Magazine Vocable - English - Du 7 au 14 mars 2019

Magazine Vocable - English - Du 7 au 14 mars 2019

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N°468 – THE REVOLT AGAINST PLASTIC

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Date de parution 13 mars 2019
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PRATIC’ABLE
N° 468/All English.
4 pages centrales de quiz pour progresser en anglais Le comparatif et le superlatif / Vocabulaire : les assurances
La presse înternatîonale enV.O.pour progresser en anglaîs
THE REVOLT AGAINST PLASTIC THE ANTIPLASTIC MOVEMENT, AND THE MILLENNIAL PUSH FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE FASHION
L 18896 468 F:3,60
Du 7 au 20 mars 20193,60 € /
POLITICS RENT CONTROLS ARE BACK IN VOGUE THE ECONOMIST
CINEMA THESTAN & OLLIEMOVIE THE ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER
SCIENCE CAN YOU TRUST YOUR MEMORIES? THE INDEPENDENT
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(1) Tentez votre chance pour gagner un séjour linguistique à Malte ! jusqu’au 21 mars 2019 sur www.vocable.fr
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AMÉLIE ARA RÉDACTRICE EN CHEF
Are we all becoming environmentalists?
The invention of bakelite in 1907 marked the beginning of an era where plastic has reigned supreme. It was during the Second World War that the industry really took off. In the United States, plastic production more than tripled be-tween 1939 and 195 and in the 1950s, clingfilm made its appearance in kitchens. Without really realising it, plastic has completely invaded every aspect of our daily lives. Each year we produce around 348 million tonnes of it, much of which ends up in our oceans. Luckily, more recently, government initiatives have sought to limit this pollution worldwide, from India to the European Union. How has plastic suddenly become our number one enemy? The answer is in a fascinat-ing article fromThe Guardian.
Fast fashion has also contributed to our changing buying habits. Nowadays, stores such as H&M and Zara offer up to twenty new fashion collec-tions per year, which has serious consequences for the environment. Textile manufacturing is the second most polluting industry in the world. Faced with this reality, many from the millennial generation have decided to frequent second hand clothes stores, thereby forcing the ready-to-wear market to review its way of working.
Our young people are now mobilising to save the planet, and, therefore, it comes as no surprise that a young sixteen-year-old Swedish activist, Greta Thunberg, has become an icon in the fight against climate change.
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sommaire N° 468/ Du 7 au 20 mars 2019 NIVEAU DE DIFFICULTÉ ET ÉQUIVALENCE CECRL (Cadre Européen Commun de Référence pour les langues): facîleA2-B1moyenB2-C1dîicîleC1-C2 Pour facîlîter le repérage et la compréhensîon, les mots traduîts sont surlîgnés dans tous les artîcles du magazîne.
Grand angle4 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................On parle d'eux5 .............................................................................................................................................................................................
 À la une B2-C1 The plastic backlash6 THE GUARDIAN (UK)................................................................................  A worldwîde revolt agaînst plastîc îs under way. C1-C2 Fast ashion ueling push or sustainable apparel THE BALTIMORE SUN (US)...........................................................................................................................................................................9  Nearîng the end o ast ashîon?
A2-B1
Sur le vif12 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B2-C1
Société Death of the prîvate self THE GUARDIAN (UK)...........................................................................14 How fiteen years o Facebook changed socîety.
B2-C1  Maîden lanes16 THE ECONOMIST (UK)........................................................................................................................ The push to name more European streets ater women.
A2-B1
PRATIC’ABLE17 .................................................................................................................................Vocabulaîre, expressîons et astuces pour parler comme un anglophone Les assurances / Les comparaîsons : comparatî, superlatî / Soîgnez votre orthographe / Jeux de mots
À 360°.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 ...
 Enjeux B2-C1  Rent controls are back în vogue23 THE ECONOMIST (UK)......................................... Rent control, a new prîorîty or the Mayor o London.
A2-B1
Zoom sur25 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................
B2-C1  Apple and the smartphone malaîse26 THE ECONOMIST (UK)....................... îPhone sales are în sharp declîne.
Culture B2-C1  John C. Reîlly and Steve Coogan onStan & OllieTHE ORANGE COUNTY REGISTER (US)....................................................................................................................................28 Intervîew about the new Laurel and Hardy film.
A2-B1
Les échos31 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................
 Découverte B2-C1  Can you trust your own memorîes?32 THE INDEPENDENT (UK)................... Why our recollectîons are not very relîable.
Les sorties34 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................Le dessin35 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Grand angle
L’actualité en images
ROYAUME-UNI SCHOOLS 4 CLIMATE ACTION Schoolchildren become activists for action on climate change
Londres On March 15, wîth the support of some of the world’s bîggest envîronmental groups, tens of thousands of schoolchîldren, în at least two dozen European countrîes and nearly 30 U.S. states, plan to skîp school to demand theîr governments take actîon on clîmate change. They want natîons to commît to cuttîng fossîl-fuel emîssîons în half în the next 10 years to avoîd catastrophîc global warmîng. Thîs clîmate movement was started by Greta Thunberg, a 16-year-old student from Sweden, who has been skîppîng school to demonstrate în front of her country’s parlîament buîldîng every Frîday sînce September. She has înspîred tens of thousands of students în the Unîted Kîngdom (where thîs photo was taken), Sweden, Australîa, Germany and Belgîum, among others, who have begun protestîng în theîr own cîtîes as a result. March 15 îs expected to be a global strîke, called for by Greta Thunberg.
supportsolîdarîty, endorsement /to skîpto mîss, to be absent rom /to demandto ask or, însîst on /to commît toto pledge to, to promîse to /to cut, cut, cutto reduce / fossîl fuelcombustîble organîc materîal (e.g. oîl, coal, natural gas) /to avoîdto prevent /globalworldwîde /to demonstrateto protest /to be expected toto be predîcted to /strîkeorganîsed reusal, (here, to attend school).
4VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019
(Tom Nîcholson/LNP/REX/Shutterstock/SIPA)
On parle d'eux… Ceux qui font l'actu
Amy Klobuchar Minnesota SenatorAmy Klobucharhas officially joined the 2020 presiden-tial race. The Democrat made the an-nouncement from Minneapolis, in front of a crowd of supporters gathered there despite the heavy snow. She be-came the fifth Democratic senator to join a growing roster of candidates running for the nomination for 2020. The first woman from Minnesota to be elected to the U.S. Senate in 2006, she has never lost an election. Her cam-paign will focus on removing money from politics, addressing climate change and expanding voting rights. Immediately after her speech, Trump tweeted: “By the end of her speech she looked like a Snowman (woman)!”
 Retrouvez le fil d’infos surwww.vocable.fr
raceelectoral campaîgn /to gatherto congregate, assemble /heavyheavy, consîderable amount o /rosterlîst /to run, ran, run (for)here, to be a candîdate în /nomînatîonact o selectîng an oicîal candîdate or sth /to focus onto concentrate on, be centred on /to removeto elîmînate, get rîd o /to addresshere, to fight agaînst /to expandto extend /speechormal talk, address to an audîence.
Victoria Bateman
Cambrîdge economîcs academîc and pro-Europe campaîgnerVîctorîa Batemanhas învîted “Brexîteer” Tory MP Jacob Rees-Mogg, to debate wîth her on lîve TV. Appearîng nude on ITV Good Mornîng Brîtaîn wîth an antî-Brexît message wrîtten on her body, she stated: “The key message that I want to delîver îs that Brexît îs the emperor’s new clothes. What hîgh-profile Brexîteers promîsed Brexît voters îs just not possîble to delîver.”
academîcunîversîty proessor, scholar /campaîgneractîve supporter o a cause, mîlîtant /Brexîteerperson în avour o the UK leavîng the EU /ToryConservatîve / MP= Member of Parlîament, polîtîcal representatîve / to stateto declare /to delîverto express, gîve / hîgh-profilewell-known, promînent.
(Ken McKay/ITV/REX/Shutter/SIPA) Ralph Northam
Ralph Northam, the Democratîc governor o Vîrgînîa, has been caught up în a massîve scandal ater a photograph o hîm wearîng blackace, durîng a dance contest or whîch he dressed up as Mîchael Jackson în the 1980s, was released by a rîght-wîng news outlet. Ralph Northam apologîsed but saîd he would not be steppîng down, despîte numerous Vîrgînîa Democratîc oicîals callîng or hîm to resîgn.
to be caught up înto be învolved în, împlîcated în / blackfacewhîte person în black make-up to represent a stereotypîcal black person/slave/mînstrel /contestcompetîtîon /to releasehere, to publîsh /rîght-wîngon the polîtîcal rîght /news outletmedîa /to apologîseto say sorry /to step downto wîthdraw, resîgn rom oice /oicîalhere, elected polîtîcal representatîve /to resîgnto leave (a post).
(SIPA) John Roberts
Last month, U.S. Chîe JustîceJohn Robertsjoîned the our lîberal Justîces o the Supreme Court în blockîng a law aîmed at restrîctîng abortîon în the state o Louîsîana. The law could have let the state wîth just one abortîon clînîc and provîder în busîness to serve an estîmated 10,000 women. Hîs vote was unexpected and marks a turnaround, as hîs overall votîng record has been conservatîve, and he had voted to sustaîn other laws restrîctîng abortîon în the past.
(Jenn Ackerman/The New York Tîmes)
chîef justîcechîe judge o the Supreme Court /aîmed atîntended or, destîned or /abortîontermînatîon o a pregnancy /provîdersupplîer /în busînessoperatîonal /to serveto accommodate /unexpectedunoreseen, unantîcîpated /turnaroundcomplete change rom one opînîon or sîtuatîon to another /overallgeneral, global, total /recordbackground /to sustaînto support, maîntaîn. VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019 5
(Doug Mîlls/The New York Tîmes)
À lneau ROYAUME-UNI IEnvironnementIIB2-C1 Global plastic production has rocketed from some 160m tonnesin 1995 to340m tonnestoday.
THE GUARDIAN
STEPHEN BURANYI
Workers sort hundreds of thousands of plastic bottles by colour at a recycling centre in Bangladesh.(Abdul Momîn/Solent News/SIPA)
THE PLASTIC BACKLASH The tide has turned on plastic(backlashnegative reaction, here, growing adverse public opinion)
Sînce the 1950s, plastîc has enjoyed unprecedented growth. Toys, food packagîng, cosmetîc products, clothes… plastîc has progressîvely învaded our daîly lîves and our planet. Each year, around 8 mîllîon tonnes of ît ends up în our oceans. Recently, a new wave of antî-plastîc polîtîcs has gaîned momentum. What are the reasons for thîs recent change în the collectîve conscîousness?
thiPng. Until recently, plastic enjoyed a sort of lastic is everywhere, and suddenly we have decided that is a very bad anonymity in ubiquity: we were so thor-oughly surrounded that we hardly noticed it. You might be surprised to learn, for instance, that today’s cars and planes are, by volume, about 50% plastic. More clothing is made out
1.thoroughlycompletely /to be surroundedto encîrcle, here, to be all around, everywhere /hardlybarely, scarcely /to notîceto detect, observe, here to perceîve /
6VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019
of polyester and nylon, both plastics, than cotton or wool. Add this to the more obvious expanse of toys, household bric-a-brac and consumer packaging, and the extent of plas-tic’s empire becomes clear. Humankind has produced unfathomable quantities of plastic
obvîousevîdent, manîest /expansehere, volume / householdamîly, here, or domestîc use, that we have în our homes /packagîngmaterîals used to wrap goods / extentmagnîtude, împortance /humankîndhumanîty / unfathomableîncalculable, încomprehensîble /
for decades,first passing the 100m tonne mark in the early 1990s. But for some reason it is only very recently that people have really begun to care.
A WORLDWIDE REVOLT 2.The result is a worldwide revolt against plastic, one that crosses both borders and tra-
markpoînt, level.
facîleA2-B1/moyenB2-C1/dîicîleC1-C2
 Améliorez votre prononciation en écoutant tous les articles sur le supplément audio de lecture
Less than 10%of all plastic in the United States is recycled each year.
ditional political divides. In 201, a Greenpeace petition for a UK-wide plastic microbead ban hit 35,000 signatures in just four months, eventually becoming the largest environmen-tal petition ever presented to government. Protest groups from the US to South Korea have dumped piles of what they say is un-wanted and excessive plastic packaging at supermarkets. Prince Charles has given speeches about the dangers of plastic, while Kim Kardashian has posted on Instagram about the “plastic crisis”, and claims to have given up straws.
3.At the highest levels of government the plastic panic can resemble a scrambled response to a natural disaster, or a public health crisis. The United Nations has de-clared a “war” on single-use plastic. In Britain, Theresa May has called it a “scourge”, and committed the government to a 25-year plan that would phase out disposable packaging by 2042. India claimed it would do the same, but by 2022. All this has added up to a feeling that we might be on the verge of a great environ-mental victory.
DISPOSABLE CONSUMER CULTURE 4.But getting rid of plastic would require more than a packaging-free aisle at the supermarket and soggy cardboard drinking straws at the pub. Plastic is everywhere not because it was always better than the natural materials it re-placed, but because it was lighter and cheaper – so much cheaper, in fact, that it was easier to
2.dîvîdedîvîsîon /UK-wîdeacross the whole o the UK / mîcrobeadextremely small pîece o plastîc used în personal care products, cosmetîcs, and detergents /banprohîbîtîon /to hît, hît, hîtto reach, attaîn /eventuallyfinally /evero all tîme /to dumpto dîspose o, here, dîscard, leave behînd /pîleheap, stack, mound / unwantedunwelcome, undesîrable /to gîve, gave, gîven upto abandon, relînquîsh /to claîmto declare, assert /strawlong tube to suck lîquîd out o a contaîner. 3.scrambledhasty, rushed, hurrîed /responsereactîon / sîngle-useor one tîme use only /scourgesource o destructîon /to commît toto pledge to, to promîse to /to phase outto eradîcate progressîvely /dîsposablethat îs used once only /to add up tohere, to result în, contrîbute to /on the verge ofabout to, on the poînt o. 4.to get, got, got rîd ofto do away wîth, here, to no longer have /packagîng-freewîthout any contaîner or coverîng /aîslesectîon o goods în a supermarket /soggydamp, wet /cardboardstîf and thîck paper /
justify throwing away. Customers found this convenient, and businesses were happy to sell them a new plastic container for every soda or sandwich they bought. In the same way steel enabled new frontiers in building, plastic made possible the cheap and disposable consumer culture that we have come to take for granted. To take on plastic is in some way to take on consumerism itself.
SCIENTISTS’ WARNINGS 5.The most astounding thing about the anti-plastic movement is just how fast it has grown. To travel back even to 2015 is to enter to a world in which almost all of the things we currently know about plastic are already known, but people aren’t very angry about it. This wasn’t for lack of effort by scientists. The
tothrow, threw, thrownawayto get rîd o, dîspose o / convenîentpractîcal /contaînerreceptacle, coverîng /steelhard metal made o îron and carbon /toenableto make possîble /totake, took, takenfor grantedto assume as automatîc /totake, took, takenonto take a stand agaînst. 5.warnîngalert, cautîon, here, înormatîon about a problem /astoundîngextraordînary /lackabsence /
case against plastic had been building for al-most three decades. In the early 1990s, re-searchers noticed that some 60-80% of the waste in the ocean was non-biodegradable plastic. Then came the revelation that plastic was accumulating in the calm regions be-tween ocean currents, forming what the oceanographer Curtis Ebbesmeyer called “great garbage patches”.
6.In 2004, the scale of the problem became even more apparent when the University of Plymouth oceanographer Richard Thompson coined the term “microplastic” to describe the billions of minuscule bits of plastic that have either resulted from the breakdown of larger plastics or been deliberately made for use in >>>
to buîld, buîlt, buîlt a case agaînst sthto provîde evîdence about, here, ofer solîd research and argument concernîng /researcherscîentîst who învestîgates a subject /wastereuse or rejected materîal, rubbîsh /great garbage patchgîgantîc floatîng expanse o rubbîsh. 6.scalemagnîtude, sîze, extent /to coînto învent, create /bîllîonthousand mîllîon /bîtragment, partîcle / breakdowndîsîntegratîon /
A history o the plastics industry
 1907Inventîon of Bakelîte, the first plastîc made rom synthetîc components, în the US, by the Belgîan-Amerîcan chemîst Leo Baekeland, who also coîns the term ‘plastîcs.’  1933Inventîon of polyethylene, the most common plastîc today, by Regînald Gîbson and Erîc Fawcett.  1939World War II makes plastîc îndîspensable.US plastîc productîon more than trîplesbetween 1939 and 1945, rom 97,000 tonnes to 371,000 tonnes.  1941Inventîon of Styrofoamby Ray McIntîre. Thîs polystyrene oam îs perectly suîted or însulatîng homes and oices.  1950sIntroductîon of thîn plastîc wrappîngto protect consumer goods and dry cleanîng.  1965The Socîety o the Plastîcs Industry trade body report that plastîcs has entered theîr13th straîght year of record growth.  1970Coke and Pepsî begînreplacîng theîr glass bottles wîth plastîc versîonsmanuactured by Monsanto Chemîcal and Standard Oîl.  1971New York Cîty înstîtutes atax on plastîc bottles. 1977The state o Hawaîîbans plastîc bottles entîrely. The ban îs struck down two years later ater a lawsuît rom a drînks company.  1988The Socîety o the Plastîcs Industry trade assocîatîon ounds the Councîl or Solîd Waste Solutîonsto promote plastîc recyclîng în cîtîes. componentpart, element /tocoînto învent /Styrofoamtrademark name or polystyrene /foama lîght cellular materîal, polystyrene /tosuîtto be well adapted to /toînsulateto îsolate romcold or heat /wrappîngcoverîng, here, packagîng /tradebodyassocîatîon o organîsatîons în the same busîness sector /straîghtconsecutîve /growthdevelopment, here, expansîon /tomanufactureto make, produce /tobanto prohîbît, înterdîct /tostrîke, struck, struckdownto cancel, annul /lawsuîtlegal case brought to the court /tofoundto create, establîsh.
VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019 7
>>>
À la une
IEnvironnementI
ROYAUME-UNI IB2-C1
NIVEAU BASIQUE DU SUPPLÉMENT SONORE Decades later, we look back realizing what we pretty much knew all along: plastic pollutes. Listen to the warnings on the Basic recording. CD audio ou téléchargement MP3 (sur abonnement)
A blackfooted albatross with plastic debris in its guts, found in the Plastic beads found on Wright Park Beach in Dunkirk, N.Y., December 2013. Midway Atoll.(Brendan Bannon/The New York Tîmes)(Dan Clark/USFWS/AP/SIPA) commercial products. Researchers all over theface scrubs, to supposedly eco-friendlyweeks, you learn that Tottenham Hotspur are world began cataloguing how these microplas-brands like the Body Shop.planning to phase out all single-use plastic from tics werefinding their way into the organs oftheir new stadium, Seattle has banned plastic organisms, from tiny krill to enormous fish8.In 2015, when the US Congress considered astraws within city limits, while its most famous such as tuna. In 2015, a group led by the Uni- limited ban on cosmetics containing microbe-coffee chain, Starbucks, has promised to remove versity of Georgia environmental engineerads, it passed with broad bipartisan support.an estimated 1bn straws a year across its 28,000 Jenna Jambeck estimated that somewhereMicrobeads were only the beginning. Theglobal locations, and Lego, which doesn’t make between 4.8m and 12.7m tonnes of plastic was public would soon learn that synthetic fabricsany non-plastic products, is looking into plant-entering the ocean each year, a number theysuch as nylon and polyester shed thousands ofbased plastics for its production lines. The expected to double by 2025. The plastic problemmicroscopic fibres with each wash cycle.public backlash has undoubtedly brought a was mind-bogglingly big, only getting bigger,serious environmental problem to the attention and it was tough to get people to care.A TANGIBLE THREATof the highest level of government and business, 9.The public turn against plastic was not fore-and convinced them it is a winning issue.l THE SHIFTseen by scientists or environmental activists. In 7.What exactly caused this change is afact, today some scientists seemvaguely embar-Tottenham Hotspur=Tottenham Hotspur Football question of great debate. The most plausi-rassed by the scale of the backlash. “I scratch my Club(London based ootball club) /bn= billion/ ble answer is that the whole way we think head about it every day,” says the Imperial Col-locationhere, shop, outlet, cae, establîshment /to look about plastic has been transformed. Welege oceanographer Erik van Sebille. “How isintoto study closely, învestîgate /undoubtedlywîthout doubt, certaînly /winning issuehere, motîvatîng îssue, used to see it as litter – a nuisance but notplasticpublicenemyNo1?Thatshouldbeclimate crucîal or success. a menace. The shift in thinking startedchange.” But unlike climate change, which with the public outcry over microbeads,seems vague, vast, and apocalyptic, plastic is the small, abrasive grains of plastic thatsmaller, moretangible, it isinyourlife right now. companies began pouring into cosmetic and cleaning products in the mid-1990s to10.We have entered a phase where every SUR LE BOUT DE LA LANGUE add grit. Scientists began raising the alarmbrand, organisation and politician strains to about potential dangers posed to sea life inbe seen to be doing something. Monitoring Deux sens pour le mot 2010, and people were shocked to learn thatthis firehose of press releases for even a few "hardly" : microbeads were in thousands of products, (1) hardly =à peine, presque pas from Johnson & Johnson’s spot-clearing scrubexolîant /supposedlypresumably /eco-frîendlyExemples : respectîng the envîronment, ecologîcal /brandtrademark. We hardly noticed it(§ 1)on l'a à 8.to consîderto thînk about, envîsage /to passtopeine remarqué to catalogueto make a lîst (o) /krîllplankton în cold adopt, to vote în /bîpartîsanrom both polîtîcal partîes I hardly did any work todayje n'ai waters, made up o tîny crustacean lîke organîsms /tuna(Republîcans and Democrats) /fabrîcmaterîal, cloth /to pas beaucoup travaillé aujourd'hui large sea-fish /mînd-bogglînglyextraordînarîly, dîicult shed, shed, shedto get rîd o, to lose /wash cycleto comprehend /to careto be concerned about, consîder(2) hardly =durement laundry cycle. împortant. to treat someone hardlyêtre sévère 9.turnchange în attîtude /to foresee, saw, seento 7.shîftchange /lîtterrubbîsh, trash /nuîsanceavec quelqu'un predîct /to scratch one’s headto wonder about, thînk troublesome, îrrîtatîng, annoyîng /outcryprotest, about /rîght nowat the moment.Mais attention ! expressîon o anger /to pourto put în, here, to înclude în / 10.to straînto try wîth efort /to monîtorto observe,I worked hard before my examsgrîtabrasîve qualîty /to raîse the alarmto sîgnal danger survey, ollow /firehosehose or puttîng out fires, here, (et non pas"hardly")j'ai beaucoup /spot-clearîngcleansîng o pîmples / flood o, rush o / travaillé avant mes examens
8VOCABLEDu 7 au 20 mars 2019
facîleA2-B1/moyenB2-C1/dîicîleC1-C2