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RAMADEVI WOMEN’S AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE APPLICATION FORM FOR ADMISSION TO DEGREE CLASSES OF SCIENCE STREAM FOR OFFICE USE FORM No.: Science Class Marks for Selection Intimation No. & Date Date of admission Subjects allotted Verifying Officer Co-ordinator Principal Paste self signed stamp size photograph Index No. Put mark in the appropriate box. 1. (a) Class to which admission to sought : (b) Group Combination : (If applying for more than one combination, submit separate application forms for each combination along with the documents) 2.
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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 56
Langue English


Essay writing
Planning your essay 1.Analyse the question Essay titles often contain two different types of words – content and process words. It is important to distinguish between these. Content wordsare those which indicate the subject matter of the essay. Process wordsare those which indicate the treatment required, i.e. how you should tackle the subject matter. For example: "Evaluate the Keynesian argument for increase in government spending as a cure for economic crises". 'Evaluate' is the process word, the rest is the content phrase.
Not answering the question set is one of the main reasons that students underperform in assessed essays. If the question asks you to analyse a topic and all you do is list some facts about that topic with no analysis, then you won’t get top marks. Think carefully about what the question is asking and keep this in mind when doing your research.
DEFINITIONS OF COMMON PROCESS WORDS. Analyse.Resolve into its component parts. Examine critically or minutely. Compare &Find some points of common ground contrast.between X and Y and show how they differ. Criticise.Make a judgement (backed by a discussion of the evidence or reasoning involved) about the merit of theories or opinions, or about the truth of facts. Discuss.Explain, then give two sides of the issue and any implications. Evaluate orMake an appraisal of the validity or assess.effectiveness of something. Explain.Give details about how and why it is. Illustrate.Make clear and explicit; usually requires the use of carefully chosen examples. Justify.Show adequate grounds for decisions or conclusions; answer the main objections likely to be made about them. Outline.Give the main features or general principles of a subject, omitting minor details and emphasising structure and arrangement.
2.Explore the criteria When you are told about your essay you should receive information about how it is to be written and how it will be marked. In your planning stage it is important to find out: What length the essay has to be; What format it has to be in (e.g. word processed); What the marking criteria are; The deadline for submission; How you are expected to submit the essay (e.g. email or via the VLE). Knowing these basic details will help you to plan your time properly and avoid any last minute panic!
3. Doyour research When marking your essay, your tutor will be looking for evidence of your having ‘read around’ the topic and having understood what you’ve read. It is a useful strategy to start by looking at the set reading for the topic that you are writing about then broadening out your search from there. You can move on to sources that you find in the references contained in the set reading, and then out further to sources you find by searching the library catalogue or journal databases.
4. Journal databases
3. Library catalogue
2. References
1. Set reading
TIPS FOR READING. Write careful notes as you read:As you are reading, stop and ask yourself more questions: Take notes using your own words andDoes this relate directly to the question? If not, take clearly highlight direct quotations;care not to be carried off on an irrelevant tangent; Keep a reference of everything you read,it Doesthis agree with what I have read before? will save time later;Do I agree or disagree with what the writer is Colour-code or number notes and sort intosaying? piles to make it easier to find relevant information when you’re writing the essay.
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4.Write a plan Creating an essay plan is arguably the most important part of writing the essay. It is at this stage that you begin to shape your ideas into a coherent narrative. A good plan will simply list the order in which you are going to tackle topics and the viewpoint you will be presenting.  Allessays follow a basic structure: Introduction: say what you are going to say; Development of key points: say it; Conclusion: say what you have said. Example plan: Discuss the case for and against animal testing. Introduction. Explain what animal testing is; for commercial purposes (e.g. cosmetics), for applied scientific research (to solve a problem), for ‘pure’ scientific research (to expand human knowledge). Explain why it’s controversial; that the infliction of pain to animals is regarded by some as unjustifiable. Second paragraph. Discussion of why it’s wrong to inflict pain on animals: they are sentient; they may have intelligence and self-awareness.Why there might be relevant differences between humans and animals and why this has implications for morality. Discussion of differences between animals e.g. rats/mice vs. primates. Conclude that testing may be permissible on some animals under certain circumstances. Third paragraph. Animal testing for commercial purposes. Controversial as aim is to make money rather than to do good. Arguments weak here. Fourth paragraph.Animal testing for applied scientific research. Strong case if research can save human lives. Weaker case if outcomes are speculative. Fifth paragraph. Animal testing for pure scientific research. Also controversial as aim to expand human knowledge rather than solve specific problem. Potential of ‘pure’ research to turn in to applied research makes this a grey area though. Conclusion.Strongest arguments in favour of animal testing are those for applied scientific research that has the potential to save human lives. The potential reduction in loss of human lives/suffering can justify the animal suffering. This does not hold for other cases. Still the possibility to hold a strong moral position that no testing is ever justified- that animals, like humans, should not have pain inflicted upon them against their will, even if doing so could save human lives.
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Writing your essay 1.The introduction An introduction should do the following things: Analyse the question:explain the title in your own words;Explain how you intend to tackle the subject: highlight the issues you are going to discuss and the order in which you are going to deal with them;Define key terms:don’t use dictionary definitions: books, articles, critical essays are the best sources of definitions. 2.Development of key points If your essay is a continuous, undivided piece of text, you need to use paragraphs to divide the writing into meaningful and linked sections. There is no fixed rule for length, but in general, paragraphs should be around 200 words in length. Paragraphs should also be structured with a beginning, a middle and an end. The first sentence of a paragraph sets out the topic, which the rest of the paragraph will develop. The last sentence often returns to the ideas in the first sentence to show how they were developed. It is important that paragraphs should link together; otherwise, they become a series of short disjointed essays, instead of a longer, cohesive one. This can often be done usinglinking words and phrases.
Introductions are normally the last piece of the essay to be written. This is because an introduction tells the reader what you are going to talk about and the order in which you are going to do it. You probably won’t finalise this until you’ve written your first draft.
LINKING WORDS. However. Thismeans that what comes next is somehow opposed to, or an exception to, what came before Although. Thismeans that what you have just said is a justified qualification of the main point, but does not invalidate it. Despite. Thismeans that what you have just said in the previous paragraph may seem to contradict the main point, but it does not, in fact, actually do so.
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3.The conclusion All essays need a short generalising paragraph to You can test the effectiveness of the conclusion by round it off. Whatever else it contains, it mustrelate asking whether it would tell a reader who had not read back to the question.Before starting to write the the earlier part of the essay: conclusion re-read the question to ensure that you are • What the original question was; still tightly focussed on what it is asking you to consider. •What your answer to this question is. It is often a good idea to use your conclusion to put the issues you have been describing into a wider context but don’t start on a whole new line of argument at this stage. If the question asks you to decide how far youIf the question asks you to make a judgement agree with a proposition.between differing views or theories. The early sections will contain explanations of allThe earlier parts of the essay will contain the issues to be taken into account and indicatedescriptions, explanations and analysis of these whether these issues cause you to agree ordifferent views. Your conclusion is the place to disagree with the proposition. Actually stating tomake your judgement and justify it. However, it what extent you doagreeis done in theshould already be clear from the analysis contained conclusion. However, don’t let this cause yourin the earlier parts of the essay which view or conclusion to become overly long- you should havetheory you prefer.Your conclusion will just be covered your main arguments in the body of theused to summarise the points for and against each essay. viewand to state your judgement. If the question asks you simply to discuss aIf the question simply asks you to explain or proposition. describe. This is the point at which you will need to considerThe conclusion will be short. You need only the arguments more generally. This may involvehighlight the most significant points and make discussing the issue in relation to basic principles,some general comment. or looking at it from a different point of view or Even in this case, though, it is not enough to say, putting it into a broader context. ‘Thus it can be seen that …’ followed by information already given out in the main body of the essay. You need to make some evaluative comment on what has been explained or described.
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