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The Campaign of 1776 around New York and Brooklyn

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659 pages
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Campaign of 1776 around New York andBrooklyn, by Henry P. JohnstonThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: The Campaign of 1776 around New York and BrooklynAuthor: Henry P. JohnstonRelease Date: July 3, 2007 [EBook #21990]Language: English*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK CAMPAIGN OF 1776 ***Produced by Suzanne Shell, Linda Cantoni, and the OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTranscriber's Note: In quoted passages and in the documents in Part II of this e-book, spelling,punctuation, capitalization, hyphenation, and abbreviations have been retained as they appear in theoriginal. In the remainder of the text, obvious printer errors have been corrected, but archaic spellings (e.g.,"reconnoissance" for "reconnaissance," "aid" for "aide") have been retained.Hover the mouse over text underlined in red to see a pop-up Transcriber's Note. Hyperlinks are alsoprovided for items mentioned in the original book's Errata page.ContentsTHECAMPAIGN OF 1776AROUNDNEW YORK AND BROOKLYN.INCLUDING A NEW AND CIRCUMSTANTIAL ACCOUNT OFTHE BATTLE OF LONG ISLAND AND THELOSS OF NEW YORK,WITH AREVIEW OF EVENTS TO THE CLOSE OF THE YEAR,CONTAINING MAPS, PORTRAITS, AND ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.BYHENRY P. ...
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Campaign of
1776 around New York and
Brooklyn, by Henry P. Johnston
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no
cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,
give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg
License included
with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: The Campaign of 1776 around New York and
Brooklyn
Author: Henry P. Johnston
Release Date: July 3, 2007 [EBook #21990]
Language: English
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK
CAMPAIGN OF 1776 ***
Produced by Suzanne Shell, Linda Cantoni, and the
Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.netTranscriber's Note: In quoted passages and in the
documents in Part II of this e-book, spelling,
punctuation, capitalization, hyphenation, and
abbreviations have been retained as they appear in
the original. In the remainder of the text, obvious
printer errors have been corrected, but archaic
spellings (e.g., "reconnoissance" for "reconnaissance,"
"aid" for "aide") have been retained.
Hover the mouse over text underlined in red to see a
pop-up Transcriber's Note. Hyperlinks are also
provided for items mentioned in the original book's
Errata page.
Contents
THE
CAMPAIGN OF 1776
AROUND
NEW YORK AND
BROOKLYN.INCLUDING A NEW AND
CIRCUMSTANTIAL
ACCOUNT OF
THE BATTLE OF LONG
ISLAND AND THE
LOSS OF NEW YORK,
WITH A
REVIEW OF EVENTS TO
THE CLOSE OF THE
YEAR,
CONTAINING MAPS,
PORTRAITS, AND
ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS.
BYHENRY P. JOHNSTON.
BROOKLYN, N.Y.:
PUBLISHED BY THE LONG ISLAND HISTORICAL
SOCIETY.
1878.
Copyright, 1878,
By HENRY P. JOHNSTON,
For the Society.
S.W. GREEN,
PRINTER AND ELECTROTYPER,
16 and 18 Jacob Street,
New York.
map
[Enlarge]
NEW YORK and BROOKLYN WITH THEIR
ENVIRONS IN 1776.
Compiled by H.P. JOHNSTON.
Steel Engr. F. von Egloffstein, N.Y.
PREFACE.
The site now occupied by the two cities of New York
and Brooklyn, and over which they continue to spread,is pre-eminently "Revolutionary soil." Very few of our
historic places are more closely associated with the
actual scenes of that struggle. As at Boston in 1775,
so here in 1776, we had the war at our doors and all
about us. In what is now the heart of Brooklyn
Revolutionary soldiers lay encamped for months, and
in the heat of a trying summer surrounded themselves
with lines of works. What have since been converted
into spots of rare beauty—Greenwood Cemetery and
Prospect Park—became, with the ground in their
vicinity, a battle-field. New York, which was then taking
its place as the most flourishing city on the continent,
was transformed by the emergency into a fortified
military base. Troops quartered in Broad Street and
along the North and East rivers, and on the line of
Grand Street permanent camps were established.
Forts, redoubts, batteries, and intrenchments
encircled the town. The streets were barricaded, the
roads blocked, and efforts made to obstruct the
navigation of both rivers. Where we have stores and
warehouses, Washington fixed alarm and picket posts;
and at points where costly residences stand, men
fought, died, and were buried. In 1776 the cause had
become general; soldiers gathered here from ten of
the original thirteen States, and the contest assumed
serious proportions. It was here around New York and
Brooklyn that the War of the Revolution began in
earnest.
The record of what occurred in this vicinity at that
interesting period has much of it been preserved in our
standard histories by Gordon, Marshall, Irving,
Hildreth, Lossing, Bancroft, Carrington, and others. In
the present volume it is given as a single connected
account, with many additional particulars which have
but recently come to light. This new material, gathered
largely from the descendants of officers and soldiers
who participated in that campaign, is published withother documents in Part II. of this work, and is
presented as its principal feature. What importance
should be attached to it must be left to the judgment
of the reader.
The writer himself has made use of these documents
in filling gaps and correcting errors. Such documents,
for example, as the orders issued by Generals Greene
and Sullivan on Long Island, with the original letters of
Generals Parsons, Scott, and other officers, go far
towards clearing up the hitherto doubtful points in
regard to operations on the Brooklyn side. There is not
a little, also, that throws light on the retreat to New
York; while material of value has been unearthed
respecting events which terminated in the capture of
the city by the British. Considerable space has been
devoted to the preparations made by both sides for
the campaign, but as the nature of those preparations
illustrates the very great importance attached to the
struggle that was to come, it may not appear
disproportionate. The narrative also is continued so as
to include the closing incidents of the year, without
which it would hardly be complete, although they take
us beyond the limits of New York.
But for the cheerful and in many cases painstaking co-
operation of those who are in possession of the
documents referred to, or who have otherwise
rendered assistance, the preparation of the work could
not have been possible. The writer finds himself
especially under obligations to Miss Harriet E.
Henshaw, of Leicester, Mass.; Miss Mary Little and
Benjamin Hale, Esq., Newburyport; Charles J. Little,
Esq., Cambridge; Mr. Francis S. Drake, Roxbury; Rev.
Dr. I.N. Tarbox and John J. Soren, Boston; Prof.
George Washington Greene, East Greenwich, R.I.;
Hon. J.M. Addeman, Secretary of State of Rhode
Island, and Rev. Dr. Stone, Providence; Hon. DwightMorris, Secretary of State of Connecticut; Dr. P.W.
Ellsworth and Captain John C. Kinney, Hartford; Miss
Mary L. Huntington, Norwich; Benjamin Douglas, Esq.,
Middletown; Mr. Henry M. Selden, Haddam Neck;
Hon. G.H. Hollister, Bridgeport; Hon. Teunis G.
Bergen, Mr. Henry E. Pierrepont, J. Carson Brevoort,
Esq., Rev. Dr. H.M. Scudder, and Mr. Gerrit H. Van
Wagenen, Brooklyn; Mr. Henry Onderdonk, Jr.,
Jamaica, L.I.; Frederick H. Wolcott, Esq., Astoria, L.I.;
Hon. John Jay, Charles I. Bushnell, Esq., Miss Troup,
Mrs. Kernochan, Prof. and Mrs. O.P. Hubbard, Gen.
Alex. S. Webb, Rev. A.A. Reinke, New York City; Mr.
William Kelby, New York Historical Society; Prof. Asa
Bird Gardner, West Point; Hon. W.S. Stryker,
Adjutant-General, Trenton, N.J.; Richard Randolph
Parry, Esq., Hon. Lewis A. Scott, and Mr. J. Jordan,
Philadelphia; Hon. John B. Linn, Harrisburg; Mrs. S.B.
Rogers and Mr. D.M. Stauffler, Lancaster; Dr.
Dalrymple, Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore;
Hon. Cæsar A. Rodney, J.R. Walter, and W.S. Boyd,
Wilmington, Del.; Oswald Tilghman, Esq., Easton,
Md.; Hon. Edward McPherson, Rev. Dr. John Chester,
and Lieutenant-Colonel T. Lincoln Casey, Washington;
President Andrews and Mr. Holden, Librarian, Marietta
College; and Mr. Henry E. Parsons and Edward
Welles, Ashtabula, Ohio.
The cordial and constant encouragement extended by
the Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, President of the Long
Island Historical Society, and the interest taken in the
work by Hon. Henry C. Murphy, Benjamin D. Silliman,
Esq., and the Librarian, Mr. George Hannah, are
gratefully acknowledged.
New York City, June, 1878.
CONTENTS.PART I.
PAG

E
CHAPTER I.
Significance of the Campaign—Plans and Prepa
13
rations
CHAPTER II.
Fortifying New York and Brooklyn 35
CHAPTER III.
The Two Armies 105
CHAPTER IV.
The Battle of Long Island 139
CHAPTER V.
Retreat to New York 207
CHAPTER VI.
Loss of New York—Kip's Bay Affair—Battle of H
225
arlem Heights
CHAPTER VII.
White Plains—Fort Washington 263
CHAPTER VIII.
Trenton—Princeton—Close of the Campaign 287PART II.
PA
List of Documents:
GE
No General Greene's Orders—Camp on Long Is
5
. 1. land
" 2 General Sullivan's Orders—Camp on Long Is
27
. land
" 3
General Orders 30
.
" 4
Washington to the Massachusetts Assembly 32
.
" 5
General Parsons to John Adams 33
.
" 6
General Scott to John Jay 36
.
" 7
Colonel Joseph Trumbull to his Brother 40
.
" 8
Colonel Trumbull to his Father 41
.
" 9
Colonel Moses Little to his Son 42
.
" 1
Lieutenant-Colonel Henshaw to his Wife 44
0.
" 1
Deposition by Lieutenant-Colonel Henshaw 47
1.
" 1
Colonel Edward Hand to his Wife 48
2.
" 1
Major Edward Burd to Judge Yeates 48
3.
" 1