Protecting Our Environment
205 pages
English

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205 pages
English
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Description

Significant changes in how the world approaches global environmental problems have occurred since the late 1970s. Countries have become increasingly aware of the "borderless" nature of environmental issues, i.e., that production and consumption in one country can spill over to affect another country's environment. Protecting Our Environment considers the successes that have been achieved in the European Union (EU), as well as issues the Union still faces regarding the protection of the environment in the future. Authors Janet R. Hunter and Zachary A. Smith identify the factors that have allowed the EU to form a successful environmental regime, including the development of the environmental management approach and the principles upon which it is based. They examine in detail the challenges that have been encountered in the implementation of environmental programs, and the solutions that have been developed to address those challenges. Also considered is how economic development and environmental protection have been reconciled within the EU. By analyzing the successful example of the EU, Protecting Our Environment provides a model for a contemporary approach to global environmental problems.
Illustrations
Appendixes

1. Introduction

Importance of the Study of the Environment for Humans
Overview of Europe
What/Who Is Europe
Introduction to Regime Theory
The Process of Regime Formation
Improving the Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes
Applicability of Regime Theory to Environmental Problems
Conclusion

2. The Organizational Structure of the European Union

Introduction
History of Integration of the European Nations
Treaties and Acts Amending the Founding Treaties
Governing Structure of the European Union
The European Environment Agency
The Role of the Public in EU Policy Making
Conclusion

3. The European Environment

Introduction
History of Environmental Policy Development
Environmental Action Programmes in the European Union
Summary

4. Successes and Challenges in European Union Environmental Policy

Introduction
Case Studies
Implementation of Environmental Regulations
Monitoring Effectiveness
Summary

5. A Comparative Evaluation of the European Union and the United States

Introduction
The United States Environment
Global Warming
Environmental Liability
Hazardous Waste
Solid Waste
Soil Erosion
Water Pollution
Land-Use Planning
Conclusion

6. Conclusions

Introduction
Factors Leading to Environmental Policy Success in the European Union
Application to International Environmental Regimes
Conclusion

Appendix 1: Articles 249–256 of the Treaty on European Union
Appendix 2: Articles 174–176 of the Treaty on European Union
Appendix 3: The Sixth Community Environment Action Program

Notes
Index

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Date de parution 01 février 2012
Nombre de lectures 0
EAN13 9780791482933
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Informations légales : prix de location à la page 0,1648€. Cette information est donnée uniquement à titre indicatif conformément à la législation en vigueur.

Exrait

ProtectingOur Environment
Lessons from the European Union
Janet R. Hunter and Zachary A. Smith
Protecting Our Environment
SUNY series in Global Environmental Policy Uday Desai, editor
Protecting Our Environment
Lessons from the European Union
Janet R. Hunter and Zachary A. Smith
State University of New York Press
Published by State University of New York Press, Albany
© 2005 State University of New York
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher.
For information, address State University of New York Press, 194 Washington Avenue, Suite 305, Albany, NY 12210-2384
Production by Judith Block Marketing by Michael Campochiaro
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Hunter, Janet R., 1955– Protecting our environment : lessons from the European Union / Janet R. Hunter and Zachary A. Smith. p. cm. — (SUNY series in global environmental policy.) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0–7914–6511–X (hardcover : alk. paper)—ISBN 0–7914–6512–8 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Sustainable development—European Union countries. 2. Environmental policy—European Union countries. I. Smith, Zachary A. (Zachary Alden), 1953– II. Title. III. Series.
HC240.9.E5H86 2005 333.7094—dc22
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
2004029606
Illustrations
CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction Importance of the Study of the Environment for Humans Overview of Europe What/Who Is Europe Introduction to Regime Theory The Process of Regime Formation Improving the Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes Applicability of Regime Theory to Environmental Problems Conclusion
Chapter 2: The Organizational Structure of the European Union Introduction History of Integration of the European Nations Treaties and Acts Amending the Founding Treaties Governing Structure of the European Union The European Environment Agency The Role of the Public in EU Policy Making Conclusion
Chapter 3: The European Environment Introduction History of Environmental Policy Development Environmental Action Programs in the European Union Summary
v
vii
1 1 3 12 13 20
24 24 26
27 27 27 28 32 49 52 55
57 57 58 62 70
vi
CONTENTS
Chapter 4: Successes and Challenges in European Union Environmental Policy Introduction Case Studies Implementation of Environmental Regulations Monitoring Effectiveness Summary
Chapter 5: A Comparative Evaluation of the European Union and the United States Introduction The United States Environment Global Warming Environmental Liability Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Soil Erosion Water Pollution Land-Use Planning Conclusion
Chapter 6: Conclusions Introduction Factors Leading to Environmental Policy Success in the European Union Application to International Environmental Regimes Conclusion
Appendix 1: Articles 249–256 of the Treaty on European Union: Provisions Governing the Institutions
Appendix 2: Articles 174–176 of the Treaty on European Union: Environment
Appendix 3: The Sixth Community Environment Action Program
Notes
Index
71 71 72 87 90 91
93 93 93 99 104 110 111 113 114 116 117
121 121
121 122 126
127
133
136
167
189
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Table 2.1a
Table 2.1b
Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Table 2.2
Table 2.3
Figure 2.5
Figure 2.6
Figure 2.7
Figure 2.8
ILLUSTRATIONS
Text of Article 130R of Title XVI of the Treaty on European Union Revisions Made to Article 130R of the Treaty on European Union by the Amsterdam Treaty Representation of the Member States in the Governing Bodies of the European Union Votes Within the Council of Ministers under Qualified Majority Governing Structure of the European Union Environment Directorate-General Mission Statement Number of Representatives in the Economic and Social Committee from each Member State Number of Representatives in the Committee of the Regions from Each Member State Selected Excerpts from the Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on Amendments to Council Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61/EC on Public Participation in the Development of Plans Relating to the Environment
Decision of the European Ombudsman on Complaints 271/2000(IJH)JMA and 277/2000(IJH)JMA against the European Commission
3
1
32
3
5
36 36 37
4
4
46
4
7
49
Decision of the European Ombudsman on Complaint 493/2000/ME against the European Commission 50 Selected Publications of the European Environment Agency 53
vii
viii
Figure 2.9
Figure 3.1
Figure 3.2
Figure 3.3
Figure 3.4
Figure 3.5
Table 4.1
Table 4.2
Table 4.3 Table 5.1
Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Table 5.2
ILLUSTRATIONS
Minimum Standards for Consultation of Interested Parties by the Commission 55 Objectives of the European Commission on the Environment 58 Selected Environmental Conventions to Which the EU Is a Signatory 60 Selected Excerpts from the “Opinion of the Committee of the Regions on the Revision of the Treaty on European Union” Related to the Issue of Subsidiarity 63 Selected Excerpts from the Working Paper of the European Policy Center, “Beyond the Delimitation of Competences: Implementing Subsidiarity” 64
Fifth Environmental Action Program: Targets, Sectors, and Themes The European Environment Agency’s Evaluation of EU Environmental Policies, 1998 EU Programs for Integrating Environmental Concerns into the Energy Sector Energy Sources in Ireland, 1998 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: 2000–2005 Strategic Plan Two U.S. Superfund Sites Two Incidents of Environmental Damage in the EU Principles Underlying the EU’s Community Water Policy
67
72
81 83
97 107 109 116
C H A P T E R 1
INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT FOR HUMANS
The study of the environment is not just important for humans; it is essential. If we humans are to continue to survive and prosper, we must understand how our current use of environmental resources affects our ability to use and benefit from those resources both today and in the future. Our environment provides the sources of our livelihood and enjoyment of life, as well as sinks for the disposal of our waste products. Obviously, we humans could not sur-vive in a vacuum, yet we often ignore the value that environmental resources hold, whether those be the foodstuffs that we consume, the lumber that we use to build our homes, or the psychic enjoyment that we receive from view-ing a pristine valley. The termsenvironmentandnatural resourcesare commonly used, but not always with clarity of meaning; therefore, we begin by defining these terms. We use ‘natural resources’ to refer to all land resources, that is, the soil and earth itself; the waters that run on the ground, under the ground, and in the sea; the air that encircles the earth, everything that grows on the land, such as crops, trees, wildlife; everything that grows in the seas, such as fish; and the resources that lie under the land, such as silver and iron. ‘Environ-ment’ includes all natural resources but is more encompassing. Our environ-ment is the capsule in which we live. It surrounds us, sustains and nurtures us, and provides us with not just the basic requirements of living but also with the amenities and pleasures associated with modern life. Thus, our envi-ronment includes our community, the structure and beauty of our buildings and city parks, the beaches and mountains in which we vacation, and the places in which we work and study. Our environment also includes our expe-riences with traffic jams, abandoned tenements, and landfills. Thus, ‘envi-ronment’ encompasses the entire context that defines how we live and how we perceive our lives. We cannot separate ourselves from the environment because we are a part of it; we provide input into the environment and take resources from the environment as part of our existence.
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