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History of Woman Suffrage, Volume III

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554 pages
The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of Woman Suffrage, Volume III (of III), by Various This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org Title: History of Woman Suffrage, Volume III (of III) Author: Various Editor: Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Matilda Joslyn Gage Release Date: April 11, 2009 [EBook #28556] Language: English Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1 *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE *** Produced by Richard J. Shiffer and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net Transcriber's Note Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete and variant spellings and other inconsistencies. Text that has been changed to correct an obvious error is noted at the end of this ebook. Also, many occurrences of mismatched single and double quotes remain as they were in the original. This book contains links to individual volumes of "History of Woman Suffrage" contained in the Project Gutenberg collection. Although we verify the correctness of these links at the time of posting, these links may not work, for various reasons, for various people, at various times. H I S T O R Y O F W OMAN S UFFRAGE. EDITED BY ELIZABETH CADY STANTON, SUSAN B.
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of History of Woman Suffrage, Volume III (of
III), by Various
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: History of Woman Suffrage, Volume III (of III)
Author: Various
Editor: Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Matilda Joslyn Gage
Release Date: April 11, 2009 [EBook #28556]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HISTORY OF WOMAN SUFFRAGE ***
Produced by Richard J. Shiffer and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net
Transcriber's Note
Every effort has been made to replicate this text as faithfully as possible, including obsolete
and variant spellings and other inconsistencies. Text that has been changed to correct an
obvious error is noted at the end of this ebook.
Also, many occurrences of mismatched single and double quotes remain as they were in the
original.
This book contains links to individual volumes of "History of Woman Suffrage" contained in the
Project Gutenberg collection. Although we verify the correctness of these links at the time of
posting, these links may not work, for various reasons, for various people, at various times.
H I S T O R Y
O F
W OMAN S UFFRAGE.
EDITED BY
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON,
SUSAN B. ANTHONY, AND
MATILDA JOSLYN GAGE.ILLUSTRATED WITH STEEL ENGRAVINGS.
IN THREE VOLUMES.
VOL. III.
1876-1885.
"WOMEN ARE CITIZENS OF THE UNITED STATES, ENTITLED TO ALL THE RIGHTS, PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES
GUARANTEED TO CITIZENS BY THE NATIONAL CONSTITUTION."
SUSAN B. ANTHONY.
17 MADISON ST., ROCHESTER, N. Y.
Copyright, 1886, by Susan B. Anthony.
[Pg iii]PREFACE.
The labors of those who have edited these volumes are not only finished as far as this work extends, but if
three-score years and ten be the usual limit of human life, all our earthly endeavors must end in the near
future. After faithfully collecting material for several years, and making the best selections our judgment has
dictated, we are painfully conscious of many imperfections the critical reader will perceive. But since
stereotype plates will not reflect our growing sense of perfection, the lavish praise of friends as to the merits
of these pages will have its antidote in the defects we ourselves discover. We may however without egotism
express the belief that this volume will prove specially interesting in having a large number of contributors
from England, France, Canada and the United States, giving personal experiences and the progress of
legislation in their respective localities.Into younger hands we must soon resign our work; but as long as health and vigor remain, we hope to publish
a pamphlet report at the close of each congressional term, containing whatever may be accomplished by
State and National legislation, which can be readily bound in volumes similar to these, thus keeping a full
record of the prolonged battle until the final victory shall be achieved. To what extent these publications may
be multiplied depends on when the day of woman's emancipation shall dawn.
[Pg iv]For the completion of this work we are indebted to Eliza Jackson Eddy, the worthy daughter of that noble
philanthropist, Francis Jackson. He and Charles F. Hovey are the only men who have ever left a generous
bequest to the woman suffrage movement. To Mrs. Eddy, who bequeathed to our cause two-thirds of her
large fortune, belong all honor and praise as the first woman who has given alike her sympathy and her wealth
to this momentous and far-reaching reform. This heralds a turn in the tide of benevolence, when, instead of
building churches and monuments to great men, and endowing colleges for boys, women will make the
education and enfranchisement of their own sex the chief object of their lives.
The three volumes now completed we leave as a precious heritage to coming generations; precious,
because they so clearly illustrate—in her ability to reason, her deeds of heroism and her sublime
selfsacrifice—that woman preeminently possesses the three essential elements of sovereignty as defined by
Blackstone: "wisdom, goodness and power." This has been to us a work of love, written without recompense
and given without price to a large circle of friends. A thousand copies have thus far been distributed among
our coadjutors in the old world and the new. Another thousand have found an honored place in the leading
libraries, colleges and universities of Europe and America, from which we have received numerous
testimonies of their value as a standard work of reference for those who are investigating this question.
Extracts from these pages are being translated into every living language, and, like so many missionaries,
are bearing the glad gospel of woman's emancipation to all civilized nations.
Since the inauguration of this reform, propositions to extend the right of suffrage to women have been
submitted to the popular vote in Kansas, Michigan, Colorado, Nebraska and Oregon, and lost by large
majorities in all; while, by a simple act of legislature, Wyoming, Utah and Washington territories have
[Pg v]enfranchised their women without going through the slow process of a constitutional amendment. In New
York, the State that has led this movement, and in which there has been a more continued agitation than in
any other, we are now pressing on the legislature the consideration that it has the same power to extend the
right of suffrage to women that it has so often exercised in enfranchising different classes of men.
Eminent publicists have long conceded this power to State legislatures as well as to congress, declaring that
women as citizens of the United States have the right to vote, and that a simple enabling act is all that is
needed. The constitutionality of such an act was never questioned until the legislative power was invoked for
the enfranchisement of women. We who have studied our republican institutions and understand the limits of
the executive, judicial and legislative branches of the government, are aware that the legislature, directly
representing the people, is the primary source of power, above all courts and constitutions. Research into the
early history of this country shows that in line with English precedent, women did vote in the old colonial days
and in the original thirteen States of the Union. Hence we are fully awake to the fact that our struggle is not for
the attainment of a new right, but for the restitution of one our fore-mothers possessed and exercised.
All thoughtful readers must close these volumes with a deeper sense of the superior dignity, self-reliance and
independence that belong by nature to woman, enabling her to rise above such multifarious persecutions as
she has encountered, and with persistent self-assertion to maintain her rights. In the history of the race there
has been no struggle for liberty like this. Whenever the interest of the ruling classes has induced them to
confer new rights on a subject class, it has been done with no effort on the part of the latter. Neither the
American slave nor the English laborer demanded the right of suffrage. It was given in both cases to
[Pg vi]strengthen the liberal party. The philanthropy of the few may have entered into those reforms, but political
expediency carried both measures. Women, on the contrary, have fought their own battles; and in their
rebellion against existing conditions have inaugurated the most fundamental revolution the world has ever
witnessed. The magnitude and multiplicity of the changes involved make the obstacles in the way of success
seem almost insurmountable.
The narrow self-interest of all classes is opposed to the sovereignty of woman. The rulers in the State are not
willing to share their power with a class equal if not superior to themselves, over which they could never hope
for absolute control, and whose methods of government might in many respects differ from their own. The
annointed leaders in the Church are equally hostile to freedom for a sex supposed for wise purposes to have
been subordinated by divine decree. The capitalist in the world of work holds the key to the trades and
professions, and undermines the power of labor unions in their struggles for shorter hours and fairer wages,
by substituting the cheap labor of a disfranchised class, that cannot organize its forces, thus making wife and
sister rivals of husband and brother in the industries, to the detriment of both classes. Of the autocrat in the
home, John Stuart Mill has well said: "No ordinary man is willing to find at his own fireside an equal in the
person he calls wife." Thus society is based on this fourfold bondage of woman, making liberty and equality
for her antagonistic to every organized institution. Where, then, can we rest the lever with which to lift one-half
of humanity from these depths of degradation but on "that columbiad of our political life—the ballot—which
makes every citizen who holds it a full-armed monitor"?
[Pg vii][Pg vii]LIST OF ENGRAVINGS.
VOL. III.
PHŒBE W. COUZINS Frontispiece.
MARILLA M. RICKER page 112
FRANCES E. WILLARD 129
JANE H. SPOFFORD 192
HARRIET H. ROBINSON 273
PHEBE A. HANAFORD 337
ARMENIA S. WHITE 369
LILLIE DEVEREUX BLAKE 417
RACHEL G. FOSTER 465
CORNELIA C. HUSSEY 481
MAY WRIGHT SEWALL 545
ELIZABETH BOYNTON HARBERT 592
SARAH BURGER STEARNS 656
CLARA BEWICK COLBY 689
HELEN M. GOUGAR 704
LAURA DEFORCE GORDON 753
ABIGAIL SCOTT DUNIWAY 769
CAROLINE E. MERRICK 801
MARY B. CLAY 817
MENTIA TAYLOR 833
PRISCILLA BRIGHT MCLAREN 864
GEORGE SAND 896
[Pg ix]CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XXVII. PAGE
THE CENTENNIAL YEAR—1876.
The Dawn of the New Century—Washington Convention—Congressional Hearing—Woman's Protest
—May Anniversary—Centennial Parlors in Philadelphia—Letters and Delegates to Presidential
Conventions—50,000 Documents sent out—The Centennial Autograph Book—The Fourth of July
—Independence Square—Susan B. Anthony reads the Declaration of Rights—Convention in Dr.
Furness' Church, Lucretia Mott, Presiding—The Hutchinson Family, John and Asa—The
Twentyeighth Anniversary, July 19, Edward M. Davis, Presiding—Letters, Ernestine L. Rose, Clarina I. H.
Nichols—The Ballot-Box—Retrospect—The Woman's Pavilion 1
CHAPTER XXVIII.
NATIONAL CONVENTIONS, HEARINGS AND REPORTS.
1877-1878-1879.
Renewed Appeal for a Sixteenth Amendment—Mrs. Gage Petitions for a Removal of Political Disabilities
—Ninth Washington Convention, 1877—Jane Grey Swisshelm—Letters, Robert Purvis, Wendell
Phillips, Francis E. Abbott—10,000 Petitions Referred to the Committee on Privileges and Elections
by Special Request of the Chairman, Hon. O. P. Morton, of Indiana—May Anniversary in New York
—Tenth Washington Convention, 1878—Frances E. Willard and 30,000 Temperance Women Petition
Congress—40,000 Petition for a Sixteenth Amendment—Hearing before the Committee on Privileges
and Elections—Madam Dahlgren's Protest—Mrs. Hooker's Hearing on Washington's Birthday—Mary
Clemmer's Letter to Senator Wadleigh—His Adverse Report—Thirtieth Anniversary, Unitarian Church,
Rochester, N. Y., July 19, 1878—The Last Convention Attended by Lucretia Mott—Letters, William
Lloyd Garrison, Wendell Phillips—Church Resolution Criticised by Rev. Dr. Strong—International
Women's Congress in Paris—Washington Convention, 1879—Favorable Minority Report by Senator
Hoar—U. S. Supreme Court Opened to Women—May Anniversary at St. Louis—Address of Welcome
by Phoebe Couzins—Women in Council Alone—Letter from Josephine Butler, of England—Mrs.Stanton's Letter to The National Citizen and Ballot-Box 57
CHAPTER XXIX.
CONGRESSIONAL REPORTS AND CONVENTIONS.
1880-1881.
Why we Hold Conventions in Washington—Lincoln Hall Demonstration—Sixty-six Thousand Appeals
[Pg x]—Petitions Presented in Congress—Hon. T. W. Ferry of Michigan in the Senate—Hon. Geo. B.
Loring of Massachusetts in the House—Hon. J. J. Davis of North Carolina Objected—Twelfth
Washington Convention—Hearings before the Judiciary Committee of both Houses, 1880—May
Anniversary at Indianapolis—Series of Western Conventions—Presidential Nominating Conventions
—Delegates and Addresses to each—Mass-Meeting at Chicago—Washington Convention, 1881
—Memorial Service to Lucretia Mott—Mrs. Stanton's Eulogy—Discussion in the Senate on a
Standing Committee—Senator McDonald of Indiana Champions the Measure—May Anniversary in
Boston—Conventions in the chief cities of New England 150
CHAPTER XXX.
CONGRESSIONAL DEBATES AND CONVENTIONS.
1882-1883.
Prolonged Discussions in the Senate on a Special Committee to Look After the Rights of Women, Messrs.
Bayard, Morgan and Vest in Opposition—Mr. Hoar Champions the Measure in the Senate, Mr. Reed
in the House—Washington Convention—Representative Orth and Senator Saunders on the Woman
Suffrage Platform—Hearings Before Select Committees of Senate and House—Reception Given by
Mrs. Spofford at the Riggs House—Philadelphia Convention—Mrs. Hannah Whitehall Smith's Dinner
—Congratulations from the Central Committee of Great Britain—Majority and Minority Reports in the
Senate—E. G. Lapham, J. Z. George—Nebraska Campaign—Conventions in Omaha—Joint
Resolution Introduced by Hon. John D. White of Kentucky, Referred to the Select Committee
—Washington Convention, January 24, 25, 26, 1883—Majority Report in the House. 198
CHAPTER XXXI.
MASSACHUSETTS.
The Woman's Hour—Lydia Maria Child Petitions Congress—First New England Convention—The New
England, American and Massachusetts Associations—Woman's Journal—Bishop Gilbert Haven
—The Centennial Tea-Party—County Societies—Concord Convention—Thirtieth Anniversary of the
Worcester Convention—School Suffrage Association—Legislative Hearing—First Petitions—The
Remonstrants Appear—Women in Politics—Campaign of 1872—Great Meeting in Tremont Temple
—Women at the Polls—Provisions of Former State Constitutions—Petitions,
1853—SchoolCommittee Suffrage, 1879,—Women Threatened with Arrest—Changes in the Laws—Woman Now
Owns her own Clothing—Harvard Annex—Woman in the Professions—Samuel E. Sewall and William
I. Bowditch—Supreme-Court Decisions—Sarah E. Wall—Francis Jackson—Julia Ward Howe—Mary
E. Stevens—Lucia M. Peabody—Lelia Josephine Robinson—Eliza (Jackson) Eddy's Will 256
CHAPTER XXXII.
CONNECTICUT.
Prudence Crandall—Eloquent Reformers—Petitions for Suffrage—The Committee's Report—Frances
Ellen Burr—Isabella Beecher Hooker's Reminiscences—Anna Dickinson in the Republican Campaign
—State Society Formed October 28, 29, 1869—Enthusiastic Convention in Hartford—Governor
Marshall Jewell—He recommends More Liberal Laws for Women—Society Formed in New Haven,
[Pg xi]1871—Governor Hubbard's Inaugural, 1877—Samuel Bowles of the Springfield Republican—Rev.
Phebe A. Hanaford, Chaplain, 1870—John Hooker, Esq., Champions the Suffrage Movement—The
Smith Sisters—Mary Hall—Chief-Justice Park—Frances Ellen Burr—Hartford Equal Rights Club 316
CHAPTER XXXIII.
RHODE ISLAND.
Senator Anthony in North American Review—Convention in Providence—State Association organized,
Paulina Wright Davis, President—Report of Elizabeth B. Chase—Women on School Boards
—Women's Board of Visitors to the Penal and Correctional Institutions—Dr. Wm. F. Channing—Miss
Ida Lewis—Letter of Frederick A. Hinckley—Last Words of Senator Anthony 339
CHAPTER XXXIV.
MAINE.Women on School Committees—Elvira C. Thorndyke—First Suffrage Society organized, 1868, Rockland
—Portland Meeting, 1870—John Neal—Judge Goddard—Colby University Open to Girls, August 12,
1871—Mrs. Clara Hapgood Nash Admitted to the Bar, October 26, 1872—Tax-Payers Protest—Ann
F. Greeley, 1872—March, 1872, Bill for Woman Suffrage Lost in the House, Passed in the Senate by
Seven Votes—Miss Frank Charles, Register of Deeds—Judge Reddington—Mr. Randall's Motion
—Moral Eminence of Maine—Convention in Granite Hall, Augusta, January, 1873, Hon. Joshua Nye,
President—Delia A. Curtis—Opinions of the Supreme Court in Regard to Women Holding Offices
—Governor Dingley's Message, 1875—Convention, Representatives Hall, Portland, Judge
Kingsbury, President, Feb. 12, '76—The two Snow Families—Hon. T. B. Reed 351
CHAPTER XXXV.
NEW HAMPSHIRE.
Nathaniel P. Rogers—Parker Pillsbury—Galen Foster—The Hutchinson Family—First Organized Action,
1868—Concord Convention—William Lloyd Garrison's Letter—Rev. S. L. Blake Opposed—Rev. Mr.
Sanborn in Favor—Concord Monitor —Armenia S. White—A Bill to Protect the Rights of Married Men
—Minority and Majority Reports—Women too Ignorant to Vote—Republican State Convention
—Women on School Committees, 1870—Voting at School District Meetings, 1878—Mrs. White's
Address—Mrs. Ricker on Prison Reform—Judicial Decision in Regard to Married Women, 1882
—Letter from Senator Blair 367
CHAPTER XXXVI.
VERMONT.
Clarina Howard Nichols—Council of Censors—Amending the Constitution—St. Andrew's Letter—Mr.
Reed's Report—Convention Called—H. B. Blackwell on the Vermont Watchman—Mary A. Livermore
[Pg xii]in the Woman's Journal—Sarah A. Gibbs' Reply to Rev. Mr. Holmes—School Suffrage, 1880 383
CHAPTER XXXVII.
NEW YORK—1860-1885.
Saratoga Convention, July 13, 14, 1869—State Society Formed, Martha C. Wright, President—The
Revolution Established, 1868—Educational Movement—New York City Society, 1870, Charlotte B.
Wilbour, President—Presidential Campaign, 1872—Hearings at Albany, 1873—Constitutional
Commission—An Effort to Open Columbia College, President Barnard in Favor—Centennial
Celebration, 1876—School Officers—Senator Emerson of Monroe, 1877—Governor Robinson's Veto
—School Suffrage, 1880—Governor Cornell Recommended it in his Message—Stewart's Home for
Working Women—Women as Police—An Act to Prohibit Disfranchisement—Attorney-General
Russell's Adverse Opinion—The Power of the Legislature to Extend Suffrage—Great Demonstration
in Chickering Hall, March 7, 1884—Hearing at Albany, 1885—Mrs. Blake, Mrs. Stanton, Mrs. Rogers,
Mrs. Howell, Gov. Hoyt of Wyoming 395
CHAPTER XXXVIII.
PENNSYLVANIA.
Carrie Burnham—The Canon and Civil Law the Source of Woman's Degradation—Women Sold with
Cattle in 1768—Women Arrested in Pittsburg—Mrs. McManus—Opposition to Women in Colleges
and Hospitals; John W. Forney Vindicates their Rights—Ann Preston—Women in Dentistry—James
Truman's Letter—Swarthmore College—Suffrage Association Formed in 1866, in Philadelphia—John
K. Wildman's Letter—Judge William S. Pierce—The Citizens' Suffrage Association, 333 Walnut
Street, Edward M. Davis, President—Petitions to the Legislature—Constitutional Convention, 1873
—Bishop Simpson, Mary Grew, Sarah C. Hallowell, Matilda Hindman, Mrs. Stanton, Address the
Convention—Messrs. Broomall and Campbell Debate with the Opposition—Amendment Making
Women Eligible to School Offices—Two Women Elected to Philadelphia School Board, 1874—The
Wages of Married Women Protected—J. Edgar Thomson's Will—Literary Women as Editors—The
Rev. Knox Little—Anne E. McDowell—Women as Physicians in Insane Asylums—The Fourteenth
Amendment Resolution, 1881—Ex-Gov. Hoyt's Lecture on Wyoming 444
CHAPTER XXXIX.
NEW JERSEY.
Women Voted in the Early Days—Deprived of the Right by Legislative Enactment in 1807—Women
Demand the Restoration of Their Rights in 1868—At the Polls in Vineland and Roseville Park—Lucy
Stone Agitates the Question—State Suffrage Society Organized in 1867—Conventions—A Memorial
to the Legislature—Mary F. Davis—Rev. Phebe A. Hanaford—Political Science Club— Mrs. Cornelia
C. Hussey—Orange Club, 1870—Mrs. Devereux Blake gives the Oration, July 4, 1884—Dr. Elizabeth
Blackwell's Letter—The Laws of New Jersey in Regard to Property and Divorce—Constitutional
Commission, 1873—Trial of Rev. Isaac M. See—Women Preaching in his Pulpit—The Case Appealed
[Pg xiii]—Mrs. Jones, Jailoress—Legislative Hearings 476CHAPTER XL.
OHIO.
The First Soldiers' Aid Society—Mrs. Mendenhall—Cincinnati Equal Rights Association, 1868
—Homeopathic Medical College and Hospital—Hon. J. M. Ashley—State Society, 1869—Murat
Halstead's Letter—Dayton Convention, 1870—Women Protest Against Enfranchisement—Sarah
Knowles Bolton—Statistics on Coëducation by Thomas Wentworth Higginson—Woman's Crusade,
1874—Miriam M. Cole—Ladies' Health Association—Professor Curtis—Hospital for Women and
Children, 1879—Letter from J. D. Buck, M. D.—March, 1881, Degrees Conferred on Women—Toledo
Association, 1869—Sarah Langdon Williams—The Sunday Journal—The Ballot-Box—Constitutional
Convention—Judge Waite—Amendment Making Women Eligible to Office—Mr. Voris, Chairman
Special Committee on Woman Suffrage—State Convention, 1873—Rev. Robert McCune
—Centennial Celebration—Women Decline to Take Part—Correspondence—Newbury Association
—Women Voting, 1871—Sophia Ober Allen—Annual Meeting, Painesville, 1885—State Society, Mrs.
Frances M. Casement, President—Adelbert College 491
CHAPTER XLI.
MICHIGAN.
Women's Literary Clubs and Libraries—Mrs. Lucinda H. Stone—Classes of Girls in Europe—Ernestine L.
Rose—Legislative Action, 1849-1885—State Woman Suffrage Society, 1870—Annual Conventions
—Northwestern Association—Wendell Phillips' Letter—Nannette Gardner votes—Catharine A. F.
Stebbins Refused—Legislative Action—Amendments Submitted—An Active Canvas of the State by
Women—Election Day—The Amendment Lost, 40,000 Men Voted in Favor—University at Ann Arbor
Opened to Girls, 1869—Kalamazoo Institute—J. A. B. Stone—Miss Madeline Stockwell and Miss
Sarah Burger Applied for Admission to the University in 1857—Episcopal Church Bill—Local Societies
—Quincy—Lansing—St. Johns—Manistee—Grand Rapids—Sojourner Truth—Laura C. Haviland
—Sybil Lawrence 513
CHAPTER XLII.
INDIANA.
The First Woman Suffrage Convention After the War, 1869—Amanda M. Way—Annual Meetings,
187085, in the Larger Cities—Indianapolis Equal Suffrage Society, 1878—A Course of Lectures—In May,
1880, National Convention in Indianapolis—Zerelda G. Wallace—Social Entertainment—Governor
Albert G. Porter—Susan B. Anthony's Birthday—Schuyler Colfax—Legislative Hearings
—Temperance Women of Indiana—Helen M. Gougar—General Assembly—Delegates to Political
Conventions—Women Address Political Meetings—Important Changes in the Laws for Women, from
1860 to 1884—Colleges Open to Women—Demia Butler—Professors—Lawyers—Doctors
—Ministers—Miss Catharine Merrill—Miss Elizabeth Eaglesfield—Rev. Prudence Le Clerc—Dr. Mary
[Pg xiv]F. Thomas—Prominent Men and Women—George W. Julian—The Journals—Gertrude Garrison 533
CHAPTER XLIII.
ILLINOIS.
Chicago a Great Commercial Centre—First Woman Suffrage Agitation, 1855—A. J. Grover—Society at
Earlville—Prudence Crandall—Sanitary Movement—Woman in Journalism—Myra Bradwell
—Excitement in Elmwood Church, 1868—Mrs. Huldah Joy—Pulpit Utterances—Convention, 1869,
Library Hall, Chicago—Anna Dickinson, Robert Laird Collier Debate—Manhood Suffrage Denounced
by Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony—Judge Charles B. Waite on the Constitutional Convention
—Hearing before the Legislature—Western Suffrage Convention, Mrs. Livermore, President—Annual
Meeting at Bloomington—Women Eligible to School Offices—Evanston College—Miss Alta Hulett
Medical Association—Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson—"Woman's Kingdom" in the Inter-Ocean—Mrs.
Harbert—Centennial Celebration at Evanston—Temperance Petition, 180,000—Frances E. Willard
—Social Science Association—Art Union—Jane Graham Jones at International Congress in Paris
—Moline Association 559
CHAPTER XLIV.
MISSOURI.
Missouri the first State to Open Colleges of Law and Medicine to Woman—Liberal Legislation—Harriet
Hosmer—Wayman Crow—Dr. Joseph N. McDowell—Works of Art—Women in the War—Adeline
Couzins—Virginia L. Minor—Petitions—Woman Suffrage Association, May 8, 1867—First Woman
Suffrage Convention, Oct. 6, 1869—Able Resolutions by Francis Minor—Action Asked for in the
Methodist Church—Constitutional Convention—Mrs. Hazard's Report—National Suffrage Association,
1879—Virginia L. Minor Before the Committee on Constitutional Amendments—Mrs. Minor Tries to
Vote—Her Case in the Supreme Court—Mrs. Annie R. Irvine—"Oregon Woman's Union"—Miss
Phœbe Couzins Graduates From the Law School, 1871—Reception by Members of the Bar
—Speeches—Dr. Walker—Judge Krum—Hon. Albert Todd—Ex-Governor E. O. Stanard—Ex-Senator
Henderson—Judge Reber—George M. Stewart—Mrs. Minor—Miss Couzins 594CHAPTER XLV.
IOWA.
Beautiful Scenery—Liberal in Politics and Reforms—Legislation for Women—No Right yet to Joint
Earnings—Early Agitation—Frances Dana Gage, 1854—Mrs. Amelia Bloomer Lectures in Council
Bluffs, 1856—Mrs. Martha H. Brinkerhoff—Mrs. Annie Savery, 1868—County Associations Formed in
1869—State Society Organized at Mt. Pleasant, 1870, Henry O'Connor, President—Mrs. Cutler
Answers Judge Palmer—First Annual Meeting, Des Moines—Letter from Bishop Simpson—The State
Register Complimentary—Mass-Meeting at the Capitol—Mrs. Savery and Mrs. Harbert—Legislative
Action—Methodist and Universalist Churches Indorse Woman Suffrage—Republican Plank, 1874
—Governor Carpenter's Message, 1876—Annual Meeting, 1882, Many Clergymen Present—Five
Hundred Editors Interviewed—Miss Hindman and Mrs. Campbell—Mrs. Callanan Interviews Governor
Sherman, 1884—Lawyers—Governor Kirkwood Appoints Women to Office—County Superintendents
—Elizabeth S. Cook—Journalism—Literature— Medicine—Ministry—Inventions—President of a
[Pg xv]National Bank— The Heroic Kate Shelly—Temperance—Improvement in the Laws 612
CHAPTER XLVI.
WISCONSIN.
Progressive Legislation—The Rights of Married Women—The Constitution Shows Four Classes Having
the Right to Vote—Woman Suffrage Agitation—C. L. Sholes' Minority Report, 1856—Judge David
Noggle and J. T. Mills' Minority Report, 1859—State Association Formed, 1869—Milwaukee
Convention—Dr. Laura Ross—Hearing Before the Legislature—Convention in Janesville, 1870
—State University—Elizabeth R. Wentworth—Suffrage Amendment, 1880, '81, '82—Rev. Olympia
Brown, Racine, 1877—Madam Anneké—Judge Ryan—Three Days' Convention at Racine, 1883
—Eveleen L. Mason—Dr. Sarah Munro—Rev. Dr. Corwin—Lavinia Godell, Lawyer—Angie King
—Kate Kane 638
CHAPTER XLVII.
MINNESOTA.
Girls in State University—Sarah Burger Stearns—Harriet E. Bishop, the First Teacher in St. Paul—Mary J.
Colburn Won the Prize—Mrs. Jane Grey Swisshelm, St. Cloud—Fourth of July Oration, 1866—First
Legislative Hearing, 1867—Governor Austin's Veto—First Society at Rochester—Kasson—Almira W.
Anthony—Mary P. Wheeler—Harriet M. White—The W. C. T. U.—Harriet A. Hobart—Literary and Art
Clubs—School Suffrage, 1876—Charlotte O. Van Cleve and Mrs. C. S. Winchell Elected to School
Board—Mrs. Governor Pillsbury—Temperance Vote, 1877—Property Rights of Married Women
—Women as Officers, Teachers, Editors, Ministers, Doctors, Lawyers 649
CHAPTER XLVIII.
DAKOTA.
Influences of Climate and Scenery—Legislative Action, 1872—Mrs. Marietta Bones—In February, 1879,
School Suffrage Granted Women—Constitutional Convention, 1883—Matilda Joslyn Gage
Addressed a Letter to the Convention and an Appeal to the Women of the State—Mrs. Bones
Addressed the Convention in Person—The Effort to get the Word "Male" out of the Constitution
Failed—Legislature of 1885—Major Pickler Presents the Bill—Carried Through Both Houses
—Governor Pierce's Veto—Major Pickler's Letter 662
CHAPTER XLIX.
NEBRASKA.
Clara Bewick Colby—Nebraska Came into the Possession of the United States, 1803—The Home of the
Dakotas—Organized as a Territory, 1854—Territorial Legislature—Mrs. Amelia Bloomer Addresses
the House—Gen. Wm. Larimer, 1856—A Bill to Confer Suffrage on Women—Passed the House
—Lost in the Senate—Constitution Harmonized with the Fourteenth Amendment—Admitted as a
State March 1, 1867—Mrs. Stanton, Miss Anthony Lecture in the State, 1867—Mrs. Tracy Cutler,
1870—Mrs. Esther L. Warner's Letter—Constitutional Convention, 1871—Woman Suffrage
Amendment Submitted—Lost by 12,676 against, 3,502 for—Prolonged Discussion—Constitutional
Convention, 1875—Grasshoppers Devastate the Country—Inter-Ocean, Mrs. Harbert—Omaha
[Pg xvi]Republican, 1876—Woman's Column Edited by Mrs. Harriet S. Brooks—"Woman's Kingdom"—State
Society Formed, January 19, 1881, Mrs. Brooks President—Mrs. Dinsmoor, Mrs. Colby, Mrs. Brooks,
before the Legislature—Amendment again Submitted—Active Canvass of the State, 1882—First
Convention of the State Association—Charles F. Manderson—Unreliable Politicians—An Unfair Count
of Votes for Woman Suffrage—Amendment Defeated—Conventions in Omaha—Notable Women in
the State—Conventions—Woman's Tribune Established in 1883 670
CHAPTER L.
KANSAS.Effect of the Popular Vote on Woman Suffrage—Anna C. Wait—Hannah Wilson—Miss Kate Stephens,
Professor of Greek in State University—Lincoln Centre Society, 1879—The Press—The Lincoln
Beacon—Election, 1880—Sarah A. Brown, Democratic Candidate—Fourth of July Celebration
—Women Voting on the School Question—State Society, 1884—Helen M. Gougar—Clara Bewick
Colby—Bertha H. Ellsworth—Radical Reform Association—Mrs. A. G. Lord—Prudence Crandall
—Clarina Howard Nichols—Laws—Women in the Professions—Schools—Political Parties—Petitions
to the Legislature—Col. F. G. Adams' Letter 696
CHAPTER LI.
COLORADO.
Great American Desert—Organized as a Territory, February 28, 1860—Gov. McCook's Message
Recommending Woman Suffrage, 1870—Adverse Legislation—Hon. Amos Steck—Admitted to the
Union, 1876—Constitutional Convention—Efforts to Strike Out the Word "Male"—Convention to
Discuss Woman Suffrage—School Suffrage Accorded—State Association Formed, Alida C. Avery,
President—Proposition for Full Suffrage Submitted to the Popular Vote—A Vigorous Campaign—Mrs.
Campbell and Mrs. Patterson of Denver—Opposition by the Clergy—Their Arguments Ably Answered
—D. M. Richards—The Amendment Lost—The Rocky Mountain News 712
CHAPTER LII.
WYOMING.
The Dawn of the New Day, December, 1869—The Goal Reached in England and America—Territory
Organized, May, 1869—Legislative Action—Bill for Woman Suffrage—William H. Bright—Gov.
Campbell Signs the Bill—Appoints Esther Morris, Justice of the Peace, March, 1870—Women on the
Jury, Chief-Justice Howe, Presiding—J. W. Kingman, Associate-Justice, Addresses the Jury—Women
Promptly Take Their Places—Sunday Laws Enforced—Comments of the Press—Judge Howe's Letter
—Laramie Sentinel—J. H. Hayford—Women Voting, 1870—Grandma Swain the First to Cast her
Ballot—Effort to Repeal the Law, 1871—Gov. Campbell's Veto—Mr. Corlett—Rapid Growth of Public
Opinion in Favor of Woman Suffrage 726
CHAPTER LIII.
CALIFORNIA.
Liberal Provisions in the Constitution—Elizabeth T. Schenck—Eliza W. Farnham—Mrs. Mills' Seminary,
[Pg xvii]now a State Institution—Jeannie Carr, State Superintendent of Schools—First Awakening—The
Revolution—Anna Dickinson—Mrs. Gordon Addresses the Legislature, 1868—Mrs. Pitts Stevens
Edits The Pioneer—First Suffrage Society on the Pacific Coast, 1869—State Convention, January
26, 1870, Mrs. Wallis, President—State Association Formed, Mrs. Haskell of Petaluma, President
—Mrs. Gordon Nominated for Senator—In 1871, Mrs. Stanton and Miss Anthony Visit California
—Hon. A. A. Sargent Speaks in Favor of Suffrage for Women—Ellen Clark Sargent Active in the
Movement—Legislation Making Women Eligible to Hold School Offices, 1873—July 10, 1873, State
Society Incorporated, Sarah Wallis, President—Mrs. Clara Foltz—A Bill Giving Women the Right to
Practice Law—The Bill Passed and Signed by the Governor—Contest Over Admitting Women into
the Law Department of the University—Supreme Court Decision Favorable—Hon. A. A. Sargent on
the Constitution and Laws—Journalists and Printers Silk Culture—Legislative Appropriation—Mrs.
Knox Goodrich Celebrates July 4, 1876—Imposing Demonstration—Ladies in the Procession 749
CHAPTER LIV.
THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST.
The Long Marches Westward—Abigail Scott Duniway—Mary Olney Brown—The First Steps in Oregon
—Col. C. A. Reed—Judge G. W. Lawson—1870—The New Northwest, 1871—Campaign, Mrs.
Duniway and Miss Anthony—They Address the Legislature in Washington Territory—Hon. Elwood
Evans—Suffrage Societies Organized at Olympia and Portland—Before the Oregon Legislature
—Donation Land Act—Hon. Samuel Corwin's Suffrage Bill—Married Woman's Sole Traders' Bill
—Temperance Alliance—Women Rejected—Major Williams Fights Their Battles and Triumphs—Mrs.
H. A. Loughary—Progressive Legislation, 1874—Mob-Law in Jacksonville, 1879—Dr. Mary A.
Thompson—Constitutional Convention, 1878—Woman Suffrage Bill, 1880—Hon. W. C. Fulton
—Women Enfranchised in Washington Territory, Nov. 15, 1883—Great Rejoicing, Bonfires,
Ratification Meetings—Constitutional Amendment Submitted in Oregon and Lost, June, 1884
—Suffrage by Legislative Enactment Lost—Fourth of July Celebrated at Vancouvers—Benjamin and
Mary Olney Brown—Washington Territory—Legislation in 1867-68 Favorable to Women—Mrs. Brown
Attempts to Vote and is Refused—Charlotte Olney French—Women Vote at Grand Mound and Black
River Precincts, 1870—Retrogressive Legislation, 1871—Abby H. Stuart in Land-Office—Hon.
William H. White—Idaho and Montana 767
CHAPTER LV.
LOUISIANA—TEXAS—ARKANSAS—MISSISSIPPI.
St. Anna's Asylum, Managed by Women—Constitutional Convention, 1879—Women Petition—ClaraMerrick Guthrie—Petition Referred to Committee on Suffrage—A Hearing Granted—Mrs. Keating
—Mrs. Saxon—Mrs. Merrick—Col. John M. Sandige—Efforts of the Women all in Vain—Action in
1885—Gov. McEnery—The Daily Picayune—Women as Members of the School Board—Physiology
in the Schools—Miss Eliza Rudolph—Mrs. E. J. Nicholson—Judge Merrick's Digest of Laws—Texas
[Pg xviii]—Arkansas—Mississippi—Sarah A. Dorsey 789
CHAPTER LV. (CONTINUED).
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA—MARYLAND—DELAWARE—KENTUCKY—TENNESSEE—VIRGINIA—WEST
VIRGINIA—NORTH CAROLINA—SOUTH CAROLINA—FLORIDA—ALABAMA—GEORGIA.
Secretary Chase—Women in the Government Departments—Myrtilla Miner—Mrs. O'Connor's Tribute
—District of Columbia Suffrage Bill—The Universal Franchise Association, 1867—Bill for a
Prohibitory Law Presented by Hon. S. C. Pomeroy, 1869—A Bill for Equal Wages for the Women in
the Departments, Introduced by Hon. S. M. Arnell, 1870—In 1871 Congress Passed the Organic Act
for the District Confining the Right of Suffrage to Males—In 1875 it Withdrew all Legislative Power
from the People—Women in Law, Medicine, Journalism and the Charities—Dental College Opened to
Women—Mary A. Stewart—The Clay Sisters—The School of Pharmacy—Elizabeth Avery Meriwether
—Judge Underwood—Mary Bayard Clarke—Dr. Susan Dimock—Governor
Chamberlain—CoffeeGrowing—Priscilla Holmes Drake—Alexander H. Stephens 808
CHAPTER LV. (CONCLUDED).
CANADA.
Miss Phelps of St. Catharines—The Revolt of the Thirteen Colonies—First Parliament—Property Rights
of Married Women—School Suffrage Thirty Years—Municipal Suffrage, 1882, 1884—Women Voting
in Toronto, 1886—Mrs. Curzon—Dr. Emily H. Stone—Woman's Literary Club of Toronto—Nova Scotia
—New Brunswick—Miss Harriet Stewart 831
CHAPTER LVI.
GREAT BRITAIN.
Women Send Members to Parliament—Sidney Smith, Sir Robert Peel, Richard Cobden—The Ladies of
Oldham—Jeremy Bentham—Anne Knight—Northern Reform Society, 1858—Mrs. Matilda Biggs
—Unmarried Women and Widows Petition Parliament—Associations Formed in London, Manchester,
Edinburgh, 1867—John Stuart Mill in Parliament—Seventy-three Votes for his Bill—John Bright's Vote
—Women Register and Vote—Lord-Chief-Justice of England Declares their Constitutional Right
—The Courts Give Adverse Decisions—Jacob Bright Secures the Municipal Franchise—First Public
Meeting—Division on Jacob Bright's Bill to Remove Political Disabilities—Mr. Gladstone's Speech
—Work of 1871-72—Fourth Vote on the Suffrage Bill—Jacob Bright Fails of Reëlection—Efforts of
Mr. Forsyth—Memorial of the National Society—Some Account of the Workers—Vote of the New
Parliament, 1875—Organized Opposition—Diminished Adverse Vote of 1878—Mr. Courtney's
Resolution—Letters—Great Demonstrations at Manchester—London—Bristol —Nottingham
—Birmingham—Sheffield—Glasgow—Victory in the Isle of Man—Passage of the Municipal Franchise
Bill for Scotland—Mr. Mason's Resolution—Reduction of Adverse Majority to 16—Liberal Conference
at Leeds—Mr. Woodall's Amendment to Reform Bill of 1884—Meeting at Edinburgh—Other Meetings
—Estimated Number of Women Householders—Circulars to Members of Parliament—Debate on the
Amendment—Resolutions of the Society—Further Debate—Defeat of the Amendment—Meeting at
[Pg xix]St. James Hall—Conclusion 833
CHAPTER LVII.
CONTINENTAL EUROPE.
The Woman Question in the Back-ground—In France the Agitation Dates from the Upheaval of 1789;
—International Women's Rights Convention in Paris, 1878—Mlle. Hubertine Auclert Leads the
Demand for Suffrage—Agitation Began in Italy with the Kingdom—Concepcion Arenal in Spain
—Coëducation in Portugal—Germany: Leipsic and Berlin—Austria in Advance of Germany Caroline
Svetlá of Bohemia—Austria Unsurpassed in Contradictions—Marriage Emancipates from Tutelage in
Hungary—Dr. Henrietta Jacobs of Holland—Dr. Isala Van Diest of Belgium—In Switzerland the
Catholic Cantons Lag Behind—Marie Gœgg, the Leader—Sweden Stands First—Universities Open
to Women in Norway—Associations in Denmark—Liberality of Russia toward Women—Poland—The
Orient—Turkey—Jewish Wives—The Greek Woman in Turkey—The Greek Woman in Greece—An
Unique Episode—Woman's Rights in the American Sense not Known 895
CHAPTER LVIII.
REMINISCENCES.
BY E. C. S. 922
Appendix 955

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