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The Story of Ireland

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289 pages
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Story Of Ireland, by Emily Lawless
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net
Title: The Story Of Ireland
Author: Emily Lawless
Release Date: April 5, 2004 [EBook #11917]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE STORY OF IRELAND ***
Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Charlie Kirschner and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
HOLY ISLAND, LOUGH DERG. (From a painting by Watkins.)
The Story of the Nations
THE
[pg ix]
STORY OF IRELAND
BY
THE HON. EMILY LAWLESS
AUTHOR OF "HURRISH: A STUDY," ETC
WITH SOME ADDITIONS BY
MRS. ARTHUR BRONSON
1896
To
THE EARL OF DUFFERIN, K.P., G.C.B., F.R.S., &c.,
VICEROY OF INDIA.
SGEUL NA H-ÉIREANN
DON ÉIREANNACH AS FIÚ.
[pg x]
PREFACE.
Irish history is a long, dark road, with many blind alleys, many sudden turnings, many unaccountably crooked portions; a road which, if it has a few sign-posts to guide us, bristles with threatening notices, now upon the one side and now upon the other, the very ground underfoot being often full of unsuspected perils threatening to hurt the unwary.
To the genuine explorer, flushed with justified self-confidence, well equipped for the journey, and indifferent to scratches or bruises, one may suppose this to be rather an allurement than otherwise, as he spurs along, lance at rest, and sword on side. To the less well-equipped traveller, who has no pretensions to the name of explorer at all, no particular courage to boast of, and whose only ambition is to make the way a little plainer for some one travelling along it for the first time, it is decidedly a serious impediment, so much so as almost to scare such a one from attempting therôle of guide even in the slightest and least responsible capacity.
Another and perhaps even more formidable objection occurs. A history beset with such distracting problems, bristling with such thorny controversies, a history, above all, which has so much bearing upon that portion of history which has still to be born, ought, it may be said, to be approached in the gravest and most authoritative fashion possible, or else not approached at all. This is too true, and that so slight a summary as this can put forward no claim to authority of any sort is evident enough. National "stories," however, no less than histories, gain a gravity, it must be remembered, and even at times a solemnity from their subject apart altogether from their treatment. A good reader will read a great deal more into them than the mere bald words convey. The lights and shadows of a great or a tragic past play over their easy surface, giving it a depth and solidity to which it could otherwise lay no claim. If the present attempt disposes any one to study at first hand one of the strangest and most perplexing chapters of human history and national destiny, its author for one will be more than content.
[pg xi]
[pg xii]
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
PRIMEVAL IRELAND
Early migrations--The great ice age--Northern character of the fauna and flora of Ireland--First inhabitants--Formorian, Firbolgs, Tuatha-da-Dannans--Battle of Moytura Cong--The Scoto-Celtic invasion--Annals and annalists, how far credible?
CHAPTER II.
THE LEGENDS AND LEGEND-MAKERS
The legends--Their archaic character--The pursuit of Gilla Backer and his horse--The ollamhs--Positions of the bards or ollamhs in Primitive Ireland.
CHAPTER III.
PRE-CHRISTIAN IRELAND
Early Celtic law--The Senchus Mor and Book of Aicil l--Laws of inheritance--Narrow conception of patriotism.
CHAPTER IV.
ST. PATRICK THE MISSIONARY
St. Patrick's birth--Capture, slavery, and escape--His return to Ireland--Arrives at Tara--Visits Connaught and Ulster--Early Irish missionaries and their enthusiasm for the work.
[pg xiii]
CHAPTER V.
THE FIRST IRISH MONASTERIES
"The Tribes of the Saints"--Small oratories in the West--Plan of monastic life--Ready acceptance of Christianity.
CHAPTER VI.
COLUMBA AND THE WESTERN CHURCH
Birth of Columba--His journey to Iona--His character and humanity--Conversion of Saxon England--Schism between Western Church and Papacy--Synod of Whitby--The Irish Church at home.
CHAPTER VII.
THE NORTHERN SCOURGE
Ireland divided into five kingdoms--The Ard-Reagh--Arrival of Vikings--Thorgist or Turgesius?--Later Viking invaders--The round towers--Dublin founded--Hatred between the two races.
CHAPTER VIII.
BRIAN OF THE TRIBUTE
Two deliverers--Defeat of the Vikings at Sulcost--Brian becomes king of Munster--Seizes Cashel--Overcomes Malachy--Becomes king of Ireland--Celtic theory of loyalty--Fresh Viking invasion--Battle of Clontarf--Death of Brian Boru.
CHAPTER IX.
FROM BRIAN TO STRONGBOW
Result of Brian Boru's death--Chaos returns--Struggle for the succession--Roderick O'Connor, last native king of Ireland.
[pg xiv]
CHAPTER X.
THE ANGLO-NORMAN INVASION
First group of knightly invaders--Their relationship--Giraldus Cambrensis--Motives for invasion--Papal sanction--Dermot McMurrough--He enlists recruits--Arrival of Robert FitzStephen--Wexford, Ossory, and Kilkenny captured--Arrival of Strongbow--Struggle with Hasculph the Dane and John the Mad--Danes defeated--Dublin besieged--Strongbow defeats Roderick O'Connor, goes to Wexford, and embarks at Waterford--Meets the king--Arrival of Henry II.
CHAPTER XI.
HENRY II. IN IRELAND
Large military forces of Henry--The chiefs submit and do homage--Irish theory of Ard-Reagh or Over-Lord--Henry in Dublin--Synod at Cashel--Henry recalled to England.
CHAPTER XII.
EFFECTS OF THE ANGLO-NORMAN INVASION
Effect of Henry's stay in Ireland--His large schemes--Their practical failure--Rapacity of adventurers--Contrast between Irish and their conquerors--Civil war from the outset.
CHAPTER XIII.
JOHN IN IRELAND
John's first visit--His insolence and misconduct--R ecalled in disgrace--Second visit as king--His energy--Overruns Meath and Ulster--Returns to England--Effect of his visit.
CHAPTER XIV.
THE LORDS PALATINE
[pg xv]
The Geraldines--Their possessions in Ireland--The five palatinates--The heirs of Strongbow--The De Burghs--The Butlers--Importance of the great territorial owners in Ireland.
CHAPTER XV.
EDWARD BRUCE IN IRELAND
Want of landmarks in Irish history--Edward the I.'s reign--Battle of Bannockburn--Its effect on Ireland--Scotch invasion under Edward Bruce--Ravages and famine caused by him--The colonists regain courage: Battle of Dundalk--Edward Bruce killed--Result of the Scotch invasion.
CHAPTER XVI.
THE STATUTE OF KILKENNY
Reign of Edward III.--A lost opportunity--Duke of C larence sent to Ireland--Parliament at Kilkenny--Statute of Kilkenny--Its objects--Two Irelands--Weakness resorts to cruelty--Effects of the statute.
CHAPTER XVII.
RICHARD II. IN IRELAND
Richard the II.'s two visits to Ireland--Utter disorganization of the country--The chieftains submit and come in--"Sir Art" McMurrough--Richard leaves, and Art McMurrough breaks out again--Earl of March killed--Richard returns--Attacks Art McMurrough--Failure of attack--Recalled to England--His defeat and death--Confusion redoubles.
CHAPTER XVIII.
THE DEEPEST DEPTHS
Monotony of Irish history--State of Ireland during the Wars of the Roses--Pillage, carnage, and rapine--The seaport towns--Richard Duke of York in Ireland--His conciliatory policy--Battle of Towton--The Kildares grow in power--Geroit Mor--His character.
[pg xvi]
CHAPTER XIX.
THE KILDARES IN THE ASCENDANT
Effect of the battle of Bosworth--Kildare still in power--Lambert Simnel in Ireland--Crowned in Dublin--Battle of Stoke--Henry VII. pardons the rebels--Irish peers summoned to Court--Perkin Warbeck in Ireland--Quarrels between the Kildares and Ormonds--Sir Edward Poynings--Kildare's trial and acquital--Restored to power--Battle of Knocktow.
CHAPTER XX.
FALL OF THE HOUSE OF KILDARE
Rise of Wolsey to power--Resolves to destroy the Geraldines--Geroit Mor succeeded by his son--Earl of Surrey sent as viceroy--Kildare restored to power--Summoned to London and imprisoned--Again restored and again imprisoned--Situation changed--Revolt of Silken Thomas--Seizes Dublin--Archbishop Allen murdered--Sir William Skeffington to Ireland--Kildare dies in prison--"The Pardon of Maynooth"--Silken Thomas surrenders, and is executed.
CHAPTER XXI.
THE ACT OF SUPREMACY
Lord Leonard Grey deputy--Accused of treason, recalled and executed--Act of Supremacy proposed--Opposition of clergy--Suppression of the abbeys--Great Parliament summoned in Dublin--- Meeting of hereditary enemies--Conciliatory measures--Henry VIII. proclaimed king of Ireland and head of the Church.
CHAPTER XXII.
THE NEW DEPARTURE
A halcyon period--O'Neill, O'Brien, and Macwilliam of Clanricarde at Greenwich--Receive their peerages,--Attempt at establishing Protestantism in Ireland--Vehemently resisted--The destruction of the relics--Archbishop Dowdal--The effect of the new departure--The Irish problem receives fresh complications.
[pg xvii]
CHAPTER XXIII.
THE FIRST PLANTATIONS
Mary becomes queen--Religious struggle postponed--Fercal Offaly colonized--Sense of insecurity awakened--No Irish martyrs--Commission of Dean Cole--Its failure--Death of Mary.
CHAPTER XXIV.
WARS AGAINST SHANE O'NEILL
Leix and Protestant
Elizabeth becomes queen,--Effect of change on Ireland--Shane O'Neill--His description, habits, qualities--His campaign against Sussex--Defeats Sussex--His visit to Court--Returns to Ireland--Supreme in the North--His attack on the Scots--Sir Henry Sidney marches into Ulster--The disaster at Derry--Shane encounters the O'Donnells--Is defeated--Applies to the Scots--Is slain.
CHAPTER XXV.
BETWEEN TWO STORMS
Sir Henry Sidney Lord-deputy--A lull--Sidney's policy and proceedings--Provincial presidents appointed--Arrest of Desmond--Sir Peter Carew--His violence--Rebellion in the South--Sir James Fitzmaurice--Relations between him and Sir John Perrot--He surrenders, and sails for France.
CHAPTER XXVI.
THE DESMOND REBELLION
An abortive tragedy--State of the Desmond Palatinat e--Sir James Fitzmaurice in France and Spain--Nicholas Saunders appointed legate--Stukeley's expedition--Fitzmaurice lands in Kerry--Desmond vacillates--Death of Sir James Fitzmaurice--Concerted attack of Ormond and Pelham--Horrible destruction of life--Arrival of Spaniards at Smerwick--Lord Grey de Wilton--Defeat of English troops at Glenmalure--Attack of and slaughter of Spaniards at Smerwick--Wholesale executions--Death of the Earl of Desmond and extinction of his house.
CHAPTER XXVII.
[pg xviii]
BETWEEN TWO MORE STORMS
State of Munster--The new plantations--Perrot's administration--Tyrlough Luinagh,--Sir William Fitzwilliam--Executions without trial--Alarm of northern proprietors--Earl of Tyrone--Character of early loyalty--Causes of dissatisfaction--Quarrel with Bagnall--Preparations for a rising.
CHAPTER XXVIII.
BATTLE OF THE YELLOW FORD
The Northern Blackwater--Attack of Blackwater Fort by Tyrone--Death of the deputy, Lord Borough--Bagnall advances from Dublin--Battle of the Yellow Ford--Defeat and death of Bagnall--Retreat of the English troops--The rising becomes general.
CHAPTER XXIX.
THE ESSEX FAILURE
Essex appointed Lord-Lieutenant--Arrival in Ireland --Mistakes and disasters--Death of Sir Conyers Clifford in the Curlews--Essex advances north--Holds a conference with Tyrone--Agrees to an armistice--Anger of the Queen--Essex suddenly leaves Ireland.
CHAPTER XXX.
END OF THE TYRONE WAR
Mountjoy appointed deputy--Contrast between him and Essex--Reasons for Mountjoy's greater success--Conquest by starvation--Success of method--Arrival of Spanish forces at Kinsale: Mountjoy and Carew marched south and invests Kinsale--Attack of Mountjoy by Tyrone--Failure of attack--Surrender of Spaniards--Surrender of Tyrone.
CHAPTER XXXI.
THE FLIGHT OF THE EARLS
The last chieftain rising against England--Condition of affairs at close of war--Tyrone'sposition impossible--Reportedplot--Tyrone and Tyrconnel
[pg xix]
take flight--Confiscation of their territory--Sir John Davis--The Ulster Settlement.
CHAPTER XXXII.
THE FIRST CONTESTED ELECTION
Parliament summoned--Anxiety of government to secure a Protestant majority--Contested election--Narrow Protestant majority--Furious quarrel over election of Speaker--Parliament dissolved--The king appealed to--Attainder of Tyrone and Tyrconnel--Reversal of statute of Kilkenny.
CHAPTER XXXIII.
OLD AND NEW OWNERS
Further plantations--The Connaught landowners--Their positions--Charles I.'s accession and how it affected Ireland--Lord Falkland appointed viceroy--Succeeded by Wentworth.
CHAPTER XXXIV.
STRAFFORD
Arrival of Wentworth in Ireland--His methods and th eory--Dissolves parliament--Goes to Connaught--Galway jury fined and imprisoned--His ecclesiastical policy--His Irish army--Return to England--Attainder, trial, and death.
CHAPTER XXXV.
'FORTY-ONE
Confusion and disorder--Strafford's army disbanded, but still in the country--Plot to seize Dublin Castle--Plot transpires--Sir Phelim O'Neill seizes Charlemont--Attack upon the Protestant settlers--Barbarities and counter barbarities.
CHAPTER XXXVI.