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Audit

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64 pages
III. FINDINGS STANDARD 1: A School System Is Able to Demonstrate Its Control of Resources, Programs, and Personnel. Quality control is the fundamental element of a well-managed educational program. It is one of the major premises of local educational control within any state’s educational system. The critical premise involved is that, via the will of the electorate, a local Board of Education establishes local priorities within state laws and regulations. A school district’s accountability rests with the school board and the public. Through the development of an effective policy framework, a local school board provides the focus for management and accountability to be established for administrative and instructional staffs, as well as for its own responsibility. It also enable s the district to assess meaningfully and use student learning data as a critical factor in determining its success. Although educational program control and accountability are often shared among different components of a school district, fundamental control of, and responsibility for, a district and its operations rests with the School Board and top-level administrative staff. What the Auditors Expected to Find in the Anchorage School District A school system meeting PDK-CMSi Curriculum Management Audit Standard One is able to demonstrate its control of resources, programs, and personnel. Common indicators are: • A curriculum that is centrally defined and adopted by the Board ...
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III. FINDINGS
STANDARD 1: A School System Is Able to Demonstrate Its Control of Resources, Programs, and Personnel. Quality control is the fundamental element of a well-managed educational program. It is one of the major premises of local educational control within any state’s educational system. The critical premise involved is that, via the will of the electorate, a local Board of Education establishes local priorities within state laws and regulations. A school district’s accountability rests with the school board and the public. Through the development of an effective policy framework, a local school board provides the focus for management and accountability to be established for administrative and instructional staffs, as well as for its own responsibility. It also enable s the district to assess meaningfully and use student learning data as a critical factor in determining its success. Although educational program control and accountability are often shared among different components of a school district, fundamental control of, and responsibility for, a district and its operations rests with the School Board and top-level administrative staff. What the Auditors Expected to Find in the Anchorage School District A school system meeting PDK-CMSi Curriculum Management Audit Standard One is able to demonstrate its control of resources, programs, and personnel. Common indicators are: ·curriculum that is centrally defined and adopted by the Board of Education,A ·A clear set of policies that establish an operational framework for management that permits accountability, ·A clear set of policies that reflects state requirements and local program goals and the necessity to use achievement data to improve school system operations, ·A functional administrative structure that facilitates the design and delivery of the district’s curriculum, ·A direct, uninterrupted line of authority from School Board/superintendent and other central office officials to principals and classroom teachers, ·Organizational development efforts which are focused to improve system effectiveness, ·Documentation of School Board and central office planning for the attainment of goals, objectives, and mission over time, and ·A clear mechanism to define and direct change and innovation within the school system to permit maximization of its resources on priority goals, objectives, and mission. Overview of What the Auditors Found in the Anchorage School District This section is an overview of the findings that follow in the area of Standard One. The details follow within separate findings. The control standard of the audit frames everything else in it. In American education, the fundamental control of the public schools is centered in a locally elected or appointed School Board or school committee. This de-centralized approach to education, placing the responsibility of the schools directly in the hands of the people, clearly represents the approach of only a handful of nations on the earth. While presenting great strengths, it is also not without is drawbacks. Chief among them is the
Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 13
dependency for sound control to be defined within local board policies. Too often the Board bypasses this responsibility and moves to dabble in administrative matters directly. Control of the schools in the United States is fundamentally exercised by the School Board via its legislative authority grounded in law. The School Board vests its control via policy development and policy oversight. The auditors found the policies of the Anchorage School Board inadequate and ineffective to perform this function. Specifically, the auditors closely examined the policies concerning curriculum design and delivery, assessment and evaluation, staff development, and budget development. Basic accountability begins and ends with the locally elected School Board. While bits and pieces of critical actions were found scattered across a number of policies, in the main, the entire policy framework was not adequate. If specific actions and responses are deemed critical to operational and organizational effectiveness, the School Board must indicate what these specific actions and responsibilities are, and then via its oversight responsibilities check to make sure they are implemented. The auditors found no strategic nor long-range plan for the school system as a whole, though such plans did exist for some functional areas of the district. Without a system-wide plan, district leadership runs the risk of duplicative staffing within units of the system, and such units can “drift” within the overall structure. The auditors examined the table of organization (TO) for the district and the Department of Curriculum and Evaluation. The district table of organization had minor problems such as logical grouping of functions, scalar relationships, and full inclusion. Most job descriptions for positions in the district table of organization had not been updated for many years. The table of organization for Curriculum and Evaluation had problems with span of control, logical grouping of functions, and scalar relationships. No recently Board-approved job descriptions were in place for this department. While the district provides for a very wide array of staff development opportunities, the auditors found it fragmented and unfocused on school system priorities and competitive with teacher time. In short, the staff development function is splintered within the school district. As that function has come to be defined, there can be no assurances that expenditures for staff development can be directly linked to improvements in student achievement. The auditors also examined the current teacher and administrative appraisal systems. While appraisal systems were aligned with Alaskan State Standards, they failed to provide constructive feedback to teachers and administrators which could be used to promote their professional growth. Additionally, the current system lacks the capability to ensure the Board that there is consistent and focused high quality instruction among and across the district’s schools. This characteristic is of the utmost importance as district leadership prepares the school system to meet the challenges ofNo Child Left Behind. Finding 1.1: Board Policies and Administrative Procedures Are Inadequate to Promote System-wide Quality Control. Educational policy development is one of the most significant leadership tasks of a School Board. Clearly defined curriculum management policies provide essential control and focus for the complete school system. Well-planned policies set up generally understood standards for the written, taught, and assessed curriculum. This is the main process by which the Board fulfills its responsibility for quality control of the curriculum. Thoroughly planned policies provide an operational structure for management of the curriculum by creating the configuration for its design and delivery. An understandable set of policies also provides an orderly basis for decision-making and consistent practice across a diversity of sites. Because of this important role, the analysis and evaluation of curriculum policies is an important part of the curriculum management audit.
Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 14
In order to serve as a successful guide for decision-making at all levels of the organization, a school district’s policy framework needs to be specific so that decisions can be made by referencing the relevant policies. When policies are absent or nonspecific, there is no effective guidance for administrators and teachers. If policies do not guide practice, direction and control will be lost. The auditors reviewed all board policies of the Anchorage Public Schools and selected those policies related to curriculum management for further analysis. Auditors also examined the Elementary Procedures Manual and the Secondary Procedures Manual. In some cases, the date of last revision was provided and it is listed on the line corresponding to the policy. In those instances where the date of last revision was not provided, the notation ‘DK’ denotes that the auditor doesn’t know the date of last revision. Auditors assessed the quality of the policies and procedures by comparing the content of the policies to the audit criteria for adequate curriculum management policies. The auditors examined each relevant policy and procedure to determine whether any of the 22 criteria were present. The audit team also interviewed board members, administrators, teachers, and community members to determine their perceptions regarding the relationships between policy statements and curriculum development, implementation and assessment.  
The Anchorage School Board meets on the second and fourth Mondays of each month. Board meetings are broadcast live on Channel 14.  Overall, the policies and procedures were found to be inadequate with respect to curriculum management. The current policies provide minimal direction for curricular decision-making. Exhibit 1.1.1 lists the policies that were reviewed by the auditors.  Exhibit 1.1.1 Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Number Policy 100 Board of Education 110 Designation of District 111 Definition of Staff 112 Primacy of Collective Bargaining Agreements 113 Amendment or Suspension of Policies, Rules and Regulations Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 15
Date of Adoption or Last Revision  DK November 9, 1987 DK DK
Policy Number 114 114.1 114.2 120 122 122.1 122.2 123 123.1 123.2 130 131 132 133 134 140 143 143.1 143.2 143.3 144 146 146.1 149 150 151 152 154 155 156 158 159 160 161 162 163 163.1 163.2 164 165 165.1 165.12 165.13 165.2 165.3 165.4 165.5
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Nondiscrimination Display of Prejudice Toward Others Harassment and Discrimination General Organization Term of Office Filling of Vacancies Removal from Office School Board Elections Election Procedures Date Officers and Their Duties President Vice President Clerk Treasurer Powers and Duties of the Board Board Policies Change in Policy Policy Dissemination Revision of Policy Expectations for Performance Board of Appeals Recommendations from the Office of the Municipal Ombudsman Board Self-Evaluation Board Members –Role of Individual Limitation on Responsibilities as Individuals In-Service of New School Board Member Remuneration Benefits Board Member Travel Code of Ethics Limited Liability Meetings Place Meeting Timeline Notice of Meetings Board Members Public Notice Agenda Types of Meetings Organizational Temporary Chairman Order of Business Regular Meetings Special Meetings Work Sessions Continued Meetings Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 16
Date of Adoption or Last Revision March 19, 1984 June 25, 2001 June 25, 2001 DK DK November 20, 2000 DK DK DK January 22, 1996 DK November 23, 1998 DK DK February 8, 1988 DK DK November 23, 1998 DK DK September 12, 1983 DK February 14, 1994 November 23, 1998 DK November 23, 1998 May 24, 1993 DK DK August 8, 1994 October 13, 1986 DK DK DK November 23, 1998 January 27, 1996 DK June 28, 1993 November 23, 1998 DK DK DK DK November 23, 1998 November 23, 1998 June 28, 1993 November 23, 1998
Policy Number 165.6 166 170 171 171.1 172 173 173.1 173.2 173.3 173.4 173.5 174 174.2 174.3 174.5 174.6 174.7 176 176.1 176.2 176.3 200 201 205 210 211 211.1 212 213 213.1 213.2 215 220 240 241 241.1 241.11 241.2 241.21 241.22 241.23 241.24 241.3 242
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy
Executive Sessions Minutes Operating Procedures Rules of Order Quorum Order of Business Committees Advisory Committees Student Advisory Board Minority Education Concerns Committee Military Delegate Board Subcommittees Voting Consent Agenda Reconsideration Rescinding Majority Two Readings Presentations to the Board by Individuals or Groups Subject Matter Presentations Complaints Regarding Pupils or School Personnel Recognition from the Floor SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION Functional Principle of Administration Board-Superintendent Relationship (legislative-executive) Superintendent of Schools –Chief Administrative Officer Employ Qualifications Executive Officer of the Board Special Responsibilities to be Performed by the Superintendent Delegation of Authority Duties of Superintendent Evaluation The Central Administration School/Program Administrative and Supervisory Personnel Principals or other Administrative Designee Appointment Qualifications Responsibilities and Duties of Principals Administration Job Descriptions Performance and Evaluation Policy Implementation Line of Authority Assistant Principals/Deans/Interns Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 17
Date of Adoption or Last Revision DK November 23, 1998 DK DK DK June 13, 1994 DK DK May 8, 1995; September 13, 1993 May 8, 1995 May 8, 1995 DK February 13, 1995 DK DK November 23, 1998 DK DK DK DK November 26, 2001 November 23, 1998 Dec 17, 1984 DK March 8, 1999 September 9, 1996 March 8, 1999 March 8, 1999 DK March 8, 1999 DK March 8, 1999 December 14, 1998 September 9, 1996 DK March 8, 1999 March 8, 1999 March 18, 1996 March 8, 1999 DK DK March 8, 1999 March 8, 1999 DK March 8, 1999 DK
Policy Number 242.1 260 261 261.1 261.2 262 262.1 263 263.1 263.2 264 264.1 264.2 264.3 264.4 265 270 300 310 320 321 322 330 331 332 332.1 332.2 332.3 333 333.1 333.2 333.21 333.22 333.23 333.24 333.25 333.3 333.4 333.5 333.6 333.7 333.8 333.9 333.10 333.11 340 341
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Duties Administrative Operations Organization for Administrative Purposes Organizational Chart Line and Staff Relationships Councils and Committees Temporary Councils and Committees Adoption and Review of Administrative Procedures Internal Procedures Administrative Manuals Communications Staff Two-way Relationship Protection from Reprisal or Discrimination Posting of Materials in Work Locations Work Stoppages and Slow-Downs Citizens Complaint Process INSTRUCTION Philosophy of the Instructional Program Goals and Purposes of the Instructional Program Goals of the Instructional Program Purposes of the Instructional Program General Organizational Plan Elementary, Middle and High School Alternative Programs Definitions Concept Approval Lottery Procedures –Open Enrollment Charter Schools Establishment of Charter Schools Application Procedure for Establishing a Charter School Administrative Meeting Administrative Review School Board Work Session School Board Action and Public Hearing Modifications to Approved Charter School Application/Contract Application Form The Academic Policy Committee Charter School Contract with the Local School Board State Notification of a Charter School Application Annual Review of the Charter School Organization of a Charter School Operation of a Charter School Evaluation of Charter School Personnel Definitions Elementary, Middle School, and High School Education The Curriculum Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 18
Date of Adoption or Last Revision March 8, 1999 DK DK September 9, 1996 DK DK March 8, 1999 DK DK September 9, 1996 September 9, 1996 September 9, 1996 March 8, 1999 March 8, 1999 December 9, 1996 September 9, 1996 September 9, 1996 DK DK DK March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 DK March 9, 1998 DK DK DK October 30, 1995 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 January 25, 1999 DK May 18, 1998
Policy Number 341.1 341.2 341.21 341.22 341.3 341.4 342 342.1 342.2 342.3 342.31 342.32 342.33 342.4 342.5 342.6 342.7 343 343.1 343.2 343.21 343.22 343.23 343.24 343.25 343.3 343.31 343.32 343.33 343.34 343.35 343.36 343.37 343.38 343.39 343.4 343.41 343.42 344 344.1 344.11 344.12 344.13 344.2 345 346 346.1
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Courses of Studies Curriculum Development Curriculum Committees Pilot Programs Controversial Issues Staff Development Allocation and Use of Instructional Time School Year School Calendar The School Day Students Staff Emergency Closing Class Schedules Released Time for Special Instructions or Activities Special Events and Ceremonies Safety Drills Reports and Promotions Grading System Reports Grade Level Advancement Promotion Retention Appeals High School Graduation Student Records Need for Records Storage –Location of Records Classifications of Records Accessibility of Records Psychological Evaluation Requests to Amend Records and Rights to Hearing Legal Names of Students Annual Notification Complaint Procedure Graduation Graduation Requirements Early Graduation Special Services for Exceptional Children Aims and Scope Statutory Provision District Provisions Definition Outreach Programs The School’s Responsibility to Homeless Children Instructional Materials and Services Textbooks Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 19
Date of Adoption or Last Revision May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 June 5, 2000 May 18, 1998 September 28, 1998 May 18, 1998 September 12, 1993 DK May 18, 1998 DK May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 December 14, 1998 DK May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 DK May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 May 18, 1998 DK DK June 22, 1998 DK June 22, 1998 DK DK DK June 22, 1998 June 22, 1998 DK June 26, 2000 DK DK DK DK DK DK December 9, 1995 August 9, 1999 DK DK
Policy Number 346.2 346.3 346.31 346.4 346.5 346.6 347 347.1 347.2 347.3 348 348.1 348.11 348.2 348.21 348.3 348.31 348.4 348.41 349 350 350.1 400 410 411 420 430 431 431.1 431.11 431.12 431.2 431.21 431.22 431.3 431.31 431.32 431.33 431.34 431.4 432 433 433.1 433.2 440 441 441.1
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Instructional Materials Library/Media Mission and Objectives Student Supplies Disposal of Textbooks, Library Books and Supplies Electronic Information Networks (Use of the Internet) Administrative and Instructional Manuals Curriculum and Resource Guides Administrative Manuals Student and Faculty Handbooks Extracurricular Activities School groups Athletic/Activity Booster Clubs and Alumni Associations Sports and Athletic Program Administration of Sports and Athletic Program Interscholastic Contests Transportation Field Trips Out-of-District Field Trips Evaluation Recognition of Religious Beliefs and Customs Observance of Religious Holidays STUDENTS AND STUDENT PERSONNEL SERVICES Organization of student Personnel Services Census and Attendance Services Philosophy and Objectives of Student Personnel Admission Entrance Guidelines Resident Students Part-time Students Counting Students Non-resident Students Policy Regarding acceptance Tuition Physical Examinations Kindergarten New-to-District Students Vision and Hearing Screening Examinations Tuberculosis Screening examination Immunizations Inter-District Agreements Transfer and Placement Transfers Placement Attendance Ages for Attendance Statutory Requirements Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 20
Date of Adoption or Last Revision DK May 21, 2001 October 11, 1993 October 11, 1993 October 11, 1993 June 24, 1996 DK DK DK DK DK June 28, 1993 December 9, 1996 DK DK DK June 22, 1992 DK DK September 12, 1983 DK June 16, 1986  DK May 4, 1992 DK DK DK May 4, 1992 August 25, 1997 August 25, 1997 DK DK DK DK DK June 23, 1986 DK August 22, 1988 June 23, 1986 DK DK DK DK DK DK DK
Policy Number 441.11 441.12 441.2 442 442.1 442.3 442.4 443 443.1 443.2 443.3 443.4 444 444.1 444.2 444.21 444.22 444.221 444.222 444.23 444.231 444.232 445 445.1 445.2 445.3 445.4 450 450.1 450.2 451 451.1 451.2 451.21 451.22 451.3 451.4 451.5 451.6 452 453 453.1 453.2 453.3 454 455 456
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Minimum Age Maximum Age Evidence of Age Parental Responsibility for Compulsory Education Compulsory Attendance Report of Violations and Procedures Policy on Parent Involvement Irregular Attendance, Truancy, and Tardiness Intent Absenteeism and Tardiness Truancy State Law Attendance Zones Establishment o f Boundaries Attendance Zone Exceptions Academic Program Need Change of Residence Within the District Exception for Extended Periods Exception for Temporary Periods Limitations to Attendance Zone Exceptions Responsibilities of Parents/Guardians Other Restrictions Records and Registrars Attendance Records Cumulative Records Records and Students Withdrawing Student Records Generally Student Rights and Responsibilities Statement of Rights and Responsibilities Copy of Statement of Rights and Responsibilities Suspensions and Expulsions Suspensions Expulsion Programs for Long-term Suspension or Expelled Students Return from expulsion Illegal Drug/Alcohol Suspension or Expulsion of Special Education Students Assault Upon teachers Weapons Student Handbooks Damage, Loss, and Non-return of School Property Liability of Parent/Guardian Liability of Student Student Use of and Liability for school Equipment and Supplies Corporal Punishment Trespassing Student-Organized Extracurricular Clubs Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 21
Date of Adoption or Last Revision DK DK DK DK DK January 27, 1997 June 12, 1989 DK January 27, 1997 June 22, 1998 June 22, 1998 January 13, 1997 DK March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 DK March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 March 9, 1998 DK DK DK DK DK DK DK June 14, 1993 DK DK January 12, 1998 June 11, 2001 June 11, 2001 June 11, 2001 June 11, 2001 June 11, 2001 June 11, 2001 September 12, 1983 DK DK DK DK June 23, 1986 DK June 5, 2000
Policy Number 457 458 458.1 458.2 459 459.1 459.2 459.3 460 460.1 460.2 460.3 460.4 460.5 470 471 471.1 471.2 471.3 471.4 471.5 472 472.1 472.2 472.3 473 474 474.1 474.2 474.3 475 480 481 482 482.1 482.2 482.3 482.4 483 483.1 483.2 483.21 483.22 483.3 484 485 490
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Prohibited Organizations and Groups Student Government Student Council Student Advisory Board Student Travel Trip Excursions Permission to Leave School Grounds Travel To and From School (including bus conduct) Out-of-District Travel by Students Policy Statement Approval of Out-of-District Travel Funding of Out-of-District Student Travel Criteria for Out-of-District Student Travel Criteria for Out-of-District Student Travel Health and Welfare Services Protection of Students Dismissal of Students List of Names of Students Supervision of Students after Regular School Hours Student Interviews Student Messengers The School’s Responsibilit y to Needy Children Extent of the School’s Responsibility Relations with Local, and State Welfare and Service Agencies School Lunch Aid School Lunch Program Child Abuse or Neglect Reporting Immunity Administrative Procedures Infectious Disease Safety and Safety Regulations Responsibility Emergency Notification Playground Supervision Proper Maintenance of Grounds and Equipment Eye Protective Devices Administration of Medication Vehicular Safety School Buses Automobiles Student Use and Parking Parent and Adult Transportation of Students Bicycles Fire Prevention Civil Defense Activities Specific Student Matters Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 22
Date of Adoption or Last Revision June 5, 2000 DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK June 22, 1992 June 22, 1992 June 22, 1992 DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK June 22, 1992 DK DK November 26, 2001 DK DK DK June 23, 1986 DK DK June 22, 1992 DK DK DK DK DK DK
Policy Number 490.1 490.11 490.12 490.13 490.14 490.15 490.16 491 491.1 491.2 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 500 510 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 527.1 530 531 532 532.1 532.11 532.12 532.2 532.21 532.22 532.23 532.24 532.241 532.242 532.243 532.25 532.26 532.3 532.31
Exhibit 1.1.1 (continued) Board Policies Reviewed Anchorage School District Policy Student Publications Purposes Rights of Contributors to Student Publications Responsibilities of Contributors to Student Publications Prohibited Material Determination of Appropriateness and Appeal Procedures Sanctions Married and/or Pregnant Students Married Students Pregnancy Student Deaths Student Gifts to School Personnel Class Gifts to the School Student Fees Personal Religious Observations Fund Raising Programs School Pictures CERTIFICATED AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL POLICIES The Human Resources Division and its Organization General Personnel Policy Purpose and Scope Personnel Records Advancement: Basis for Promotion Nepotism Resignations Employee Travel Equal Employment Opportunity Sexual Harassment Certificated and Other Professional Personnel Minimum Qualifications Employment Procedures Qualifications Credential Requirements Requirements Regarding Education, Experience and Age Recruiting and Selection Seeking Out the Candidate Application Procedures Interviewing Appointment EEO Policy Statement EEO Goals Legal Requirements Board Approval Certified Staff Contracts Duties and Responsibilities of Classroom Teachers General Anchorage School District Audit Report Page 23
Date of Adoption or Last Revision DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK DK May 4, 1992 DK November 25, 1996 DK January 12, 1998 DK DK February 8, 1988 DK DK DK DK DK September 10, 1990 August 8, 1994 DK February 8, 1988 DK June 23, 1997 DK DK June 23, 1997 DK June 23, 1997 June 23, 1997 DK June 23, 1997 June 14, 1999 DK June 23, 1997 June 23, 1997 DK DK DK DK