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- ?2 complex diagonal
- near identity
- analytic vector
- exponentially small
- vector fields near
- fields
- over exponentially
- jordan normal

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Polynomial Normal Forms with Exponentially Small Remainder for Analytic Vector Fields

G´erard Ioossaband Eric Lombardic∗

a1,63R1uoerediNeccioles,OtesdesluennoarF,0656blaVencInoNtutitsiae´niLn bInstitut Universitaire de France crGedboneelueiqni.Ursve´eiturieutFostitInarobaL,2855RMU,ratemh´atemedirto 1,BP74,38402Saint-Martind’H`erescedex2,France

Abstract

A key tool in the study of the dynamics of vector ﬁelds near an equilibrium point is thetheoryofnormalforms,inventedbyPoincar´e,whichgivessimpleformstowhich a vector ﬁeld can be reduced close to the equilibrium. In the class of formal vector valued vector ﬁelds the problem can be easily solved, whereas in the class of analytic vector ﬁelds divergence of the power series giving the normalizing transformation generally occurs. Nevertheless the study of the dynamics in a neighborhood of the origin, can very often be carried out via a normalization up to ﬁnite order. This paper is devoted to the problem of optimal truncation of normal forms for analytic vector ﬁelds inRmprove that for any vector ﬁeld in. More precisely we Rmadmitting the origin as a ﬁxed point with a semi-simple linearization, the order of the normal form can be optimized so that the remainder is exponentially small.We also give several examples of non semi-simple linearization for which this result is still true.

Key words:Analytic vector ﬁelds, Normal forms, exponentially small remaiders

∗Corresponding author. Fax: 33 (0)4 76 51 44 78 Email addresses:email Gerard.Iooss@inln.cnrs.fr,)raIdooss(G´er Eric.Lombardi@ujf-grenoble.fr(Eric Lombardi). URLs:rn.snlc..wni//wwt/trpf:h∼iooss/Iords)os,G(are´ http://www-fourier.ujf-grenoble.fr/∼lombard/(Eric Lombardi).

Preprint submitted to Journal of diﬀerential equations

7 October 2004

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Introduction

1.1 Position of the problem

A key tool in the study of the dynamics of vector ﬁelds near an equilibrium point is the theory of normal forms, invented by Poincare, which gives simple ´ forms to which a vector ﬁeld can be reduced close to the equilibrium [1],[3]. In the class of formal vector valued vector ﬁelds the problem can be easily solved [1], whereas in the class of analytic vector ﬁelds divergence of the power series giving the normalizing transformation generally occurs [3], [21],[22]. Neverthe-less the study of the dynamics in a neighborhood of the origin, can very often be carried out via a normalization up to ﬁnite order (see for instance [4], [11], [15], [16], [19],[23]). Normal forms are not unique and various characterization exist in the literature [2],[5],[8],[13],[23]. In this paper we will consider the version given in [13]:

Theorem 1.1 (Unperturbed NF-Theorem)LetVbe a smooth (resp. an-alytic) vector ﬁeld deﬁned on a neighborhood of the origin inRm(resp. in Cm) such thatV(0) = 0. Then, for any integerp≥2, there are polynomials QpNp:Rm→Rm(resp.Cm→Cm) , of degree≤p, satisfying Qp(0) =Np(0) = 0 DQp(0) =DNp(0) = 0 such that under the near identity change of variableX=Y+Qp(Y), the vector ﬁeld dX =V(X) (1)

dt becomes ddYt=LY+Np(Y) +Rp(Y) (2) whereDV(0) =L, where the remainderRpis a smooth (resp. analytic) func-tion satisfyingRp(X) =O(kXkp+1)and where the normal form polynomial Npof degreepsatisﬁes

Np(etL∗Y) = etL∗Np(Y) for allY∈Rm(resp. inCm) andt∈Ror equivalently DNp(Y)L∗Y=L∗Np(Y) whereL∗is the adjoint ofL. Moreover, ifTis a unitary linear map which commutes withV, then for everyY,

Qp(T Y) =TQp(Y)Np(T Y) =TNp(Y)

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Similarly, ifVrespect to some linear unitary symmetryis reversible with S (S=S−1=S∗), i.e. ifVanticommutes with this symmetry, then for every Y, Qp(SY) =SQp(Y)Np(SY) =−SNp(Y)

This version of the Normal Form Theorem up to any ﬁnite order has the following advantages : its proof is elementary and the characterization given is global in terms of a unique commutation property. Moreover it uses a simple hermitian structure of the space of homogeneous polynomials of given degree.

Since a usual way to study the dynamics of vector ﬁelds close to an equilibrium is to see the full vector ﬁeld as a perturbation of its normal formL+Npby higher order terms, it happens to be of great interest to obtain sharp upper bounds of the remaindersRp. A similar theory of resonant normal forms was developed for Hamiltonians systems written in action-angle coordinates (see for instance [6], [9], [20]). A sticking result obtained by Nekhoroshev [17], [18], in order to study the stability of the action variables over exponentially large interval of time, is that up to an optimal choice of the orderpof the normal form , the remainder can be made exponentially small. For more details of such Normal Form Theorems with exponentially small remainder for Hamiltonian systemswritteninactionanglevariables,werefertotheworkofP¨oschel in [20]. A similar result of exponential smallness of the remainder was also obtained by Giorgilli and Posilicano in [10] for areversible systemwith a linear part composed of harmonic oscillators.

So a natural question is to determine for which class of analytic vector ﬁelds, such results of normalization up to exponentially small remainder can be ob-tained?

Since in the previously mentioned works dealing with particular hamiltonian or reversible systems, the normalization procedure is based on diagonalizable homological operators, a ﬁrst natural class to consider, is the classCsof an-alytic vector ﬁelds, ﬁxing the origin, and such that their linearization at the origin issemi-simple(i.e. is diagonalizable). This is indeed the largest class for which the homological operators involved in the normalization procedure are diagonalizable (see Lemma 2.5-(a)). More precisely, we prove in this paper that such results of normalization up to exponentially small remainder can be obtained for any analytic vector ﬁelds inCsprovided that the spectrum of the linearization at the origin satisﬁes some ”nonresonance assumptions” which enable to control the small divisor eﬀects.

The question of the validity of such results for analytic vector ﬁelds with non semi-simple linearizationmore intricate : we give two examples ofis far non semi-simple linearizations for which the result is still true. However, the question remains totally open for other non semi simple linearizations. We

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perform some estimates which suggest that the results should not be true in general for non semi-simple linearizations, but theses estimates are not suﬃcient to build a counter example (see Remark 2.9).

1.2 Statement of the results

To state our results we need to specify some ”nonresonance assumptions” which enable to control the small divisor eﬀects. In many problems, one uses one of the two following classical ”nonresonance assumptions” : for a subset ZofZm, forK∈Nand forγ >0, a vectorλ= (λ1 λm)∈Cm, is said to beγ K-nonresonant moduloZif for everyk∈Zmwith|k| ≤K

| hλ ki | ≥γwhenk∈Z

(3)

Similarly, forγ >0 m > τ−1,λis said to beγ τ-Diophantine moduloZif for everyk∈Zm, | hλ ki | | ≥γk|τwhenk∈Z(4) where fork= (k1 km)∈Zm,|k|:=|k1|+ +|km|. However, in the problem of normal forms, the small divisors appear as eigenvalues of the ho-mological operator giving the normal forms by induction (see Subsection 2.1 and Lemma 2.5). To control these small divisors let us introduce two slightly diﬀerent deﬁnitions :

Deﬁnition 1.2Let us deﬁneλ= (λ1 λ)∈Cm,K∈N > γ0and m τ > m−1.

(a)The vectorλis said to beγ K-homologically without small divisors if for everyα∈Nmwith2≤ |α| ≤K, and everyj∈N,1≤j≤m,

| hλ αi −λj| ≥γwhenhλ αi −λj6= 0 (b)The vectorλis said to beγ τ-homologically Diophantineif for every m α∈N,|α| ≥2, | hλ αi −λj| ≥ |γα|τwhenhλ αi −λj6= 0 (c)For a linear operatorLinRm, let us denote byλ1 λmits eigenval-ues andλL:= (λ1 λm). ThenLis said to beγ K-homologically without small divisors( resp.γ τ-homologically Diophantine) if λLis so. Remark 1.3Observe that in the above deﬁnitions, the components ofαare nonnegative integers whereas in (3) and (4),klies inZm.

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In what follows we use Arnold’s notations [1] for denoting matrices under complex Jordan normal forms :λ2denotes the 2×2 complex Jordan block corresponding toλ∈Cwhereasλλrepresents 2×2 complex diagonal matrix diag(λ λ), i.e. λ2:=0λλ1whereasλλ:=λ0 0λ

A matrix under complex Jordan normal form is then denoted by the products of the name of its Jordan blocs. Moreover since for real matrices the Jordan blocks corresponding to non zero matrices occur by pairsλrandλrwe shorten their name as follows : forλ1 λ2∈C\R,02λr11λ2r2λr11λr22is simply denoted by02λr11λr22|C. Moreover, when one works with vector ﬁelds inRm, one may want to remain inRmand thus to use real Jordan normal forms for the linearization of the vector ﬁeld. So, for∈Randλ=x+ iy∈C\R, we denote byµ2λ2|Rthe real Jordan matrix

01!00000000 0000yx−xy!1001! 00000000yx−xy!

Finally, we equipRmandCmwith the canonical inner product and norm, i.e. m forX= (X1 Xm)∈Cm,kXk2:=hX Xi=PXjXjWe are now j=1 ready to state our main result:

Theorem 1.4 (NF-Theorem with exponentially small remainder) LetVbe an analytic vector ﬁeld in a neighborhood of0inRm(resp. inCm) such thatV(0) = 0, i.e. V(X) =LX+XVk[X(k)] (5) k≥2 whereLis a linear operator inRm(resp. inCm) and whereVkis bounded k-linear symmetric and

kVk[X1 Xk]k ≤

with >c ρ0independent ofk.

5

ckX1k ρk kXkk

(6)