 210 211 215 218 220 220 220
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x
10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5
CONTENTS
S-RNase-based single-locus gametophytic SI 10.2.1 S-RNases encode S-specificity in the pistil 10.2.2 S-RNase structure/function 10.2.3 The pollen S-gene 10.2.4 Non-S-linked components of S-RNase-based SI 10.2.5 Model for the operation of S-RNase-based SI Gametophytic self-incompatability in the Papaveraceae 10.3.1 TheS-gene controlling stigma function inP. rhoeas 10.3.2 Structure/function of S-proteins 10.3.3 Biochemical responses in pollen following self-recognition 2+ 10.3.3.1 Ca signalling in the SI response 10.3.3.2 Protein kinase activity and the SI response 10.3.4 S-protein-binding proteins in pollen 10.3.5 Changes in the actin cytoskeleton 10.3.6 PCD in the SI response 10.3.7 Model for the mechanism of self-incompatibility inP. rhoeas Sporophytic self-incompatability 10.4.1Brassica S-locus glycoproteins 10.4.2 SRK encodesS-haplotype specificity in the stigma 10.4.3 SCR/SP11 encodes pollenS-haplotype specificity 10.4.4 Regulation of SRK 10.4.5 SRK substrates 10.4.6 Model for the action of SSI in Brassica Summary References
Index
The colour plate section follows page 146
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