Roadblocks and Land Mines
6 pages
English

Roadblocks and Land Mines

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6 pages
English
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11 ELL and Secondary Mathematics Roadblocks and Land Mines 2 Roadblocks and Land Mines “Traditional” instruction is usually characterized by – teacher lecture, – passive students, – repeated drill and practice, – memorization, and – emphasis on answers rather than explanations. 3 Roadblocks and Land Mines • Many educators experienced “traditional instruction” and tend to teach in the same way as they were taught (Anstrom, 1997; Parker, 1991; Lindquist, 1989; Linn & Herman, 1997; Stigler & Hiebert, 1999).
  • student fills
  • mathematical vocabulary impact student
  • many cases
  • 3 mathematics
  • mathematics
  • vocabulary
  • student
  • use
  • expression
  • language

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Nombre de lectures 21
Langue English

Exrait

UMKC Writing Center  5201Rockhill Rd.  8162351146 Modern Language Association  Writer’sHotline MLA Style 8162352244
What is MLA Style? MLA style represents the format sanctioned for the citation and the presentation of research by the Modern Language Association. MLA is mostly used by the humanities, and the citation style is recognized internationally. For more information on MLA, please refer to theMLA Handbook, now in its 7th edition or www.mla.or . Why do people use MLA? MLA allows essays to be formatted in a similar fashion so that papers reflect individuality through writing rather than format. MLA style also facilitates easy access for researchers constructing papers or developing presentations.
Formatting a Paper
Use 12 point, Times New Roman Font, and use only 8½ by 11 inch paper.
The header with the writer’s last name and page number should sit one half inch from the top margin. Use one inch margins, and double space all text.
Student’s Name Professor’s Name Class Date
Use Left Justification for everything except the header at the top of each page and the title. Use one space after concluding punctuation.
Use a ½ inch indention for each paragraph.
Use Right Justification for the header on the top right hand side of each page.
Center the title of the paper. Title should be same size, font, format, and spacing as rest of paper.
Write the date European style. Ex. 12 Aug. 2004
Last name and page # in header
Title: Use a Colon for Any Subtitles
 Thefirst line of every paragraph should be indented a half inch. From then on, the writer should allow the text to wrap around naturally. Hard returns should only be used for beginning new paragraphs or block quotations.  Writersshould not place extra spaces between paragraphs and only need one hard return between each piece of the above information.
 2 Basic Terms Internal Citations: When citing sources within an essay, the internal citation provides readers with basic information about a source. Ex: (Whitman 151). Parenthetical Citations: This term is another name for internal citations when the information is presented in parenthesis. External Citations: When citing sources at the end of an essay, the external citation provides readers with the information for locating a source. Ex: See External Citation Formats.
How to Cite? When quoting in MLA, writers need to look for set criteria. For prose, writers need to find the author and page number of a work (Smith 76), but for poetry, writers need the author and the line numbers (Poe 1517). When working with dramas, writers need to introduce the author in the text before a quotation and need to provide the play title and line numbers in the parenthetical citation (Hamlet1517). As writers incorporate quotations into their work, they also need to consider if they have a short or long (block) quote.
Prose: Short Quotations(4 typed lines or less) Place the quote within the text of the paper.Introduce the quote with comma, and place the period after the parenthetical citation.Use quotation marks to show all borrowed material. In literature, children often represent minor but important characters. InThe Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne writes, “Weeks, it
is true, would sometimes elapse, during which Pearl’s gaze might never once be fixed upon the scarlet letter; but then, again, it
would come at unawares, like the stroke of sudden death, and always with that peculiar smile, and odd expression in her eyes”
(1299). Pearl, Hester’s daughter, represents . . .
Block Quotations(More than 4 typed lines) Place the quote one inch from the left margin, and omit quotation marks.Introduce the quote with a colon, and place the period before the parenthetical citation. InThe Scarlet Letter, Hawthorne discusses the impact of social code on the next generation as he writes:
Pearl saw, and gazed intently, but never sought to make acquaintance. If spoken to, she would not speak again. If
the children gathered about her, as they sometimes did, Pearl would grow positively terrible in her puny wrath,
snatching up stones to fling at them, with shrill, incoherent exclamations that made her mother tremble, because
they had so much the sound of a witch’s anathemas in some unknown tongue. (1297)
Pearl’s experience shows the reader the impact of the scarlet letter.The author uses this example to make his . . .
Poetry: Short Quotation (3 lines or less) Place the quote within the text of the paper. Introduce the quote with a comma, and place the period after the parenthetical citation. Use quotation marks to show all borrowed material, and use slashes to denote lines. She writes, “The greatest gift that ev’n a God can give, / He freely offered to the numerous throng, / That on his lips with listening pleasure hung” (Wheatley 2527).
 3 Block Quotation (More than 3 lines) Place the quote one inch from the left margin, and omit quotation marks. Introduce the quote with a colon, and place the period before the parenthetical citation.Use one hard return at the end of every line. In “On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield, 1770,” Phillis Wheatley writes:  Hail,happy saint, on thine immortal thorne,  Possessedof glory, life, and bliss unknown;  Wehear no more the music of they tongue,  Thywonted auditories cease to throng. (14)
Italics v. Quotation Marks Quotations marks should be used around titles of articles, essays in a book, short stories, poems, chapters in books, Web site page titles, episodes of TV shows, songs, and lecture titles. Italics should be used for the names of books, journals, magazines, films, albums, long musical/dance performances, and ships.
Footnotes and Endnotes Although footnotes and endnotes can be used with MLA, the style prefers the use of parenthetical citations, especially for citation purposes. For more information, please see theMLA Handbook.
Italics v. Quotation Marks Quotations marks should be used around titles of articles, essays in a book, short stories, poems, chapters in books, Web site page titles, episodes of TV shows, songs, and lecture titles. Italics should be used for the names of books, journals, magazines, films, albums, long musical/dance performances, and ships. External Citation Formats Template Example Book Author.Title. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year.Diamant, Anita.The Red Tent. New York: Picador Medium of Publication.USA, 1998. Print. Book with Multiple Authors First author’s name, and second author’s name.Title. Caldwell,Ian, and Dustin Thomason.The Rule of Four. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year. MediumNew York: Dial Books, 2004. Print. A Work in an Anthology Original Author. “Title of Piece.”Title of CompositeHawthorne, Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown.”The Text. Ed. Editor’s Name. Publishing City:Norton Anthology of American Literature to th Publishing Co, Year. Page Numbers of the1865.6 ed.Ed. Nina Baym. New York: W.W. Piece. Medium of Publication.Norton and Company, 2002. 11981207. Print.
4 An Introduction, Preface, a Forward or an Afterward Author. Introduction.Title of Composite TextRosenthal, Lisa. Introduction.. Ed.The Writing Group Editor’s Name. Publishing City: PublishingBook: Creating and Sustaining a Successful Co, Year. Page Numbers of the Piece. MediumWriting Group. Ed. Lisa Rosenthal. Chicago: of Publication.Chicago Review Press, 2003. xiiixviii. Print. A Translation Aut or.Tit ee P zan.st ne. Trans. Trans ator’s Name. PuC rs ngCity oLa iesBoo ot eT e. City: Publishing Co, Year. Medium ofTrans. Earl Jeffrey Richards. New York: Persea Publication. Books,1982. Print. Article from a Periodical Author. “Title of Article.”Title of PeriodicalDate: Yakir,Dan. “The Sorcerer.”Film Comment17 May Page numbers. Medium of Publication.1981: 4953. Print. Article from a Newspaper Author. “Title of Article.”Title of NewspaperMills, Nancy. “HalfMortal Merlin Full of Heart.” Date, edition abbreviated.: Page Numbers. MediumChicago Tribune TV Week1998,26 May of Publication.Sunday ed.: 3+. Print. Scholarly Journal Aut or.“T t e oArt c e.”eJourna TitE za etWyner. “Te Four W ves oJaco :Mar ,Vo ume Number. Issue Number (Year): Page Numbers.Matriarchs Seen and Unseen.” Medium of Publication.Reconstructionist63.1 (1998): 2235. Print.
Title. Dir. Director’s Name. Perf. List 23 of the mainSpiderMan 2. Dir. Sam Raimi. Perf. Tobey Maguire, actors. ProductionCompany, Year. MediumKirsten Dunst, and Alfred Molina. of Publication.Sony Pictures, 2004. Film. D Artist.Title. Publication Company, Year. Medium ofOutlandish.Bread and Barrels of Water. BMG Publication.Denmark, 2003. CD.An Article in a Reference Book Item oo eup.Tit etor s Name. E. E. En.V ot on.Dictionaryo eges New WorWe ster. Publication City: Publication Company, Year.Ed. Michael Agnes. 4th ed. New York: Medium of Publication.Macmillan, 1999. Print. Personal Interview ame oerson eng ntervewe .ersona noe ,u y.ersona ntervew. ay. Interview. Date. The Bible Tit ety: Pucat oncat on. Etor s Name. Pu. Eis Bi eRevise Engewit tx orT eBi e:tu y Company, Year. Medium of Publication.Apocrypha. Ed. M. Jack Suggs, Katherine Doob Sakenfeld, and James R. Mueller. New York: Ma orChart Title. Map. Publication City: Publication Company,Japanese Fundamentals. Chart. Hauppauge: Barron, Year. Medium of Publication.1992. Print
 5 Work Cited Only on the Web *Author. “Title of Work.”Title of Website if differentMcWard, Jim. “McWard’s English Home Page.” from Title of Work. Version of edition if one.Johnson County Community College. n.d. Web. Publisher. PublicationDate. Medium of12 July 2004. Publication. Date Accessed. Work on a Website with Print Publication Data Start with the information you would use if the work was in print form. Then add (1) Title of database or Web site italiczed, (2) Medium of publication (Web), and (3) Date accessed. If the original page numbers do not appear in the online version of the work, use N. pag. Print Journal Accessed Online Author. “Title of Article.”Journal Title. VolumeMyers, Sharon A. “Reassessing the ‘Proofreading Number. Issue Number (Year): page numbers.Trap’: ESL Tutoring and Writing Center Title of DatabaseInstruction.”. Medium of Publication.The Writing Center Journal. 24.1 Date Accessed.(2003): N. pag.The Writing Center Journal Online. Web. 24 July 2004. Print Book Accessed Online
Author.Title. Publishing City: Publishing Co, Year. Title of Database. Medium of Publication. Date Accessed.
Dumas, Alexandre.Camille (La Dame Aux Camelias). New York: Atlantic Books, 1852.The Online Books Page. Web. 21 July 2004.
Exceptions Same author of multiple works:When this occurs, group the works by the same author together, and alphabetize by the first word of the title. At the beginning of the second work, use three dashes instead of writing the author’s name. Ex.   .In the paper, distinguish between the works by putting the first few words of the title in the parenthetical citation before the page number. No author:If no author is available, leave it out and alphabetize the works cited list by the first key word in the title. (Key words do not include “A,” “An,” and “The.”) In the paper, use the first key word of the title when citing. Ex. (Art76). Missing Information:In MLA, if a piece of information is not available, skip that piece, and move on to remaining information. Exceptions to this rule are pagination, publication date, etc. For a full list, see theMLA Handbook.Electronic sources often lack page numbers. Often writers encounter questions when incorporating electronic sources because these sources do not have page numbers, but if a source uses paragraph numbers (par. or pars.) or screens numbers (screens), use this information in place of a page number. Documents on Websites or in Databases:When citing sources from the Internet, always check the credibility of the information, and make sure to determine which type of online source is needed. Sometimes, writers need to combine or adapt entries to meet their needs. For example, if a writer finds an article posted on a personal website not written by the author of the website, the writer needs to adapt the website with a known author entry to fit his or her needs. Multiple authors:When citing multiple authors internally, use a semicolon between internal citations. Ex. (Smith 45; Logan 2223).
 6 Newspaper:Newspapers often have articles that continue over multiple pages. When citing a newspaper, use a + after the first page to indicate whether an article continues.Ex. A2+ or 13+ The Bible:When citing specific books in the bible, refer to theMLA Handbookfor a list of abbreviations.
Works Cited v. Bibliography A works cited is a list of works referenced in the paper. A writer often researches more works than they cite.A bibliography is a list of all works read during the course of the paper. When constructing a bibliography, writers need to include everything they read associated with a project, not just the works cited.Works cited lists and bibliographies are a source of information for writers. When doing research, writers should use the works cited lists and bibliographies of their sources to find more information on a given subject. Formatting and Organizing the Works Cited/Bibliography Alphabetize works cited lists and bibliographies by author’s last name and/or first key word of the title.Indent all entries as the text wraps around.
Smith 12 Works Cited Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid’s TaleYork: Fawcett Crest, 1985. Print. New
North, Steven M. “The Idea of a Writing Center.”The St. Martin’s Sourcebook for Writing
Tutors. Ed. Christina Murphy and Steve Sherewood. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s,
2003. 3146. Print
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