Magazine Vocable - Anglais - Du 7 au 14 mars 2019

Magazine Vocable - Anglais - Du 7 au 14 mars 2019

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N°794 – THE REVOLT AGAINST PLASTIC

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PRATIC’ABLE
N° 797/Anglais
4 pages centrales de quiz pour progresser en anglais Le comparatif et le superlatif / Vocabulaire : les assurances
La presse înternatîonale enV.O.pour progresser en anglaîs
THE REVOLT AGAINST PLASTIC THE ANTIPLASTIC MOVEMENT, AND THE MILLENNIAL PUSH FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE FASHION
L 18716 797 F:3,60
Du 7 au 20 mars 20193,60 € /
POLITICS RENT CONTROLS ARE BACK IN VOGUE THE ECONOMIST
CINEMA THESTAN & OLLIEMOVIE THE ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER
SCIENCE CAN YOU TRUST YOUR MEMORIES? THE INDEPENDENT
J
EU-CONCOU
RS
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édito
AMÉLIE ARA RÉDACTRICE EN CHEF
Bientôt tous écolos ? Si l’invention de la bakélite en 10 a inauguré l’ère du plastique, c’est à partir de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale que cette industrie a véritablement pris son essor... Un essor qui s’est révélé incontrôlable. Aux États-Unis, la production a plus que triplé entre 13 et 145. Dans les années 150, lefilm étirable a fait son apparition dans nos cuisines et, sans que l’on s’en aperçoive, le plastique a progressive-ment envahi tous les aspects de notre quotidien. Chaque année, nous produisons environ 348 millions de tonnes de plastique – dont une partie non négligeable finit sa course dans nos océans. Fort heureusement, depuis peu, les initiatives gouvernementales visant à limiter cette pollution se multiplient dans le monde entier, de l’Inde à l’Union Européenne. Comment le plastique est-il devenu notre ennemi numéro un ? Réponse dans un fascinant reportage duGuardian.
La « fast fashion » a également contribué à ré-volutionner nos habitudes de consommation. Aujourd’hui, des enseignes telles que H&M ou Zara présentent jusqu’à vingt nouvelles collections par an, avec les conséquences environnementales que l’on peut imaginer. La filière textile est la deuxième industrie la plus polluante au monde. Face à ce constat, une partie de la génération milléniale a dé-cidé de se tourner vers les magasins de vêtements d’occasion, forçant de cette façon les marques de prêt-à-porter à revoir leur manière de fonctionner.
La mobilisation de la jeunesse pour la planète et l’action climatique est désormais incontestable, et ce n’est peut-être pas un hasard si c’est une jeune activiste de 16 ans, la Suédoise Greta Thunberg, qui est devenue l’icône de la lutte contre le réchauffe-ment climatique...
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sommaire N° 797/ Du 7 au 20 mars 2019 NIVEAU DE DIFFICULTÉ ET ÉQUIVALENCE CECRL (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les langues): facîleA2-B1moyenB2-C1dîicîleC1-C2 Pour facîlîter le repérage et la compréhensîon, les mots traduîts sont surlîgnés dans tous les artîcles du magazîne.
Grand angle4 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................On parle d'eux5 .............................................................................................................................................................................................
 À la une The plastic backlashB2-C1 THE GUARDIAN (UK)................................................................................6  La lutte mondîale contre le plastîque. Fast ashion ueling push or sustainable apparel C1-C2 THE BALTIMORE SUN (US)...........................................................................................................................................................................9  La fin de la fast fashîon ?
A2-B1
Sur le vif12 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B2-C1
Société Death of the prîvate self THE GUARDIAN (UK)...........................................................................14 Comment quînze ans de Facebook ont transformé la socîété.
B2-C1 THE ECONOMIST (UK)........................................................................................................................  Maîden lanes16 Rue « Madame... », une rareté.
A2-B1
PRATIC’ABLE.................................................................................................................................17 Vocabulaîre, expressîons et astuces pour parler comme un anglophone Les assurances / Les comparaîsons : comparatîf, superlatîf / Soîgnez votre orthographe / Jeux de mots
À 360°22 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................
 Enjeux B2-C1  Rent controls are back în vogue23 THE ECONOMIST (UK)......................................... L’encadrement des loyers, le nouveau combat du maîre de Londres.
A2-B1
Zoom sur25 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B2-C1 THE ECONOMIST (UK).......................  Apple and the smartphone malaîse26 Les ventes d’îPhones en baîsse chez Apple.
B2-C1
A2-B1
Culture  John C. Reîlly and Steve Coogan onStan & OllieTHE ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER (US)....................................................................................................................................28 Les « nouveaux Laurel et Hardy » se confient.
Les échos............. . ..... .......................... 31 ........... . ................................................................................................................................ ..... ..................
 Découverte B2-C1  Can you trust your own memorîes? THE INDEPENDENT (UK)...................32 Pourquoî nos souvenîrs ne sont pas totalement fiables.
Les sorties34 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................Le dessin35 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Grand angle
L’actualité en images
ROYAUME-UNI SCHOOLS 4 CLIMATE ACTION Les écoliers agissent pour le climat
Londres On March 15, wîth the support of some of the world’s bîggest envîronmental groups, tens of thousands of schoolchîldren, în at least two dozen European countrîes and nearly 30 U.S. states, plan to skîp school to demand theîr governments take actîon on clîmate change. They want natîons to commît to cuttîng fossîl-fuel emîssîons în half în the next 10 years to avoîd catastrophîc global warmîng. Thîs clîmate movement was started by Greta Thunberg, a 16-year-old student from Sweden, who has been skîppîng school to demonstrate în front of her country’s parlîament buîldîng every Frîday sînce September. She has înspîred tens of thousands of students în the Unîted Kîngdom (where thîs photo was taken), Sweden, Australîa, Germany and Belgîum, among others, who have begun protestîng în theîr own cîtîes as a result. March 15 îs expected to be a global strîke, called for by Greta Thunberg.
supportsoutîen /to skîpîcî, "sécher" /to demandexîger /to commît tos'engager à /to cut, cut, cutîcî, réduîre /fossîl fuelcombustîble fossîle /to avoîdévîter /globalmondîal /to demonstrate(syn. to protest) manîfester /to be expected todevoîr (selon les prévîsîons) /strîkegrève (îcî, des écolîers).
4VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019
(Tom Nîcholson/LNP/REX/Shutterstock/SIPA)
On parle d'eux… Ceux qui font l'actu
Amy Klobuchar Minnesota SenatorAmy Klobucharhas officially joined the 2020 presiden-tial race. The Democrat made the an-nouncement from Minneapolis, in front of a crowd of supporters gathered there despite the heavy snow. She be-came the fifth Democratic senator to join a growing roster of candidates running for the nomination for 2020. The first woman from Minnesota to be elected to the U.S. Senate in 2006, she has never lost an election. Her cam-paign will focus on removing money from politics, addressing climate change and expanding voting rights. Immediately after her speech, Trump tweeted: “By the end of her speech she looked like a Snowman (woman)!”
 Retrouvez le fil d’infos surwww.vocable.fr
racecourse (à la présîdence) /to gatherréunîr, rassembler /heavyîcî, abondant /rosterlîste /to run, ran, run (for)îcî, être candîdat à /nomînatîonînvestîture / to focus onse concentrer/être axé sur /to removeretîrer, élîmîner /to addressîcî, lutter contre /to expandétendre /speechdîscours.
Victoria Bateman
Cambrîdge economîcs academîc and pro-Europe campaîgnerVîctorîa Batemanhas învîted “Brexîteer” Tory MP Jacob Rees-Mogg, to debate wîth her on lîve TV. Appearîng nude on ITV Good Mornîng Brîtaîn wîth an antî-Brexît message wrîtten on her body, she stated: “The key message that I want to delîver îs that Brexît îs the emperor’s new clothes. What hîgh-profile Brexîteers promîsed Brexît voters îs just not possîble to delîver.”
academîcunîversîtaîre, chercheur /campaîgner mîlîtant /Brexîteer(personne) en faveur du retraît du Royaume-Unî de l’Unîon européenne /Tory conservateur /MP = Member of Parlîament, membre du parlement, député /to statedéclarer / to delîverîcî, faîre passer (aussî assurer) / hîgh-profilecélèbre.
(Ken McKay/ITV/REX/Shutter/SIPA) Ralph Northam
Ralph Northam, the Democratîc governor of Vîrgînîa, has been caught up în a massîve scandal after a photograph of hîm wearîng blackface, durîng a dance contest for whîch he dressed up as Mîchael Jackson în the 1980s, was released by a rîght-wîng news outlet. Ralph Northam apologîsed but saîd he would not be steppîng down, despîte numerous Vîrgînîa Democratîc oicîals callîng for hîm to resîgn.
to be caught up înêtre împlîqué dans /blackface personne blanche maquîllée pour jouer un personnage noîr (souvent carîcatural) /contest concours /to releaseîcî, publîer /rîght-wîngde droîte /news outletmedîa /to apologîse présenter des excuses /to step downdémîssîonner, quîtter ses fonctîons /oicîalîcî, élu /to resîgn démîssîonner.
(SIPA) John Roberts
Last month, U.S. Chîef JustîceJohn Robertsjoîned the four lîberal Justîces of the Supreme Court în blockîng a law aîmed at restrîctîng abortîon în the state of Louîsîana. The law could have left the state wîth just one abortîon clînîc and provîder în busîness to serve an estîmated 10,000 women. Hîs vote was unexpected and marks a turnaround, as hîs overall votîng record has been conservatîve, and he had voted to sustaîn other laws restrîctîng abortîon în the past.
chîef justîcejuge présîdent de la Cour suprême / aîmed atdestîné, vîsant à /abortîonavortement / provîderprestataîre /în busînessen actîvîté /to serveîcî, accueîllîr /unexpectedînattendu / turnaroundrevîrement /overallgénéral /record bîlan; îcî, profil /to sustaînsoutenîr, appuyer.
(Jenn Ackerman/The New York Tîmes)
VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019 5
(Doug Mîlls/The New York Tîmes)
À lauen ROYAUME-UNI IEnvironnementIIB2-C1 Global plastic production has rocketed from some 160m tonnesin 1995 to340m tonnestoday.
THE GUARDIAN
STEPHEN BURANYI
Workers sort hundreds of thousands of plastic bottles by colour at a recycling centre in Bangladesh.(Abdul Momîn/Solent News/SIPA)
THE PLASTIC BACKLASH Haro sur le plastique(backlashretour de balancier, réactions négatives)
e Depuîs le mîlîeu du 20 sîècle, l’îndustrîe du plastîque a connu une croîssance înégalée. Jouets, emballages alîmentaîres, produîts cosmétîques, vêtements... Le plastîque a progressîvement envahî notre quotîdîen, et notre planète. Chaque année, envîron 8 mîllîons de tonnes de plastîque se retrouvent dans les océans. Depuîs peu, les polîtîques « antî-plastîques » se multîplîent. Comment explîquer cette récente prîse de conscîence collectîve ? thiPng. Until recently, plastic enjoyed a sort ofexpanse of toys, household bric-a-brac andonly very recently that people have really lastic is everywhere, and suddenlyof polyester and nylon, both plastics, thanfor decades, first passing the 100m tonne mark we have decided that is a very badcotton or wool. Add this to the more obviousin the early 1990s. But for some reason it is anonymity in ubiquity: we were so thor-consumer packaging, and the extent of plas- begun to care. oughly surrounded that we hardly noticed it.tic’s empire becomes clear. Humankind has You might be surprised to learn, for instance, produced unfathomable quantities of plasticA WORLDWIDE REVOLT that today’s cars and planes are, by volume,2.The result is a worldwide revolt against about 50% plastic. More clothing is made out plastic, one that crosses both borders and tra-
1.thoroughlycomplètement /to be surroundedêtre cerné, entouré /hardlyne ... guère, à peîne /to notîceremarquer /
6VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019
obvîousmanîfeste, évîdent /expanseétendue îcî, volume /householdfoyer, îcî à usage domestîque, que nous avons chez nous /packagîngemballage /extentampleur, împortance /humankîndhumanîté / unfathomableîcî, abyssal, încalculable /
markbarre, seuîl. 2.borderfrontîère /
facîleA2-B1/moyenB2-C1/dîicîleC1-C2
 Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture
Less than 10%of all plastic in the United States is recycled each year.
ditional political divides. In 2016, a Greenpeace petition for a UK-wide plastic microbead ban hit 365,000 signatures in just four months, eventually becoming the largest environmen-tal petition ever presented to government. Protest groups from the US to South Korea have dumped piles of what they say is un-wanted and excessive plastic packaging at supermarkets. Prince Charles has given speeches about the dangers of plastic, while Kim Kardashian has posted on Instagram about the “plastic crisis”, and claims to have given up straws.
3.At the highest levels of government the plastic panic can resemble a scrambled response to a natural disaster, or a public health crisis. The United Nations has de-clared a “war” on single-use plastic. In Britain, Theresa May has called it a “scourge”, and committed the government to a 25-year plan that would phase out disposable packaging by 2042. India claimed it would do the same, but by 2022. All this has added up to a feeling that we might be on the verge of a great environ-mental victory.
DISPOSABLE CONSUMER CULTURE 4.But getting rid of plastic would require more than a packaging-free aisle at the supermarket and soggy cardboard drinking straws at the pub. Plastic is everywhere not because it was always better than the natural materials it re-placed, but because it was lighter and cheaper – so much cheaper, in fact, that it was easier to
dîvîdeclîvage /UK-wîdedans tout le Royaume-Unî / mîcrobeadmîcrobîlle /banînterdîctîon /to hît, hît, hîtatteîndre, totalîser /eventuallyfinalement / everîcî, jamaîs auparavant /to dumpdéposer, décharger /pîleîcî, tas /unwantednon souhaîté îcî, mîs au rebut /to claîmairmer, prétendre /strawpaîlle. 3.scrambledîcî, précîpîté /responseréactîon, rîposte /natural dîsastercatastrophe naturelle / sîngle-useà usage unîque /scourgefléau /to commît tos'engager dans /to phase outélîmîner progressîvement /dîsposablejetable, à usage unîque /to add up toîcî, donner, contrîbuer /on the verge ofau bord de, très proche de. 4.to get, got, got rîd ofse débarrasser de / packagîng-freesans emballage /aîsleallée, rayon / soggyîmbîbé d'eau /cardboard(en) carton /
justify throwing away. Customers found this convenient, and businesses were happy to sell them a new plastic container for every soda or sandwich they bought. In the same way steel enabled new frontiers in building, plastic made possible the cheap and disposable consumer culture that we have come to take for granted. To take on plastic is in some way to take on consumerism itself.
SCIENTISTS’ WARNINGS 5.The most astounding thing about the anti-plastic movement is just how fast it has grown. To travel back even to 2015 is to enter to a world in which almost all of the things we currently know about plastic are already known, but people aren’t very angry about it. This wasn’t for lack of effort by scientists. The
to throw, threw, thrown awayjeter /convenîentpratîque /contaînerrécîpîent /steelacîer /to enablerendre possîble /to take, took, taken for grantedconsîdérer comme allant de soî /to take, took, taken ons'attaquer à. 5.warnîngavertîssement, mîse en garde / astoundîngextraordînaîre /lack/manque, absence
case against plastic had been building for al-most three decades. In the early 1990s, re-searchers noticed that some 60-80% of the waste in the ocean was non-biodegradable plastic. Then came the revelation that plastic was accumulating in the calm regions be-tween ocean currents, forming what the oceanographer Curtis Ebbesmeyer called “great garbage patches”.
6.In 2004, the scale of the problem became even more apparent when the University of Plymouth oceanographer Richard Thompson coined the term “microplastic” to describe the billions of minuscule bits of plastic that have either resulted from the breakdown of larger plastics or been deliberately made for use in >>>
to buîld, buîlt, buîlt a case agaînst sthmonter un dossîer contre qqch, réunîr des éléments à l'encontre de qqch /researcherchercheur /wastedéchets / great garbage patchgîgantesque décharge (flottante). 6.scaleampleur /to coînforger, înventer /bîllîonmîllîard /bîtfragment, partîcule /breakdowndésîntégratîon /
A history o the plastics industry
 1907Inventîon of Bakelîte, the first plastîc made from synthetîc components, în the US, by the Belgîan-Amerîcan chemîst Leo Baekeland, who also coîns the term ‘plastîcs.’  1933Inventîon of polyethylene, the most common plastîc today, by Regînald Gîbson and Erîc Fawcett.  1939World War II makes plastîc îndîspensable.US plastîc productîon more than trîplesbetween 1939 and 1945, from 97,000 tonnes to 371,000 tonnes.  1941Inventîon of Styrofoamby Ray McIntîre. Thîs polystyrene foam îs perfectly suîted for însulatîng homes and oices.  1950sIntroductîon of thîn plastîc wrappîngto protect consumer goods and dry cleanîng.  1965The Socîety of the Plastîcs Industry trade body report that plastîcs has entered theîr 13th straîght year of record growth.  1970Coke and Pepsî begînreplacîng theîr glass bottles wîth plastîc versîonsmanufactured by Monsanto Chemîcal and Standard Oîl.  1971New York Cîty înstîtutes atax on plastîc bottles. 1977The state of Hawaîîbans plastîc bottles entîrely. The ban îs struck down two years later after a lawsuît from a drînks company.  1988The Socîety of the Plastîcs Industry trade assocîatîon founds the Councîl for Solîd Waste Solutîonsto promote plastîc recyclîng în cîtîes. componentcomposant /to coînînventer /Styrofoampolystyrène extrudé (marque générîque) /Co = company/foammousse /to suîtconvenîr /to însulateîsoler (du chaud, froîd) /wrappîngemballage /trade bodyîcî, assocîatîon professîonnelle /straîghtîcî, consécutîf /growthcroîssance /to manufacturefabrîquer /to banînterdîre /to strîke, struck, struck downînvalîder, annuler /lawsuîtprocès (întenté par) /to foundfonder, créer.
VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019 7