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The Cryosphere and Global Environmental Change

De
272 pages
This is the first textbook to consider all aspects of the cryosphere system in the context of global environmental change driven by human activity and climate.

  • Considers all six aspects of the cryosphere – ice sheets, glacier ice, permafrost, river and lake ice, sea ice and snow – in the context of global environmental change driven by human activity and climate.
  • Describes a new concept of cryosphere transience and landscape transition which links climate, hydrology, ecology and geomorphology.
  • Looks at the evidence, process, and patterns of cryosphere change, on local and global scales.
  • Provides a wealth of data to inform the current global environmental change debate.

Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?action=index&bcsId=5064&itemId=140512976X.

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List of Permissions Preface
CONTENTS
1 The evidence for cryospheric change 1.1 Introduction 1.2 The geomorphic and hydrologic effects of cryospheric change 1.3 Subarctic and alpine hydrology 1.4 Glacier loss and mountain permafrost 1.5 Permafrost 1.6 The carbon balance of the cryosphere 1.7 River and lake ice break-up and freeze-up 1.8 Ocean circulation 1.9 The mass balance of the polar ice sheets 1.10 Sea level 1.11 Importance of sea ice 1.12 Ecological impacts 1.13 Socioeconomic effects 1.14 Conclusions
2 Traditionalin situapproaches to the monitoring of cryospheric change 2.1 Introduction 2.2In situmeasurements 2.2.1 Land surface air temperature 2.2.2 Terrestrial snow and snow on sea ice 2.2.3 Sea ice 2.2.4 Ice sheets and alpine glaciers 2.2.5 Permafrost and seasonally frozen ground 2.2.6 River runoff 2.2.7 River and lake ice break-up and freeze-up 2.3 Conclusions
3 Processes of cryospheric change 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Snow and ice as energy regulators 3.2.1 The energetics of the snow surface 3.2.2 The energetics of the snowpack 3.2.3 The energetics of glaciers 3.2.4 The energetics of sea ice and various terrain types 3.2.5 Permafrost
ix xv
1 1 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 16 17 21 22 24 28
30 30 32 32 34 38 42 49 51 52 54
55 55 55 56 58 59 62 63
V
VI
3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12
CONTENTS
Snow and ice reservoir functions 3.3.1 Mass budget for snow 3.3.2 Mass balance for glacier ice 3.3.3 The mass balance of an ice sheet 3.3.4 Mass balance of sea ice Snowfall 3.4.1 Interception by vegetation 3.4.2 Snow accumulation 3.4.3 Snow cover structure Snow avalanches Snowmelt, runoff, and streamflow generation Snow chemistry Snow ecology Glacier melt Formation of an ice cover River and lake ice Sediment budgets
4 Patterns of the contemporary cryosphere at local to global scales 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Remote sensing observations 4.3 Land and sea surface temperature 4.3.1 Terrestrial snow and snow on sea ice 4.3.2 Sea ice 4.3.3 Ice sheets and glaciers: estimation of volume 4.3.4 Ice sheets and glaciers: mass balance components 4.3.5 Permafrost 4.3.6 River runoff 4.3.7 River and lake ice break-up and freeze-up 4.4 Numerical models 4.5 Conclusions: validation, coordinated projects, and climate data records
5 The evidence for past cryospheric changes 5.1 Introduction 5.2 The uniqueness of the Quaternary Period 5.3 Initiation of glacial ages 5.4 Reconstructing the extent of glacial environments 5.5 Extreme events 5.6 Ice sheet modeling 5.6.1 The Antarctic Ice Sheet 5.6.2 Greenland 5.6.3 North America: Innuitian, Laurentide, and Cordilleran ice sheets 5.6.4 British Isles, Scandinavian, and Barents ice sheets 5.6.5 The Patagonian and New Zealand ice caps
66 66 69 69 69 71 71 72 76 80 81 84 85 86 88 89 91
93 93 93 97 98 103 106 110 113 116 116 118
118
122 122 123 123 127 132 136 137 139 141 142 144
CONTENTS
5.7 Nonglacial Quaternary environments 5.7.1 Late Quaternary permafrost in North America and Europe 5.7.2 Treeline variations 5.7.3 Climatic snowline 5.7.4 Glacier fluctuations 5.7.5 Paraglaciation
6 The transience of the cryosphere and transitional landscapes 6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 The landscape as palimpsest 6.2 Glacial landscapes: macro-scale 6.2.1 Cirque landscapes 6.2.2 Fjord and strandflat landscapes 6.3 Periglacial landscapes: macro-scale 6.4 Paraglacial landscapes: macro-scale 6.5 Glacial landscapes: medium-scale 6.5.1 The transition from glacial to fluvial dominance 6.6 Proglacial landscapes: medium-scale 6.6.1 Glacifluvial landforms 6.6.2 The Channeled Scablands 6.6.3 Subglacial channels 6.6.4 Subglacial, ice-marginal, and supraglacial sediment–landform associations 6.7 Periglacial landscapes: medium-scale 6.7.1 The transition from periglacial to fluvial dominance 6.8 Paraglacial landscapes: medium-scale 6.9 Glacial landscapes: local-scale 6.9.1 Primary glacigenic deposits 6.9.2 Small-scale erosional forms 6.10 Proglacial landscapes: local-scale 6.11 Periglacial landscapes: local-scale 6.12 Paraglacial landscapes: local-scale 6.13 Landscape resistance, collapse, and recovery 6.14 Transitional landscapes at Quaternary, Holocene, and Anthropocene timescales
7 Cryospheric change and vulnerability at Quaternary, Holocene, and Anthropocene time scales 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Panarchy 7.2.1 Panarchy, sustainability, and transformability 7.2.2 Collapse and the vulnerability of socioeconomic systems 7.3 Changing ice cover and biomes since the Last Glacial Maximum 7.3.1 The Last Glacial Maximum 7.3.2 The Holocene Optimum
VII
146 147 149 150 153 156
158 158 158 159 160 162 164 166 168 168 170 170 173 174
176 178 181 182 184 184 185 185 188 191 192
193
196 196 196 198 198 199 200 200
VIII
CONTENTS
7.4 The first explorers in North America 7.5 Implications of cryospheric change/collapse 7.5.1 Snow quantity 7.5.2 Snow quality 7.5.3 River and lake ice 7.5.4 Permafrost 7.5.5 Glaciers 7.5.6 River basins 7.5.7 Sea ice 7.5.8 Ice sheets 7.5.9 Sea level change 7.5.10 Carbon sequestration 7.5.11 Vegetation 7.5.12 Polar bears 7.5.13 Human health 7.5.14 Persistent organic pollutants 7.5.15 Sociocultural conditions and health status 7.5.16 Livelihoods and socioeconomic conditions 7.5.17 Governance 7.6 Concluding thoughts
References
Index
Color Plates appears between pages 142 and 143
200 202 204 204 204 205 205 207 209 209 209 209 209 210 210 211 212 214 215 216
225
255