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Concrete Construction - Methods and Costs

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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Concrete Construction, by Halbert P. Gillette and Charles S. HillThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Concrete ConstructionMethods and CostsAuthor: Halbert P. GilletteCharles S. HillRelease Date: March 16, 2008 [EBook #24855]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ***Produced by Brian Sogard, Josephine Paolucci and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONMETHODS AND COSTBYHALBERT P. GILLETTEM. Am. Soc. C. E.; M. Am. Inst. M. E.Managing Editor, Engineering-ContractingANDCHARLES S. HILL, C. E.Associate Editor, Engineering-ContractingNEW YORK AND CHICAGOTHE MYRON C. CLARK PUBLISHING CO.1908COPYRIGHT. 1908BYTHE MYRON C. CLARK PUBLISHING CO.PREFACE.HOW BEST TO PERFORM CONSTRUCTION WORK AND WHAT IT WILL COST FOR MATERIALS, LABOR, PLANT AND GENERAL EXPENSES ARE MATTERSOF VITAL INTEREST TO ENGINEERS AND CONTRACTORS. THIS BOOK IS A TREATISE ON THE METHODS AND COST OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.NO ATTEMPT HAS BEEN MADE TO PRESENT THE SUBJECT OF CEMENT TESTING WHICH IS ALREADY COVERED BY MR. W. PURVES TAYLOR'SEXCELLENT BOOK, NOR TO DISCUSS THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENTS AND CONCRETE, AS THEY ARE DISCUSSED BY FALK AND ...
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Concrete
Construction, by
Halbert P. Gillette and Charles S. Hill
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Concrete Construction
Methods and Costs
Author: Halbert P. Gillette
Charles S. Hill
Release Date: March 16, 2008 [EBook #24855]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION ***
Produced by Brian Sogard, Josephine Paolucci and
the Onlinethe Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net.
CONCRETE
CONSTRUCTION
METHODS AND COST
BY
HALBERT P. GILLETTE
M. Am. Soc. C. E.; M. Am. Inst. M. E.
Managing Editor, Engineering-Contracting
AND
CHARLES S. HILL, C. E.
Associate Editor, Engineering-Contracting
NEW YORK AND CHICAGOTHE MYRON C. CLARK PUBLISHING CO.
1908
Copyright. 1908
BY
The Myron C. Clark Publishing Co.
PREFACE.
How best to perform construction work and what it will
cost for materials, labor, plant and general expenses
are matters of vital interest to engineers and
contractors. This book is a treatise on the methods
and cost of concrete construction. No attempt has
been made to present the subject of cement testing
which is already covered by Mr. W. Purves Taylor's
excellent book, nor to discuss the physical properties
of cements and concrete, as they are discussed by
Falk and by Sabin, nor to consider reinforced concrete
design as do Turneaure and Maurer or Buel and Hill,
nor to present a general treatise on cements, mortars
and concrete construction like that of Reid or of Taylor
and Thompson. On the contrary, the authors have
handled the subject of concrete construction solely
from the viewpoint of the builder of concrete
structures. By doing this they have been able to crowd
a great amount of detailed information on methods
and costs of concrete construction into a volume of
moderate size.
Though the special information contained in the bookis of most particular assistance to the contractor or
engineer engaged in the actual work of making and
placing concrete, it is believed that it will also prove
highly useful to the designing engineer and to the
architect. It seems plain that no designer of concrete
structures can be a really good designer without
having a profound knowledge of methods of
construction and of detailed costs. This book, it is
believed, gives these methods and cost data in
greater number and more thoroughly analyzed than
they can be found elsewhere in engineering literature.
The costs and other facts contained in the book have
been collected from a multitude of sources, from the
engineering journals, from the transactions of the
engineering societies, from Government Reports and
from the personal records of the authors and of other
engineers and contractors. It is but fair to say that the
great bulk of the matter contained in the book, though
portions of it have appeared previously in other forms
in the authors' contributions to the technical press,
was collected and worked up originally by the authors.
Where this has not been the case the original data
have been added to and re-analyzed by the authors.
Under these circumstances it has been impracticable
to give specific credit in the pages of the book to every
source from which the authors have drawn aid. They
wish here to acknowledge, therefore, the help secured
from many engineers and contractors, from the
volumes of Engineering News, Engineering Record
and Engineering-Contracting, and from the
Transactions of the American Society of Civil
Engineers and the proceedings and papers of various
other civil engineering societies and organizations ofconcrete workers. The work done by these journals
and societies in gathering and publishing information
on concrete construction is of great and enduring
value and deserves full acknowledgment.
In answer to any possible inquiry as to the relative
parts of the work done by the two authors in preparing
this book, they will answer that it has been truly the
labor of both in every part.
H. P. G.
C. S. H.
Chicago, Ill., April 15, 1908.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE
CHAPTER I.—METHODS AND COST OF
SELECTING AND PREPARING MATERIALS FOR
CONCRETE. 1
Cement: Portland Cement—Natural Cement—Slag
Cement—Size and Weight of Barrels of Cement—
Specifications and Testing. Sand: Properties of Good
Sand—Cost of Sand—Washing Sand; Washing with
Hose; Washing with Sand Ejectors; Washing with Tank
Washers. Aggregates: Broken Stone—Gravel—Slag
and Cinders—Balanced Aggregate—Size of Aggregate
—Cost of Aggregate—Screened and Crusher Run
Stone for Concrete—Quarrying and Crushing Stone—
Screening and Washing Gravel.CHAPTER II.—THEORY AND PRACTICE OF
PROPORTIONING CONCRETE. 25
Voids: Voids in Sand; Effect of Mixture—Effect of
Size of Grains—Voids in Broken Stone and Gravel;
Effect of Method of Loading; Test Determinations;
Specific Gravity; Effect of Hauling—Theory of the
Quantity of Cement in Mortar; Tables of Quantities in
Mortar—Tables of Quantities in Concrete—
Percentage of Water in Concrete—Methods of
Measuring and Weighing; Automatic Measuring
Devices.
CHAPTER III.—METHODS AND COSTS OF MAKING
AND PLACING CONCRETE BY HAND. 45
Loading into Stock Piles—Loading from Stock Piles—
Transporting Materials to Mixing Boards—Mixing—
Loading and Hauling Mixed Concrete—Dumping,
Spreading and Ramming—Cost of Superintendence—
Summary of Costs.
CHAPTER IV.—METHODS AND COST OF MAKING
AND PLACING CONCRETE BY MACHINE. 61
Introduction—Conveying and Hoisting Devices—
Unloading with Grab Buckets—Inclines—Trestle and
Car Plants—Cableways—Belt Conveyors—Chutes—
Methods of Charging Mixers—Charging by Gravity
from Overhead Bins; Charging with Wheelbarrows;
Charging with Cars; Charging by Shoveling; Chargingwith Derricks—Types of Mixers; Batch Mixers;
Chicago Improved Cube Tilting Mixer, Ransome Non-
Tilting Mixer, Smith Tilting Mixer; Continuous Mixers;
Eureka Automatic Feed Mixer; Gravity Mixers;
Gilbreth Trough Mixer, Hains Gravity Mixer—Output of
Mixers—Mixer Efficiency.
CHAPTER V.—METHODS AND COST OF
DEPOSITING CONCRETE UNDER WATER AND OF
SUBAQUEOUS GROUTING. 86
Introduction—Depositing in Closed Buckets; O'Rourke
Bucket; Cyclopean Bucket; Steubner Bucket—
Depositing in Bags—Depositing Through a Tremie;
Charlestown Bridge; Arch Bridge Piers, France;
Nussdorf Lock, Vienna—Grouting Submerged Stone;
Tests of H. F. White; Hermitage Breakwater.
CHAPTER VI.—METHODS AND COST OF MAKING
AND USING RUBBLE AND ASPHALTIC CONCRETE.
98
Introduction—Rubble Concrete: Chattahoochee River
Dam; Barossa Dam, South Australia; other Rubble
Concrete Dams, Boonton Dam, Spier Falls Dam,
Hemet Dam, Small Reservoir Dam, Boyd's Corner
Dam; Abutment for Railway Bridge; English Data,
Tharsis & Calamas Ry., Bridge Piers, Nova Scotia—
Asphalt Concrete; Slope Paving for Earth Dam; Base
for Mill Floor.CHAPTER VII.—METHODS AND COST OF LAYING
CONCRETE IN FREEZING WEATHER. 112
Introduction—Lowering the Freezing Point of the
Mixing Water; Common Salt (Sodium Chloride):—
Freezing Temperature Chart—Heating Concrete
Materials; Portable Heaters; Heating in Stationary
Bins; Other Examples of Heating Methods, Power
Plant, Billings, Mont., Wachusett Dam, Huronian
Power Co. Dam, Arch Bridge, Piano, Ill., Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy R. R. Work, Heating in Water
Tank—Covering and Housing the Work; Method of
Housing in Dam, Chaudiere Falls, Quebec; Method of
Housing in Building Work.
CHAPTER VIII.—METHODS AND COST OF
FINISHING CONCRETE SURFACES 124
Imperfectly Made Forms—Imperfect Mixing and
Placing—Efflorescence—Spaded and Troweled
Finishes—Plaster and Stucco Finish—Mortar and
Cement Facing—Special Facing Mixtures for
Minimizing Form Marks—Washes—Finishing by
Scrubbing and Washing—Finishing by Etching with
Acid—Tooling Concrete Surfaces—Gravel or Pebble
Surface Finish—Colored Facing.
CHAPTER IX.—METHODS AND COST OF FORM
CONSTRUCTION 136
Introduction—Effect of Design on Form Work—Kind of
Lumber—Finish and Dimensions of Lumber—Computation of Forms—Design and Construction—
Unit Construction of Forms—Lubrication of Forms—
Falsework and Bracing—Time for and Method of
Removing Forms—Estimating and Cost of Form Work.
CHAPTER X.—METHODS AND COST OF
CONCRETE PILE AND PIER CONSTRUCTION 151
Introduction—Molding Piles in Place; Method of
Constructing Raymond Piles; Method of Constructing
Simplex Piles; Method of Constructing Piles with
Enlarged Footings; Method of Constructing Piles by
the Compressol System; Method of Constructing Piers
in Caissons—Molding Piles for Driving—Driving
Molded Piles: Method and Cost of Molding and Jetting
Piles for an Ocean Pier; Method of Molding and
Jetting Square Piles for a Building Foundation; Method
of Molding and Jetting Corrugated Piles for a Building
Foundation; Method of Molding and Driving Round
Piles; Molding and Driving Square Piles for a Building
Foundation; Method of Molding and Driving Octagonal
Piles—Method and Cost of Making Reinforced Piles by
Rolling.
CHAPTER XI.—METHODS AND COST OF HEAVY
CONCRETE WORK IN FORTIFICATIONS, LOCKS,
DAMS, BREAKWATERS AND PIERS 184
Introduction—Fortification Work: Gun Emplacement,
Staten Island, N. Y., Mortar Battery Platform, Tampa
Bay, Fla., Emplacement for Battery, Tampa Bay, Fla.;
U. S. Fortification Work—Lock Walls, Cascades Canal