Magazine Vocable Anglais – Du 4 au 17 avril

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N°799 - ALEXANDRIA OCASIO-CORTEZ THE STORM OF U.S. POLITICS

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Date de parution 04 avril 2019
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N° 799/Anglais
La presse înternatîonale enV.O.pour progresser en anglaîs
Du 4 au 17 avril 20193,60 € /
POLITICS BRITAIN’S PARLIAMENT SPLINTERS THE ECONOMIST
MUSIC SOLANGE KNOWLES’ NEW ALBUM THE GUARDIAN
SCIENCE WHY THE ZEBRA GOT ITS STRIPES THE INDEPENDENT
ALEXANDRIA OCASIO-CORTEZ THE STORM OF U.S. POLITICS
PRATIC’ABLE
4 pages centrales de quiz pour progresser en anglais Voix active et voix passive / Vocabulaire : le contrat de travail
3,60 F:
 799 
L 18716
Dessinons un autre avenir à ceux qui sont exclus à cause de leurs différences.
Là où sévissent les conits, les catastrophes, la pauvreté et l’exclusion,nous travaillons aux côtés des personnes handicapéeset des populations vulnérables pour améliorer leurs conditions de vie.
édito
AMÉLIE ARA RÉDACTRICE EN CHEF
Le phénomène Alexandrîa Ocasîo-Cortez
Elle est jeune, fait régulièrement la Une des médias outre-Atlantique et manie le tweet à la perfection. Inconnue du grand public il y a encore un an, la démocrate Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez s’est retrouvée propulsée sous les feux des projecteurs par sa vic-toire inattendue lors des primaires pour les élections de mi-mandat en juin dernier. À la surprise générale, cette jeune inconnue bat alors Joe Crowley, ténor e des Démocrates, dans la 14 circonscription de New York. Quelques mois plus tard, lors desmidtermsde novembre, elle est élue sans peine à la Chambre des représentants, devenant la plus jeune représentante de l’histoire des États-Unis.
Depuis, on ne l’arrête plus. Parmi les causes qu’elle défend activement : la gratuité de l’université, l’abolition de la police de l’immigration ou encore l’instauration d’une taxe de 0 % sur les revenus des Américains les plus riches. Cette dernière permettrait notamment de financer l’ambitieux projet environnemental qu’elle vient de présenter au Congrès, le « Green New Deal », visant à réduire les émissions carbone à zéro d’ici 2030. La députée se démarque aussi par son parcours hors du commun. Née de parents portoricains et serveuse jusqu’à son élection, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez est devenue un symbole, celui de la diversité et du virage vers la gauche de l’actuel Parti démocrate. Preuve s’il en est, son influence déjà cruciale sur la campagne des primaires pour l'élection présidentielle de 2020. Alors qu’une dizaine de candidats majeurs ont déclaré leur intention de briguer l’investiture démocrate, c’est AOC qui donne le ton : environne-ment et régulation du système financier sont déjà au cœur de la campagne...
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Photo de couverture : Al Pastor/REX/Shutterstock/SIPA
sommaire N° 799/ Du 4 au 17 avril 2019 NIVEAU DE DIFFICULTÉ ET ÉQUIVALENCE CECRL (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les langues): FacîleA2-B1moyenB2-C1dîicîleC1-C2 Pour Facîlîter le repérage et la compréhensîon, les mots traduîts sont surlîgnés dans tous les artîcles du magazîne.
Grand angle4 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................On parle d'eux5 .............................................................................................................................................................................................  À la une OcasioCortez Pushes Democrats to the Left C1-C2 THE NEW YORK TIMES (US)........................................................................................................................................................................6  La jeune représentante bouscule la gauche américaine.
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Zoom sur9 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Focus......................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 ..........
Sur le vif11 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Société  Texas landowners and Trump’s border wall THE INDEPENDENT (UK)..............................................................................................................................................................................12 Les propriétaires Frontaliers de la vallée du Rio Grande craignent l’expropriation.
B2-C1  Escape-room games are boomîng THE ECONOMIST (UK)...............................14 Les jeux d’évasion, plus en vogue que jamais.
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À 360°16 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
PRATIC’ABLE17 .................................................................................................................................Vocabulaîre, expressîons et astuces pour parler comme un anglophone Le contrat de travail / Voix active et voix passive / Soignez votre orthographe / Jeux de mots
 Enjeux B2-C1  Brîtaîn’s Parlîament splînters21 THE ECONOMIST (UK)................................................. Un nouveau groupe parlementaire bipartisan au Royaume-Uni.
B2-C1  Spotîy Transcends Tunes23 THE NEW YORK TIMES (US)................................................. Le leader du streaming se lance dans le podcast.
A2-B1 Les échos25 ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................Culture B2-C1  Frank Gehry at 9026 THE OBSERVER (UK)......................................................................................................... Les nouveaux projets de l’iconique architecte.
C1-C2 THE GUARDIAN (UK)....................................................  Solange Knowles’ hazy vîsîon29 When I Get Home, le dernier album de la petite sœur de Beyoncé.  Découverte B2-C1  The problems o flyîng to Mars THE ECONOMIST (UK)............................................30 Comment envoyer une mission habitée vers Mars ?
B2-C1  Why the zebra got îts strîpes THE INDEPENDENT (UK).............................................32 L’origine des rayures du zèbre.
Les sorties34 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... Le dessin35 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Grand angle
ROYAUME-UNI
L’actualité en images
PANCAKE DAY Mardi gras
In thîs photograph, chorîsters rom Ely Cathedral în Cambrîdgeshîre are practîsîng or the pancake race held at the Cathedral on Shrove Tuesday. Shrove Tuesday, or “Pancake Day,” îs the annual celebratîon Ely observed the day beore Ash Wednesday în many Englîsh-speakîng countrîes such as the UK, Ireland, Australîa and Canada. Ash Wednesday marks the first day of the Christian observance of Lent, a 40day period of abstinence that precedes Easter. Since around the 16th century, it has become tradition for people to eat pancakes to mark the beginning of Lent in order to use up ingredients that they wouldn’t be allowed to eat during the 40day period (eggs, butter and fat). This is how Pancake Day obtained its name.
to practises’entraîner /racecourse /to hold, held, heldici, avoir lieu, se dérouler /Shrove TuesdayMardi gras ou Mardi de l’absolution (to shrive(archaïque) absoudre) /to observeici, Fêter /Ash WednesdayMercredi des Cendres /LentCarême / EasterPâques /in order toafin de /to use uputiliser (tout), finir /to allowautoriser /fatmatière grasse.
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To celebrate Pancake Day,  bon à savoirpeople eat a lot oF pancakes (obviously) and they can also take part in “pancake racing” – a race carried out while flipping pancakes in a Frying pan. In the UK, some also celebrate Pancake Day with “mob Football” matches on public roads.
obviouslyévidemment, ça va de soi /to carry out efectuer /to flipFaire sauter /frying panpoêle à Frire / mob footballlitt. « Football de masse », aussi appelé « Football médiéval », Football anarchique inventé pendant le Moyen Âge.
(Geof Robinson Photography/REX/Shutterstock/SIPA)
On parle d'eux… Ceux qui font l'actu
Paul Manafort Paul Manafort, the former chairman of Donald Trump’s campaign, has been sentenced to 4 months in prison for bank and tax fraud. His crimes were uncov-ered by FBI special counsel Robert Mueller during his Russia investigation. He was sentenced by U.S. District Judge T.S. Ellis, who said Manafort had committed “se-rious, very serious crimes,” but that he had “lived an otherwise blameless life and earned the admiration of many.” Judge Ellis imposed a prison sentence consider-ably below what prosecutors and federal sentencing guidelines suggested would be appropriate –1 to 24 years in prison. Manafort said he was “humiliated and ashamed” by his new circumstances.
ormerancien, ex- /chaîrmandirecteur /to sentencecondamner /taxici, fiscal /crîmedélit /to uncoverdécouvrir, révéler /specîal counselici, procureur spécial /dîstrîct judgejuge Fédéral /otherwîsepar ailleurs / blamelessirréprochable /to earngagner, obtenir /to împoseici, appliquer, prononcer /prosecutorprocureur /ederal sentencîng guîdelîneslignes directrices pour la détermination des peines de prison /ashamedhonteux.
Queen Elizabeth II
Last month,the Queenpassed a new milestone by publishing her first post on Instagram. At 92, the Queen does not have a personal Instagram account but she used the royal Family’s page to post about a new summer exhibition at the Science Museum in London. Her post was a photograph oF a letter written in 1843 to her great-great-grandFather Prince Albert by Charles Babbage, the Victorian computer pioneer. The post collected more than 32,000 likes on Instagram.
mîlestoneétape (importante, décisive) /exhîbîtîon exposition /great-great-grandatherarrière-arrière-grand-père /computer(de l’)inFormatique.
(REX/Shutterstock/SIPA) Scott Morrison
The speech oF Australia’s prime minister For International Women’s Day last month provoked a major backlash. Speaking at a Function organised by Australia’s mining industry,Scott Morrîsonsaid his government wanted to see women rise, but not “on the basis oF others doing worse”. “We’re not about setting Australians against each other, trying to push some down to liFt others up,” he stated. Labor’s deputy leader and shadow women’s minister, Tanya Plibersek, responded that gender equality “is good For both women and men”.
speechdiscours /backlashréactions négatives, tollé /unctîonici cérémonie, (grand) événement /to rîse, rose, rîsens’élever /to set, set, set agaînst monter contre /to statedéclarer /Labor(du parti) travailliste /deputyadjoint /shadow mînîster ministre Fantôme (homologue d’un ministre en exercice dans un parti d’opposition).
 Retrouvez le fil d’infos surwww.vocable.fr
(SIPA) Kylie Jenner
The youngest member oF the Kardashian-Jenner American reality TV Family has become the world’s youngest billionaire at the age oF 21, topping Mark Zuckerberg by two years.Kylîe Jenner’s Fortune comes From Kylie Cosmetics, the makeup company she owns and runs largely From her social media accounts, which made $360m in sales last year.
bîllîonaîremilliardaire /to topdépasser, devancer / to ownêtre propriétaire de /to run, ran, runici diriger /largelyen grande partie /socîal medîa réseaux sociaux.
(SIPA)
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Àlaune IPolitiqueIThe 29yearold freshman House member Alexandria OcasioCortez % 59 is known by almostsix in 10 Americans (59%).
THE NEW YORK TIMES
SHANE GOLDMACHER
ETATS-UNIS
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27%of Americans have % 27view of AOC. a favorable
32%of % Americans 32view of AOC. have a negative
OCASIO-CORTEZ PUSHES DEMOCRATS TO THE LEFT Ocasio-Cortez tire le parti démocrate vers la gauche
Congresswoman Alexandria OcasioCortez. (Patrick Semansky/AP/SIPA)
Sujet favori des médias américains, star des réseaux sociaux et bientôt héroïne de bandedessinée... Depuis son élection à la Chambre des représentants en novembre dernier à l’âge de 29 ans, la députée démocrate Alexandria OcasioCortez est sous les feux des projecteurs. À l’origine d’un ambitieux projet environnemental récemment présenté devant le Congrès, « AOC » bouscule la gauche américaine et son influence pèse déjà sur les prochaines primaires démocrates. dismisWsed as fringe or even kooky when they— and her social-media megaphone.first-term member of Congress to push the ASHINGTON — Not so longImmigration and Customs Enforcement.2.In the five months since her election, Oca-ago, left-wing activists wereThen along came Alexandria Ocasio-Cortezsio-Cortez has had the uncanny ability for a pressed for proposals to tax the super rich atdebate inside the Democratic Party sharply to 0 percent, to produce all of America’s powerthe left, forcing party leaders and 2020 presi-Immîgratîon and Customs Enorcementagence through renewable resources or to abolishdential candidates to grapple with issues that Fédérale chargée de mener, entre autres, des enquêtes relatives à l'immigration illégale /to come, came, 1.let-wîngde gauche /to dîsmîss sb asqualifiercome alongse présenter, apparaître /megaphone2.uncannyici, extraordinaire /firstterm member qqn de /rîngeici, marginal /kookydingue, cinglé /toici, métaphore de la visibilité et de la communicationof Congressprimo-élue au Congrès /sharplyici, press orradicalement /parFaitement huilée d'A. O.-C. sur les réseaux sociaux. Faire pression pour / to grapple withs’attaquer à /
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FacîleA2-B1/moyenB2-C1/dîicîleC1-C2
NIVEAU BASIQUE ET AVANCÉ DU SUPPLÉMENT SONORE Notre animatriceShelly De Vîtoanalyse la politique environnementale actuelle des ÉtatsUnis. CD audio ou téléchargement MP3 (sur abonnement)
some might otherwise prefer to avoid. The Democratic field in 2020 is already being quizzed about her (Sen. Kamala Harris praised her onThe View), emulating her digital tactics (Sen. Elizabeth Warren held an Instagram chat in her kitchen that looked much like one of Ocasio-Cortez’s sessions) and embracing some of her causes.
3.Warren and Sen. Cory Booker, among oth-ers, have recently endorsed the idea of a “Green New Deal,” a call to reimagine an environ-ment-first economy that would phase out fossil fuels. Ocasio-Cortez thrust that issue into the national dialogue after she joined a sit-in protest in the office of then-incoming House speaker, Rep. Nancy Pelosi, in one of her first, rebellious acts in Washington.
BACKLASH 4.Her rise has stirred a backlash among some congressional Democrats, who are seeking to constrain her anti-establishment streak and fear her more radical ideas could tar the party as socialist. And it’s not just Washington. Back home in New York, she has stoked opposition to a deal with Amazon to set up offices in Queens, putting pressure on Gov. Andrew Cuomo and Mayor Bill de Blasio, both Demo-crats, to justify corporate incentives.
5.Ocasio-Cortez, a Bronx-born 29-year-old of Puerto Rican descent, is the youngest congress-
fieldici, candidats à l'investiture /to quizinterroger /Sen.= Senator /to praiseFaire l’éloge de /The Viewtalk-show créé en 1997 et difusé sur ABC /to emulateimiter, copier / digitalici, sur le web /to embraceici, soutenir, épouser. 3.to endorseappuyer, soutenir /to phase outéliminer progressivement /fossil fuelcombustible ossile /to thrust, thrust, thrustpropulser /sitin protestmaniestation pacifique (en occupant un lieu) / thenincomingici, qui venait d'être nommée /House Speakerprésidente de la Chambre des représentants / Rep.= Representativemembre de la Chambre des Représentants. 4.backlashici, réactions négatives /riseascension / to stirsusciter /to seek, sought, soughtchercher à / to constrainici, contenir /antiestablishmentcontestataire, subversi (establishmentclasses dirigeantes, élites) /streaktendance, propension /to tar(péj.) aire passer pour (targoudron) /to stokeattiser /Gov.= Governor/corporateici, pour les entreprises /incentivemesure d’incitation (financière). 5.descentorigine(s) /
Incoming Reps. Alexandria OcasioCortez, right, and Sheila Jackson Lee take a selfie before being sworn into Congress at the Capitol in Washington, on Jan. 3, 2019.(Erin Schaf/The New York Times)
woman ever, and Washington veterans say they cannot recall a similar congressional de-but. “A bartender from the Bronx has been able to create a litmus test around climate and economic policy for every 2020 Democrat,” said Waleed Shahid, who was one of Ocasio-Cortez’s early campaign advisers and is now commu-nications director for Justice Democrats, a lib-eral activist group. “If that’s not seen as a metric of success, then I don’t know what is.”
SYMBOL OF DIVERSITY 6.Far beyond policy, she has emerged as a potent symbol for a diversifying Democratic Party: a young woman of color who is giving as good as she gets in a political system that has rarely rewarded people who look like her. Her mastery of social media has allowed her to connect with audiences who might other-wise be alienated from Washington.
everici, jamais élue /Washington veteranparlementaire expérimenté /debutpremiers pas / bartenderici, barmaid /litmus testexamen de passage /earlyde la première heure /adviserconseiller /metricindicateur. 6.potentpuissant /... who is giving as good as she gets... qui rend coup pour coup /to rewardrécompenser /masterymaîtrise /to connect withici, se rapprocher de /audiencepublic /to be alienated fromêtre coupé de.
7.Still, her unexpectedly outsize profile could bring perils. Her threats to knock out more moderate Democrats in future primaries in particular seem to have rankled. Some whis-per her tweet-first, ask-questions-later mental-ity reminds them of President Donald Trump. And while she has attracted considerable at-tention, policymaking in Congress remains a long, slow grind dominated by insiders. Pelo-si, for instance, declined to grant the new climate change committee some of the powers that Ocasio-Cortez had demanded at the sit-in.
8.Many Republicans are downright giddy at the notion that a self-described democratic socialist is driving Democratic policy discus-sions. Congressional Republicans saw up close the dangers of having the more staunchly right-wing elements of the Tea Party come to >>>
7.unexpectedlyici, étonnamment /outsizegigantesque, énorme /profilenotoriété, visibilité /to knock outdémolir /primaryélection primaire (élection de sélection au sein d'un parti) /to rankleirriter, exaspérer /to whispermurmurer /grindprocessus laborieux /insiderinitié /to declinereuser /to grantaccorder (à) /to demandréclamer. 8.downrightcarrément /giddypris de vertige /to drive, drove, drivenmener /up closede près /staunchlyarouchement /Tea Partymouvement populiste, partisan du conservatisme fiscal et du moindre État /
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À la une
IPolitiqueI
ETATS-UNIS
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SUPPLÉMENT VIDÉO La députée démocrate Alexandria OcasioCortez fait partie de la frange « socialiste » de son parti. Découvrez le reportage vidéo décryptant quelquesunes de ses propositions phares et testez votre compréhension sur www.vocable.fr/videosanglais
define their tenure in the House majority. The 2020 Democratic Primary “Whether Democrats like it or not, Congress-woman Ocasio-Cortez is now the face of their The way în whîch the polîtîcal newcomers such as AOC are puttîng party,” said Steven Cheung, a former commu-new polîcy îdeas to the oreront and shapîng the 2020 Democratîc nications adviser in the Trump White House. Prîmary îs unprecedented. The field îs lîkely to be the largest în hîstory, wîth a dozen candîdates havîng already oicîally declared RADICAL LABEL theîr candîdacy. The Democratîc Prîmary tîmelîne îs not known at 9.Supporters and rivals alike agree that she present, but a serîes o oicîal debates îs set to begîn în June 2019. A has upended the traditional rules of engage-serîes o electoral contests wîll then be organîsed în all the U.S. ment on Capitol Hill with a millennial’s in-states to select the 3,768 delegates to the Democratîc Natîonal tuitive sense of what sells online. In an inter-Conventîon, who wîll, wîth an extra 764 superdelegates, appoînt the Democratîc nomînee. Followîng the 2016 presîdentîal electîon, the Democratîc Natîonal Commîttee has decîded to view, Ocasio-Cortez rejected “the general change the rules o the nomînatîon process. Some o the new reorms are stîll beîng fine tuned. notion of, ‘Oh, you’re here and need to be quiet and keep your head down.'” “For me,orerontpremîer plan /to shapeaçonner, înfluencer /to be lîkely torîsquer de (être susceptîble de) / tîmelînecalendrîer /to be set todevoîr (être prévu) /(electoral) contestconcours, compétîtîon; îcî especially as a member who won her seat via électîon /to appoîntdésîgner, nommer /nomîneecandîdat /rulerègle /to fine tuneainer, peaufiner. a primary election against another Democrat, my constituency was telling me the exact opposite thing,” she said. Republicans, she said, fundamentally misunderstand her:over, including one video of her dancing outside12.For all her focus on what she called “outside-“They think I’m just a Tea Party mirror. It’s anher office that has topped 22 million viewsinside” organizing, Ocasio-Cortez does seek easy and convenient way to frame something.power inside the Capitol. She raised her handacross the globe. But I don’t think it’s the same.”for a slot on the powerful Ways and Means Still, she has fully embracedMOST TALKEDCommittee, though no freshmen got a seat on the radical label — especiallyShe hasABOUT IDEAthat panel. She has since secured a seat on the if it means pulling the Demo-11.Perhaps Ocasio-Cortez’sFinancial Services Committee, which is a become a cratic Party to the left. “I thinkmost talked-about idea, raisednotable perch for a politician who has railed that it only has ever been rad-viral Interneton60 Minutes, has been thatagainst the grip of money in politics gener-icals that have changed thispeople she called “the tippyally, and Wall Street in particular.l sensation country,” she told60 Minutes.tops” — those earning above many times $10 million — should pay a 70 over. 10.It has all come in a rush: By percent rate on income above12.or allmalgré /ocus (on)îcî, engouement (pour) / to seek, sought, soughtchercher /slotcréneau, îcî the end of her full first day asthat threshold. The remark place /Ways and Means CommîtteeCommîssîon des a congresswoman, Ocasio-sparked days of debate among voîes et moyens (quî procède à toutes les afectatîons de Cortez had overtaken Pelosi’s following oneconomists and pundits, on the right and the crédît) /reshmanîcî, nouvel élu (du Congrès) /panelTwitter. Her initials and Twitter handle, @AOC,left, about tax rates unseen in America in commîssîon, comîté /to secureobtenîr, décrocher / have become shorthand for the phenomenondecades but common during the post-Worldperchperchoîr îcî, poste /to raîl agaînstustîger /grîpthat is the talk of Capitol Hill. She had a full60War II era. “I’ve been trying to open up thisemprîse /Wall Streetbourse de New York. Minutessegment devoted to her on her firstrhetorical space for many, many years,” said Sunday as a congresswoman. And she hasStephanie Kelton, a former chief economist become a viral Internet sensation many timesfor Democrats on the Senate Budget Commit-tee. “They used to talk about the Oprah effect,”SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE said Kelton, now a professor at Stony Brook tenuremandat, exercice d'une Fonction. University. “I think it’s the Ocasio effect at this 9.label(fig.) étiquette /alîkeconFondus, sansComment parler de point.” l’argent que l'on gagne ? distinction /to upendchambouler /Capîtol Hîllcapitole, siège du Congrès à Washington /mîllennîalincome(§ 11),salary, wages, représentant de la génération Y (né entre 1980 et l'an earnings, revenue...2000) /sensesens, intuition /constîtuencymany tîmes overà maîntes reprîses /to topAppelezle comme vous voulez, circonscription électorale /convenîentpratique /todépasser. rameici, présenter /60 Minutesmagazinemais n'oubliez pas de"fill in your tax 11.tîppy topssuper rîches (jeu de mots avec d'inFormation produit par CBS News.return"(remplir votre déclaration tîppy-toepoînte des pîeds) /to earngagner / d'impôts)et de l'envoyer à"HMRC" 10.în a rushtrès vite /to overtake, took, takenthresholdseuîl /to sparkdéclencher, donner lîeu à / (Her Majesty's Revenue and dépasser /ollowîngnombre d'abonnés /handleici,pundîtexpert, commentateur /Oprah= Oprah Customs), connu également sous le nom d'utilisatrice /shorthandici, synonyme /talkWînreycélèbre anîmatrîce de télévîsîon (l'efet Oprah nom de"Inland Revenue". centre des conversations /(to be) devoted to(être)désîgne son înfluence consîdérable auprès du publîc) / consacré à /vîraldifusé par les înternautes eux-mêmes /at thîs poîntà ce stade.
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