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C. Froome : Accusé de dopage, il publie ses données physiologiques du mois d'août

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15 pages
Chris Froome Body Composi/on & Aerobic Physiology Report Dr. Phill Bell & Ma. Furber Senior Scien6sts GSK Human Performance Lab th 17 August2015 1 Introduc/on & Glossary th On Monday 17August, the GSK Human Performance Lab welcomed two‐Ame Tour de France Champion, Chris Froome, for a series of physiological and body composiAon assessments. These assessments provided rich data, which would aid and inform Chris’s preparaAon for Rio 2016 by providing a baseline from which progression and improvement can be measured. It also serves to quanAfy the integral components of Chris’s physiology that make him an excepAonal endurance athlete. As requested by Froome himself, we are now providing full visibility of the report our scienAsts delivered to him. The report can be seen below. th 17 August2015 2 For reference and guidance when interpre6ng the report, please see key scien6fic defini6ons and descrip6ons below: Submaximal and Maximal Aerobic Profile – When conducAng an aerobic profile test, there are two aspects to invesAgate: firstly, submaximal performance, which assesses the physiological responses to cycling intensiAes that are below a cyclist’s maximal capacity.Typically, this requires cyclists to cycle at a range of intensiAes that are below and above predicted lactate threshold intensity. Secondly, maximal aerobic profiling assesses the physiological responses at the highest possible intensity a cyclist can maintain.
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Chris Froome Body Composion & Aerobic Physiology Report
Dr. Phill Bell & Ma Furber Senior Sciensts GSK Human Performance Lab
th 17 August 2015
1
Introducon & Glossary
th On Monday 17 August, the GSK Human Performance Lab welcomed two‐Āme Tour de France Champion, Chris Froome, for a series of physiological and body composiĀon assessments. These assessments provided rich data, which would aid and inform Chris’s preparaĀon for Rio 2016 by providing a baseline from which progression and improvement can be measured. It also serves to quanĀfy the integral components of Chris’s physiology that make him an excepĀonal endurance athlete. As requested by Froome himself, we are now providing full visibility of the report our scienĀsts delivered to him. The report can be seen below.
th 17 August 2015
2
For reference and guidance when interpreng the report, please see key scienfic definions and descripons below:
Submaximal and Maximal Aerobic Profile– When conducĀng an aerobic profile test, there are two aspects to invesĀgate: firstly, submaximal performance, which assesses the physiological responses to cycling intensiĀes that are below a cyclist’s maximal capacity. Typically, this requires cyclists to cycle at a range of intensiĀes that are below and above predicted lactate threshold intensity. Secondly, maximal aerobic profiling assesses the physiological responses at the highest possible intensity a cyclist can maintain. Lactate Concentraon– Lactate concentraĀon is the amount of lactate measured in a blood sample per standard volume of blood. Lactate & HR vs. Power Graph– The graph provided is used to visualise the relaĀonship between increases in intensity (x‐axis), blood lactate accumulaĀon (le y‐axis) and heart rate (right y‐axis). Blood lactate is assessed via a capillary blood sample taken from the earlobe during the final 30 seconds of each 4 minute stage, whilst heart rate is collected throughout using wireless heart rate telemetry. The data that creates this graph is used to determine a number of lactate and heart rate landmarks.
th 17 August 2015
3
Lactate & HR Landmarks– A number of landmarks are presented which are used to predict the power at lactate thresholds and associated heart rates. Briefly, lactate threshold is the intensity atwhich lactate producĀon exceeds the rate of removal. Above this intensity, lactate begins to accumulate and is implicated in the onset of faĀgue. Other landmarks reflect different lactate producĀon and removal dynamics and are oen used to determine physiological capacity and to track training‐induced adaptaĀons. Peak Oxygen Consumpon (VO peak)– This measure indicates the peak amount of oxygen an 2 individual can uĀlise during exercise. It is oen used to indicate aerobic fitness level, however it should be noted that V_O peak alone is rarely sufficient to determine or predict performance. 2 Peak Power Output (PPO)– In respect of cycle tesĀng, peak power output is the final maintained power (30 second average) that a cyclist produces in the final stages of a maximal ramp test. A ramp test requires cyclists to cycle conĀnuously against an ever increasing resistance, the rate of which is determined prior to the test. Relave Peak Power Output (Relave PPO)– RelaĀve peak power is the Peak Power Output expressed in respect of a cyclist’s body mass (i.e. two cyclists with the same PPO, but different body mass would have different RelaĀve PPO’s).
th 17 August 2015
4
Descripve Details
Parcipant: 185.7 cm Height:  Mass: 70.8 kg (Submaximal test); 69.9 kg (Maximal test) Aerobic Physiology Laboratory condions: Temperature: 19.5°C 49.3% relaĀve humidity Humidity:  Atmospheric Pressure: 762.2 mmHg
Aerobic Physiology Test ming: 2 hours post‐prandial
Test Equipment:  Cycle Ergometer: CompuTrainer™ (RacerMate® Inc, Seajle, USA)  Cycle Ergometer Soware: RacerMate® One (RacerMate® Inc, Seajle, USA) Gas Analyser: Metalyzer 3B (Cortex, Leipzig, Germany) Expired Gas Analysis Soware: MetaSo® Studio (Cortex, Leipzig, Germany) Expired Lactate Analyser: Biosen C‐Line (EKF‐diagnosĀcs GmbH, Barleben, Germany) Blood
th 17 August 2015
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Body Composion
Test conducted following overnight fast (> 8 hours). 1. Body mass and height measurement
2.
 Dual X‐ray absorpĀometry scan performed (GE Lunar iDXA , Amersham, UK)
Total Body Fat (% of mass)
9.8
Results
Total Body Fat (kg)
6.7
Total Lean Mass (kg)
61.5
Bone Mineral Content (kg)
th 17 August 2015
2.8
6
Submaximal Aerobic Profile ‐ Protocol
1.
 Body mass and height measurement
2.capillary blood sample (baseline lactate) ResĀng
3.minute self selected cycling warm‐up on CompuTrainer™ 10
4.
 CalibraĀon of CompuTrainer™
5. CompleĀon See Table 1)of 8 x 4 minute stages on CompuTrainer™ (Power Schedule –
6. Lactate & RPE (Borg, 1970) collected in final 30 seconds of stage
7.
8.
 Expired gas & HR collected throughout
 Data averaged over 30 second intervals
th 17 August 2015
7
10
325
7
5
8
2
8
15
th 17 August 2015
4
250
275
300
28
32
425
400
1.83
14
13
11
423.6
Submaximal Aerobic Profile
28‐32
8
6
24‐28
250.6
272.7
1.02
0.90
Lactate ‐1 (mmol•L )
Table 1: Submaximal Aerobic Profile Schedule, Recorded Power, Lactate and RPE Stage Stage Time Cumulave Time CompuTrainer™ Set Recorded Stage (Minutes) (Minutes) Power Power (Waàs) (Waàs)
1.32
1.03
0.87
Rang of Perceived Exeron (6‐20 scale*)
8
323.8
348.1
374.9
299.0
2.74
4.37
399.3
17
16
8‐12
12
4
3
0‐4
1
16
4‐8
350
24
375
16‐20
12‐16
20
20‐24
*Borg, G. (1970) Perceived exerĀon as an indicator of somaĀc stress.Med, 2Scand J Rehabil (2), 92‐98
Lactate & HR vs. Power
5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 ) ‐1 L 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Lactate (mmol 1.0 0.5 0.0 250
Lactate
275
300
Heart Rate
325 350 Set Power (Waàs)*
375
*Set power on CompuTrainer™. Actual collected power data 0.3 ± 0.3% (mean ± SD) error per stage ( Table 1)
400
425
th 17 August 2015
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
) ‐1 min
Heart Rate (b
9
Lactate & HR Landmarks
Lactate Landmark
Baseline (ResĀng)
‐1 1 mmolbaselineL above
$ DMAX (Cheng et al, 1992)
$ Modified DMAX (Bishop et al, 1998)
‐1 Fixed Blood Lactate (2 mmolL )
‐1 Fixed Blood Lactate (4 mmolL )
Power (Waàs)
N/A
381.8†
355.7
385.2
379.3†
419.0†
‐1 Waàs•kg @ 70.8
N/A
5.4
5.0
5.4
5.4
5.9
‐1 Waàs•kg @ 67 kg*
N/A
5.7
5.3
5.8
5.7
6.3
Heart Rate ‐1 (b•min )
N/A
128
121
129
127
138
Lactate ‐1 (mmol•L )
1.09
2.09
1.36
2.22
2.00
4.00
*Predicted value ‐ assumes maintenance of power performance at lower race body mass rd †Derived using 3 Order Polynomial (Lactate vs. Recorded Power) $ Calculated using Lactate‐E soware (Newell et al, 2007)
th 17 August 2015
10
Maximal Aerobic Profile ‐ Protocol
Test conducted 15 minutes following the submaximal test. 1.mass measurement Body
2.
3.
 10 minute self selected cycling warm‐up on CompuTrainer™
 CalibraĀon of CompuTrainer™
‐1 4.of ramp test on CompuTrainer™ (30 W CompleĀon starĀng at 150Wmin )
5. Expired gas & HR collected throughout
6.
7.
 Test terminated when cadence < 70 RPM
 Data averaged over 30 second intervals
th 17 August 2015
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